SYG1000- Ch. 5 Notes
SYG1000- Ch. 5 Notes syg 1000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Espinosa on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to syg 1000 at Florida State University taught by Gloria Lessan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see introduction to sociology in Social Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Chapter 5 Notes ● Miranda: Subway study of people wearing headphones and people not wearing headphones. Factored age and sex and race and position. Found that people with Ipods are open to responding to questions. Right after they responded, they went back to hearing music. + They were still less likely to be asked in the first place since they look less open. But this wall is easilly taken down. Basic concepts ● nonverbal cues= Faces and body gestures ● Language and everyday speech can grant meaning ● Life structure by daily routines The World as a Stage ● Goffman: Used theatre for analysis Saw life as a balancing act, but sometimes this can’t be maintained in places like institutions or boot camps. Roles: Socially defined expectation in a given status that must be followed. Roles come from theatre. Status: Social honor that a group is given by society. Privilege can be positive or negative. Pariah are outcasts. Social Position: Social identity one has in society given by a group. General in nature such as gender roles or very specific like in occupation position. Impression Management: “Striking a pose”, like wearing a suit to a meeting and something sexy to a club. This prepares your social role in that given situation. + Every human being is sensitive to being humiliated or vulnerable to embarrassment. There is a norm of collaboration by which people try not to humiliate others. ● No particular role implies any specific presentation of self. ● Demeanor can vary depending on context. Adopting Roles ● Henslin and Biggs: Studied women who went to gynecologist. Women in the West are eerie about anyone touching their genitals without sexual intimacy. Some refuse to see the doctor, male or female, because of embarrassment. Audience Segregation People help one another save face, but their own dignity and respect comes first. Multiple selves for different situations. These selves are not always consistent with each other. (Straight at work, gay at home) Civil Inattention ● Civil Inattention:Glance at each other and then look away. Goffman says this is just for others to be aware that someone else is in their presence. Holding a glance to a total stranger for too long can be a sign of hostility. Such as the “hate stare” that White people give to Black people on the street. ● Nonverbal communication: E xchanging information through facial gestures and body movement. Face, Gestures, and Emotion ● Ekman: Facial Action Coding System (emphasis on facial expression of emotion) to describe facial muscles. Darwin claimed that basic modes of human expression are the same in all humans. This was confirmed by Ekman by studying other cultures. ● Friesan: Worked with Ekman, studied New Guinea people with rare contact, they identified emotions easily through 6 pictures. Ekman says that facial expression of emotion are innate in humans. ● Eibesfeldt: Deaf and blind children acted the same way, so these responses are innate. There are no bodily postures or gestures that have been shown to characterize all or most cultures. People over the phone or online lack the benefit of seeing the person speak. The power of signal with facial gestures is one of the things people do to control conversations. Focused and Unfocused Interaction ● Unfocused Interaction: B eing aware of another person’s presence. (Goffman) says this is on a street or party etc. ● Focused Interaction: Individuals directly attend to what others say or do. Goffman calls this anEncounter (face to face interaction) Small talk and even having small interaction with waiters is an encounter. Need openings, civil inattention is discarded. Communicate with gestures and expression as much as words to offset awkwardness that eye contact brings. ● Goffman says there’s a difference between “giving” expressions or “giving off” expressions: Giving= words and expressions to produce impressions. (“You’re all enjoying your meal~?”) Give off= Cues to spot check sincerity (Waiter sees if there are leftovers and how they look when eating) Choose what message you will broadcast on social networks, not just revealing face. Response Cries ● Response cries: “Oops!” is seemingly involuntary as an exclamation. Those sounds you make that aren’t really words, but do react to situations or emotions. In interaction, we aren’t expected merely to be present. Controlled alertness: Fundamental part of being human is that we demonstrate our competence in the routines of daily life. Interaction in Time and Space ● All interaction is situated it occurs in a particular place and has a specific duration of time. Work on weekdays, stay home on weekends, take a bus, ride a bike= Timespace. ● TIme Space: W hen and where events occur. ● Regionalization: Division of social life into different regional settings/zones. A modern house is regionalized into rooms and hallways. Living room and kitchen are mostly used during the day, the bedrooms at night, etc. Clock Time ● Clock Time: Modern societies have a lot of activities zoned by this. This is by hours and by the rising/setting of the sun. Industry needs this to thrive. First introduced in D.C. in 1884 Monastaries tried to tell time. More people, more precise scheduling. ● Zerubavel: Modern hospital temporal structure. Complex 24hour schedule w/ staff. Social Life and Ordering of Space and Time ● Internet makes us able to meet people we never see or met in any area. This changes space we don’t move from our chair, yet still interact. This also changes time since the communication is almost immediate. Back then, it took time for letters to get to people or for messages to make it to others. Theories of Social Interaction Erving Goffman ● Goffman: Most of microsociology and social interaction (the process by which we act and react to those around us) + Believed that we need to focus on trivial acts of social behavior. ● Three reasons for menial interactions being important/interesting: 1. Day to day routine with interactions give structure and form to us. The routines we follow are not identical. 2. Everyday life reveals how we shape reality. Individuals perceive reality differently according to background, interest, and motivation. Reality is not fixed/static= it is created through interaction. 3. This sheds light on larger systems. Edward T. Hall Personal Space ● Personal space The physical space individuals maintain b/w self and others. Typically 3 feet away in the West. Closer in Middle East. ● Edward T. Hall: Nonverbal communication, 4 zones of personal space. Intimate distance (1.5 feet) is for lovers and children/parents. Very intimate. Personal distance (4 feet) is for friends and acquaintances, some intimacy is limited Social distance (12 feet) formal settings such as interviews Public distance (12+ feet) for performers + Ordinary interaction used the first 2. Harold Garfinkel: Ethnomethodology ● Ethnomethodology: Study of “folk/lay methods”. Study of how people make sense of what others say or do. ● Garfinkel: Most important sociology figure after Goffman in terms of micro interaction Need to study the “background expectancies” with which we organize conversations. People get upset when minor conventions of talk aren’t followed because meaningfullness of every day life depends on sharing unstated cultural assumptions of what is said and why. ● In everyday life, people feign ignorance of unstated knowledge. Done for embarassment or double meaning or poke fun. Conversation Analysis: Social Rules and Talk Social Context and shared understandings conversation If we know the context of a random conversation, it becomes sensible. Shared Understandings Small talk is complex, no computer can communicate with it We use nonverbal cues to make sense of behavior in others, but words are just as important Language is fundamental to social life, but the “how it is used” is more important. ● Conversations are one of the main ways in which daily lives are maintained in stable manners. No cooperation can lead to feeling threatened. Contemporary Research on Social Interaction Interactional Vandalism Garfinkel used Conversation analysis to compare street exchanges with everyday talk. ● Conversation analysis: Methodology that examines all facets of a conversation for meaning. Negotiating smooth openings and closings to conversations is a fundamental requirement for urban civility TIming is important in conversations ● Interactional vandalism: The deliberate subversion of the tacit rules of conversation. This leaves people unable to articulate what has just occurred. This is tied to race, gender, class and such. Interactional vandalism is a self reinforcing system of mutual suspicion and incivility. Internet creates spaces in which less powerful people can make their superiors accountable in ways never before. Women and Men in Public The harassment of a single woman by a construction site is both micro and macro since it is tied to a larger system of gender inequality, represented by male privelege and omnipresent threat of rape. Blacks and Whites in Public ● Anderson: Understanding threatened interactions. Infinite micro level interactions create everyday life. Skin color, gender, age, companions, clothing, jewelry and objects help people identify them, allowing assumptions to form and communication to occur. Time of day is a factor as well. Black people pass inspections most slowly of all ● We can’t develop a full udnerstanding of the situation by looking at the micro interactions themselves. ● Art of avoidance deal with vulnerability and crime in the streets Unanswered Questions Impression Management in the Internet Age Audience segregation ● Back Region: Individuals react and behave normally here at home. ● Front region: Settings of social activity in which people put on a “performance” for others. Never send personal emails from company computers, so these are needed. Employers hunt for images of drinking or nudity before hiring someone. Compulsion of Proximity ● Everyday we have indirect contact with people. Banking is international, so we invest worldwide ● Technology is isolating people. ● Computers are used to communicate with people (20%) but also lessens face to face reactions, tv watching, and sleep. Friendman and Curall: Almost half of the people replaced face to face with internet. Substitution of email for face to face communication in the office leads to weakening social ties and disruption of personal dialogue. People under 25 mostly use internet. ● Face to face or voices end up showing race and class and gender, this can be used as a disadvantage. Whereas electronically masks all of these markers and only focuses on the message. Women mostly take advantage of this as well as other minority groups. Electronic communication is also better since it is liberating and allows for creating new identities online and can speak more freely elsewhere. ● Humans still value direct contact even more than before. Business meetings are better in person Family reunions are better in person Going out to lunch with a friend to gossip rather than just chatting online ● Boden and Molotch: C arol Brooks Gardner Compulsion of proximity The need for individuals to meet with one another in situations of copresence or face to face interaction. This is because Goffman’s studies show that face to face interaction has richer info on how people feel and think with more sinceirty, than any form of electronic. Copresence allows access to eyes which can never lie. Eye contact is intimacy and trust.
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