Geo 135 Exam 1 Review Guide
Geo 135 Exam 1 Review Guide GEO 135
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Vidano on Monday September 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 135 at Illinois State University taught by David Johnson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 506 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Education and Teacher Studies at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
11 Test 1 Study Guide Six Elements of Geography Geography Study of the interaction of the world and society people cultural and political geography The World in Spatial Terms Places realms and Regions Realms similar to continents Identi ed by light blue lines Divide realms into Regions generally different colors Physical Systems Things depicted on a map except for national borders How the physical geography works together Topography physical features of an area Ex plains in Europe low land plains green rivers seas oceans depression Kalahari 1000 ft high plateau in Africa etc Human Systems Humans acting in one way or another Human migration in modern times immigration and emigration Life says it started in Africa Environment and Society Modify the environment due to human development or just for change cultural geography Ex religion education jobs crops government etc Uses of geography 12 Geography has a relationship with regional and systematic geography map of circles Interconnects different types of information Ex need swampy geography in order to have malaria southern Michigan and Louisiana The Language of quotMapsquot Maps vs Charts Map Depiction of geographic physical and cultural features usually on a at surface that s the problem continents rivers elevation cities highways etc Charts A map that people add data toinformation to ex average annual precipitation of the world Scale 0 Size of a map and what it depicts 0 Zoom in more in each picture 0 Can be depicted in many ways a diagram or numbers in lower right corner Location 0 Absolute Uses coordinate system to de ne and describe where something is exactly Latitudeongitude Relative Use something else in order to nd another location a general area with respect to something else Middle east a great source of confusion quotEastern Europequot Far East Japan China and Korea Used from prime meridian to go off of is relative from England because they ran the world for a long period of time with trade and exploration It runs through the middle of England Prime meridian line of longitude at 0 degrees Ca rtog ra ms 0 Pictorial description of a numerical quantity 0 Similar to pie charts and bar graphs 0 Similar to map as to what it looks like 0 Eye easily drawn to area for info 0 Ex cartogram for population of percent of people with a college educann Need a scale or numbers to make one 0 Don t really show location and actual size and shape of countries Regions 0 A result of interaction what is going on in society 0 Human societies 0 Natural physical environment 0 A quotfunctional environmentquot there are artifacts tangible piece of evidence of human involvementactivity 0 quotMust represent the great clusters of mankindquot DeBlij large areas of human activity 0 Transition zones where realms meet There is change so zones are a function of time change with time Ex In Africa place where Muslims mostly located mportant because it is the biggest area of human con ict because there is friction between Muslims and nonmuslims lt splits Sudan into two parts Sudan and South Sudan 0 A product of mental perception your views of an area Midwest or quotCorn Beltquot Boundades Sefevident So obviously true that you don t need evidence Ex coastlines borders of a large desert Determined by set criteria Ex highway 10 near Michigan the South vs North 0 Location absolute VS relative in notes above 0 Character 3 TYPES listed below 0 Formal homogenous region Region which is the same with its population and physical area Uniform Cultural vs Physicalnatural Sahara Desert Great Plains Functional nodal region Region decided upon by what happens there Driven by human activities quotSpatia systemsquot Von Thunen rings Citysuburbshinterland Core Largely where the action and decisions occur Large population education factories universities seaports industrial commercial etc The Midwest is a core Periphery Boundaries No manufacturing no corporate less population less universities less houses more of vacation places rather than living place Upper Michigan Ludington is a periphery because Highway 10 is a boundary Van Thunen Rings Europe 0 Core is where water and land meet for transporttrade As go out farther from rings goods become less perishable Truck farmers make goods consumed by large populations 0 The closest region pink take carrots and lettuce and sell it in the city before it gets bad because they are perishable The middle region green is where corn and wheat has to be transported from to get to the city The food is less perishable so it can last longer 0 The farthest region yellow is where forest lumber has to be taken to into the city It is nonperishable so it doesn t go bad fast 0 To this day these rings have changed with time because of new technology trucks with refrigeration so we are now able to get grapes from Africa and Australia is now becoming a wine producing area we can get food from other countries Vernacular Perceptual Region Based upon the way we think of it lnforma usages New Yorkers view NY as the center of the universe Corn Belt distribution of corn and wheat farming Rust Belt abandoned factories Borscht Belt more de ned in my notes red vegetables used to make soup because of poorJewish immigrants quotThe Southquot and Redneck Territory not a lot of HS graduates produce cotton origins of Country music 13 Concepts Cultural Landscape human activity changes environment Environmental determinism environment governs actions Environmenta probabilism environment in uences actions Environment perceptionism perceptions shape actions Maps Common features Latitude Lines that run East and West horizontal but describe where you are North and South Aso called parallels Go from 090 degrees only Equator is at 0 degrees Parale with same distance apart 0 Longitude Lines that run North and South vertical from pole to pole but describe where you are East and West Also called Meridians The prime meridian is a line of longitude at 0 degrees Measure 0180 degrees The International Date Line is at the 180th degree meridian longitude which is opposite of the prime meridian lt separates one day from another For example if it were noon at the prime meridian it would be midnight at the lDL Is not always exactly 180 degrees because this way it avoids problems near each other Royal observatory in England shows the lDL Come together at one point at the North Pole are not parallel A degree of longitude at the pole has no size North pole 90 degrees north South pole 90 degrees south Deg reesminutesseconds Latitude is measured in degrees from 090 degrees Divide each degree into minutes 60 minutes1 degree 60 nautical miles 1 degree of latitude 1 minute of latitude is 1 nautical mile 6076126080 ft quot a mile a minutequot A nautical mile per hour is a knot speed Divide minutes into seconds to become more exact 60 seconds 1 minute Then divide seconds into decimals Latitude uses nautical miles NOT longitude oTropics lines of latitude Tropic of Cancer 235 degrees North of the equator Angle of the noon sun is at 90 degrees its highest intensity It s as far north as the sun gets Tropic of Capricorn 235 degrees South of the equator 0 Angle of the noon sun is at 90 degrees its highest intensity in the southern hemisphere o Circles Arctic Circle 665 degrees North of the equator 0 Land of the midnight sun Atleast one day where the sun never goes down or doesn t come up Alaska Antarctic Circle 665 degrees South of the equator 90 south pole 235 axis tilt 665 degrees 0 Land of the midnight sun Atleast one day where the sun never goes down or doesn t come up Great Circle 0 The line described by the intersection of the earth s surface and a plane that passes through any 3 points Formed by 3 points 1 point is the center of the Earth and the other two points are any points on the surface of the Earth 0 These points are nonlinear not in a straight line 0 In nite amount of great circles The 3 points de ne a plane that intersects the earth called a Great Circle Doesn t have to be a circle because a plane is at Why useful It identi es the shortest distance between two points which makes it easier to have a shorter distance on an airplane ight Can only make 1 great circle between the same two points Directions Ships or aircraft The North Pole the axis of the earth s rotation is not exactly where a magnetic compass points True North Degrees with respect to the North Pole 0 Most compasses do not point true north but rather to Magnetic North Magnetic North ln Greenland slightly off the North Pole where compasses point Lines of Magnetic Declination the difference between quottrue northquot and the direction a compass points quotMagnetic Northquot o Is often shown on a map as a dashed brown line the value which is added to or subtracted from the reading of your compass to get quottrue northquot Meteorological Seasons Dec 1 Sept 1 Astronomical Seasons Dec 2153 March 20th June 20th and Sept 22nCI Projections Purpose to depict you can t have it all Equal areas Equal distances Equal shapes conformal Shape looks like the real thing Goal to wrap a 2D surface around a 3D sphere You want a map that depicts something correctly where the distances are reproduced on the map It depends on where it is wrapped where things are located Tangency quottouchesquot The closer you are to the tangent point the more accurate it is No map is 100 perfect because you can t perfectly t a 3D object on a 2D surface Al globes are transparent so light can shine through them 1 of maps with different projections o Cylindrical Mercator Projection The tangent is at the equator Most common projection but is not perfect Cosest to depiction of Earth globe In this type Greenland is not its accurate size too big A transverse Mercator is used from pole to pole oYou tilt the earth 90 degrees so the prime meridian is horizontal Conic Projection Fold the paper and point the top to make a cone The tangent point latitude of tangency is called the standard parallel and creates a circle around the globe It is the latitude where the imaginary cone sits on the globe The taller the cone the more cylindrical it becomes The closer you are to the standard parallel makes the map more accurate Polyconic Projection Multiple quotstandard parallelsquot The more standard parallels the more lifelike your map is Meridians are curved Azimuthal Projection Tangent at a point Projection where the cone gets shorter and shorter so the standard parallels become closest to the North Pole The tangent touches the North Pole and is at Longitude lines radiate out from the North Pole Use this map if doing something in the North Pole Area Cartogram a quotMapoidquot Governments and other things Nations 0 De nition entities of infinities something we can identify that is being drawn towards something Nationstate A state has a common government Historically belief in a common birth Latin natio Greek savoc Similar to a tribe Generally possessing a functioning common government a quotstatequot Increasingly as USA acceptance of a common credo belief or proposition nteresting parallel Islamic Shahabad States Political entities sovereign government eg the USA Others have to recognize you as a state in order to be one Treaty of Westphalia 1648 quotEuropean state modelquot as a nation state The European government agreed that there was a state that existed and that it was going to be separated from power the king queen etc Stateless Nation Want to be a state but nobody recognizes them as one ex Palastine Kurds not Arabic consider that they are a country but they aren t because they are living on other countries turf and the countries do not see themselves as a nation They have been ghting for their independence for a long time
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