Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide CHEM 1040 - 002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joerdan Notetaker on Monday September 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1040 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Ria Astrid Yngard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 409 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry II in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Dr Yngard Chem 1040002 Exam One Study Guide 73 Intermolecular Forces 0 Types of Forces 0 London Dispersionweakest of them all coulombicparticles w a charge attractions between instantaneous dipoles of molecules The higher the boiling point the more energy needed attraction is stronger Larger the molecule more polarizable stronger the force 0 DipoleDipole Interactions attraction between the positive end of one molecule and the negative end of the neighboring molecule The dipole moment measures how polar a compound is 0 Hydrogen Bonding attraction between hydrogen atom and electronegativenonbonding electron pair on F O or N atom Example CH3COOH draw out lewis structure to see OH bond Chapter 13 Physical Properties of Solutions 0 Solution homogenous mixture of two or more pure substances 0 Composed of a solute amp solvent 0 Solute is uniformly dispersed throughout the solvent 0 Unsaturated Solution less solute than solvent has capacity to dissolve specific temperature 0 Saturated Solution maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in solvent at specific temp o Solubility amount of solute dissolved in a given volume of a saturated solution at a specific temp 0 Example NaCI 20 C is 36g100ml of water 0 Supersaturated Solution has more dissolved solute and is generally unstable 0 Examples 19g NaCI dissolved in 100ml water 20 C UNSATURATED 45g NaCI dissolved in 100ml water 20 C SUPERSATU RATED 45g NaCI dissolved in 100ml water 20 C but not all has dissolved SATU RATED 0 Sovation solute molecules are separated amp surrounded by solvent molecules 0 AH1 gt O solutesolute o AH2 gt O solventsolvent o AH3 lt O solutesolvent usually the case 0 AHSOIn can either be endoexothermic O AHson AH1AH2 AH3 0 Solution process depends on if o Enthalpy is decreased 0 Entropydisorder is increased 0 SoluteSolvent interactions like dissolves like 0 In general Polar dissolves polar Nonpolar dissolves nonpolar o Miscible mixing in all proportions o Methanol is miscible in water and hexanol is almost insoluble in water why 0 Bc hexanol has more carbon thus making it more nonpolar and since water is polar it is harder to mix the two methanol is simply polar o Molarity M moles of soluteliters of solution 0 Temp dependent o Mole Fraction A XA moles Asum of moles of all components 0 Percent by Mass mass of solutemass of solutemass of solvent X 100 0 Temp independent 0 Calculate percentage by mass of NaCl in a solution containing 350g of NaCl in 750g of water mass 350gNaCl350gNaCl 750gWater X 100 446 0 Parts per million ppm mass of solutetotal mass of solution X 106 Parts per billion ppb mass of solutetotal mass of solution X 109 0 Factors affecting solubility 0 Temperature Gases in water solubility decreases temp increases Solid solutes in water solubility increases temp increases 0 Pressure Solubility of solidsliquids is hardly affected Solubility of gases increases w pressure Henry s Law solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the solution o C kP 0 molar concentrationmolL k constantmolL X atm P pressure of gas over solutionatm o Colligative Properties properties that depend on the number of solute particles in a solution 0 Vapor Pressure Lowering Raoult s Law solution containing a nonvolatile solute P1 X1P 1 0 P1 partial pressure of solvent 0 X1 mole fraction 0 P 1 vapor pressure 0 Boiling Point Elevation 0 39 ATb Tb T b Kbm 0 Kb constant Cm m molalitymollkg o Freezing Point Depression 39 ATE Tof Tf Km 0 Kf constant Cm m molalitymollkg o Osmotic Pressure T39 MRT M molaritymollL R ideal gas constantL x atmmol x K T absolute tempK Osmosis selective passage of solvent molecule thru a porous membrane from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated one o van t Hoff Factor i i actual of particles after dissociation of formulas units initially dissolved in solution nonelectrolytes usually have a van t Hoff factor of 1 electrolytes van t Hoff factor is different based on what electrolyte is being used 0 Colloids a dispersion of particles of one substance throughout another substance Particles much larger than the normal solute molecules but too small to be settled by gravity Hydrophilic water loving Hydrophobic water hatingnonpolar Chapter 14 Entropy amp Free Energy 0 1st Law of Thermodynamics energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transferred or transformed spontaneous processes does occur under a specific set of conditions without ongoing outside intervention 0 CH4g 2029 9 C02g 2H20l AH 8904 kjmol Exothermic will release heat An exothermic process is often spontaneous o H20s 9 H20l AH 601 kjmol Endothermic process EntropyS a measure of how dispersed the systems energy is Types of Motion 0 Translational movement of entire molecule from one place to another 0 Rotational rotation of the molecule about an axis or sigmao bonds 0 Vibrational periodic motion of atoms within a molecule Entropy changes in a system ASSS O Assys Sfinal39 Sinitial O ASsyS kan na S absolute entropy of a substance of 1atm o Calculating reaction standard entropy o AS rxn ZnS products Zm S reactants 0 Example 302g9 203g AS rxn AS rxn 22376 JK x mol 32050 JK x mol 4398 JK X mol 0 Qualitative AS predictions Temperature increases entropy increases Volume increases entropy increases Phase changes increasing entropy solidlt liquidlt gas 0 Melting vaporization sublimation Chemical reaction rxn resulting in a greater of gas molecules entropy increases 0 Examples 0 C02s 9 C02g A8 o CaOs COzg 9 C3CO3S AS
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