Unit 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1-4)
Unit 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1-4) BIOL 1030-003
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa Rosenfeld on Monday September 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030-003 at Clemson University taught by Kristi J. Whitehead in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 339 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Study Guide 1 Describe seven properties common to all life a Orderthe complexity and organization of living things to organize simple substances into complex substances b Reproductionliving things do not need to reproduce to survive individually but in order for the species to not go extinct the species must reproduce asexually or sexually 0 Growth cells develop through cell division where new cells form DNA is also a part of growth in how organisms live because when an organism is growing the DNA provides the information that the systems in the organisms need in order to continuing growing and functioning 1 Energy Processing all living organisms go through the process of foodljenergyljlife in order to live and grow as it provides the essential needs to maintain what the organism itself needs to live in its environment e Regulation organisms have the ability to regulate things like temperature in order to adapt to the environment that they are living in f Response to the Environment living organisms are able to make changes according to the environment they are being surrounded in This is a response that the organism naturally makes in order to remain alive g Evolutionary Adaptations there are DNA changes as well as mutations that can be made with liVing organisms in order to create a variation to maintain a healthy species as well as making the organisms better adapt to their environment 2 Describe the levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere a Biosphere all of the living organisms and environments on the Earth that has life b Ecosystem a particular area everything liVing in the particular area and its components ex pH water living types Community just the organisms liVing in a particular ecosystem Population all of a species living in a specific area ex all birds Organisms a single liVing entity Organ System multiple organs that work together to make one specific function Organ a single organ that is composed of tissues and only has one specific function Tissue many similar cells that make up an organ that performs a specific function Cell smallest unit classified as living the main unit of life Organelle inside of cells membrane bound with functions ex nucleus Molecules atoms DNA 3 De ne the concept of emergent properties and describe and example of it a Going from molecules to the biospherewhere a complex thing is broken down into simple things or simple things are looked at with their complex components b New properties emerge at each level i Interactions ii LIFEemergent property at cellular level WV39E39F Q 1quot 0 FL 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide c An example of an emergent property is when you have cells for an organ but you do not have the organ itself there will be no function that can take place 4 Explain why cells are a special level in biological organization Compare Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells a A cell is where life emerges making it have its own special level in biological organization because it is its own level of liVing things and higher levels would not exist without it b Prokaryotic Cells i Without a nucleus ii Evolved first iii More simple iV Does not have all organelles V Smaller c Eukaryotic Cells i Has a nucleus ii Evolved later iii More complex iV Membrane bound organelles V Bigger 5 Compare the ways in which energy and nutrients move through an ecosystem How are producers consumers and decomposers involved a Nutrients cycle through the environment in the forms of carbon hydrogen and oxygen C02 i Producers capture ex plants ii Consumers nutrients move from producer to consumer and keep getting passed along ex animals iii Decomposers break down dead material and returns organic compounds and nutrients into the atmosphere to restart the cycle ex fungi b Energy ows in and out of the environment in which the primary source comes from the sun i Producers plants capture the energy from the sun and use photosynthesis to send energy to the consumers ii Consumers use metabolism to break down things to send to the decomposers iii With energy ow some energy is lost in the form of heat 6 Compare the three domains of life Be able to describe the differences between the four kingdoms one is technically a group of kingdoms in the domain Eukarya also a BACTERIA i Single celledsingle organism ii Prokaryotic iii Small iv Evolved first 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide b ARCHAEA i Look similar to bacteria ii Single celled iii Initially grouped with bacteria iv Small V Prokaryotic vi Mix of bacteria and eukaryotes vii Extreme environments hot water pH2 found more often than bacteria c EUKARYA i Membrane bound nuclei ii Bigger iii Eukaryotes 1 PLANTAE a Photosynthetic b Producers c Multicellular 2 ANIMALIA a Consumers b Multicellular 3 FUNGI a Sizes vary b Decomposers 4 PROTISTS a Multiple kingdoms b Most single celled c Parasites 7 Describe the process and products of natural selection a Natural selection is a process in which the individuals in a population have variable traits that are inherited These traits want to be kept prominent leading to populations producing more offspring than the environment can support 8 Distinguish between an observation a scienti c theory and a hypothesis a Observations i Observe something to come up with a hypothesis b Theories i Hypotheses evidence theories 1 If one hypothesis doesn t work everything doesn t just fall apart 2 Broader in scope than just a single hypothesis c Hypothesis i Proposed explanation ii Predictionevidence iii Have to test them iv Has to be falsifiable prove its wrong if it is wrong 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide V A hypothesis can never be proven because there can always be an alternative explanation even though we can be sure of them 9 How do science and technology differ a Sciencethe goal of science is to understand nature and it is the creation of studies out of need b Technology is used for inventions and a comparison for experiments in everyday life 10 Explain how evolution impacts the lives of all humans a Human cause changes in the environment are powerful selective forces i Antibiotic resists bacteria ii Pesticides resists pests iii Endangered species and increasing rates of extinctionfaster rates of populations iv Selective breeding b We try to use them for good but they find ways to be worked around Chapter 2 Study Guide 1 What are the three states of matter a Sohd b Liquid c Gas 2 What are elements Which elements make up over 96 of the weight of the human body How do elements and compounds differ a Elements are what makes up matter and they cannot be broken down found on the periodic table b 96 of the weight of the human body is made up of the elements carbon oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen c Compounds differ from elements in that they have emergent properties and there are pure compounds that are easier to find then pure elements 3 What are trace elements a Small amount of what is in the human body but is completely essential to live ex salt iron 4 Describe the structure of an atom Include in your description the mass charge and location of electrons protons and neutrons a Atoms are made up of subatomic particles i Protons charge located in the center nucleus 1 Atomic numbernumber of protons ii Neutrons neutral charge located in the center nucleus 1 Mass numbernumber of protons and neutrons iii Electrons charge located on the outside electron cloud 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide 1 Mass numbernumber of protons and neutrons 5 De ne and differentiate between atomic number mass number and atomic mass a Atomic numbernumber of protons b Mass numbernumber of protons and neutrons 0 Atomic massapproximately equal to the mass number 6 Why is the atomic mass of an atom approximately equal to its mass number a The atomic mass of an atom is approximately equal to its mass number because the number of protons and neutrons is the weight of the atom which is the atomic mass 7 How do isotopes of the same element differ from one another a Isotopes of the same element differ from one another in which they have the same amount of protons atomic number but the number of neutrons are different mass number 8 What is meant by stable vs radioactive isotopes a There is a stability or lack of stability to the nucleus depending on the amount of neutrons Extra neutrons make the nucleus unstable making it randomly release energy and decay breaking chemical bonds causing mutations and other issues 9 Which of the subatomic particles impacts the chemical properties of an atom a The number of electrons are the bonds that really matter and are the only ones that impact the chemical properties 10 Be able to explain the arrangement of electrons in an atom Include explanations of electron shells and orbitals What is the valence shell How does the number of electrons in the valence shell impact the reactivity of the atom a Electron shells i Where the electrons are located ii Energy levels surrounding the nucleus iii Outermostvalence shell 1 Chemical properties are found here iV Orbitals are found within each electron shell 1 Space where the electron spends a lot of time 2 Different electron shells have different amounts of orbitals 3 A single orbital cannot have more than a pair of electrons but it can have less 4 You have to have an electron in each orbital before you can start pairing in orbitals electron distribution b With bonds we are looking for how bonds are in the valence shell and if they are paired or unpaired with another electron neonunreactive 11 What are chemical bonds a There are two groups of chemical bonds intramolecular and intermolecular They are formed when two that have unpaired electrons react so that they both end up with compete and full valence shells 12 Be able to explain and differentiate between covalent ionic and hydrogen bonds a Covalent bonds 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide i Strongest ii Two atoms SHARE outer shell electrons iii When two or more atoms are held together by covalent bonds molecules are formed iv Sharing is not always equal b Ionic Bonds i Too drastic of a pull electro negativity between the electrons ii Electron moving from one atom to another weak strong iii Because one has gained and one has lost an ion is created 1 IONS iv Opposite atoms attract pulling each other together c Hydrogen Bonds i Protein structures ii Intramolecular amp mostly Intermolecular bonds iii Weaker bonds iv Very important bonds v The hydrogen bond forms where the positive and negative part of the molecule is 1 Positivehydrogen 13 De ne polar and nonpolar covalent bonds How does electronegativity of the atoms play a role in these types of bonds Explain what is meant by the fact that water is a polar molecule a If the molecule has atoms being shared fairly equally it is a nonpolar covalent bond equal distribution b If the molecule has atoms not being shared equally it is a polar covalent bond not equally distributed i Water is a polar covalent bond because Electrons then spend more time towards the atom with the stronger pull creating opposite charges c When two atoms are unlike each other they will not pull on the electrons equally electron negativity i More electronsstronger pull ii Not evenly distributed between atoms 14 In chemical reactions what happens to the matter a A chemical reaction causes a change in the composition of matter and how it is formed i We cannot create or destroy matter so a chemical reaction only moves things around 15 What are the life supporting properties of water What characteristics of water isare involved in each of these properties What is cohesion How do heat and temperature differ Why is ice less dense than liquid water a Water s Life Supporting Properties i Water is everywhere ii All living organisms require water 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide b Cohesion i Likelihood that like molecules would stick to each other ii Water has higher cohesion than other molecules due to surface tension c Heat and Temperature Adhesion i Heatenergy 1 Speedintensity Temp increase higher speed Temp decreaselower speed Has to do with how many hydrogen bonds are formed and broken Heat being absorbedincreased breakage of hydrogen bondsincreased temp 6 Decreased tempheat released increasing formation of hydrogen bondsdecreased speed 7 Evaporation coolingmost quickly moving water molecules are 9593 released making the average speed slower 8 Humidityl harder for body to cool itself as the molecules don t release 1 Density i Water as a solid is less dense than as a liquid 1 Hydrogen bonds 2 Freezing has stable hydrogen bonds ii Less molecules in ice because they are structured and stabled iii Liquid has more molecules that are compact making it more dense 1 Ice protects living organisms in the water in the winter as it oats on top and acts and a barrier 16 Understand the pH scale what the units indicate which numbers represent acidic neutral and basic pH values 17 What is an acid What is a base What is a buffer a Acid increases concentration of hydrogen ions b Base lowers concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution i Dissociating ii Combining iii Hydrogen ions then get pulled out c Buffer maintains pH keeps it stable and can do either what a base or acid does 18 Why do many biological uids contain buffers a Most biological uids contain buffers to fix any problems with the hydrogen ions i Too many hydrogen ionsaccept out of solution ii Not enough hydrogen ions donate into solution Chapter 3 Study Guide 1 What characteristic of carbon makes it so important for molecular diversity a Carbon has characteristics that make it biologically diverse 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide i Makes up to 4 covalent bonds with other atoms double triple and many other ways of bonding 2 In what ways can a carbon skeleton vary a Carbon skeletons can vary in length bonds branching and rings 3 What are isomers a Isomers are made up of the same types and numbers of atoms but they are arranged differently 4 What are functional groups Be able to name and recognize the different functional groups that are important in macromolecules Know the properties for each that were discussed in class a Functional groups are attached to the skeleton and change the shape and function and they contain oxygen or nitrogen i Hydroxyl Group oxygen bound to a hydrogen ii Carbonyl Group oxygen double bonded with carbon iii Carboxyl Group combination of carbonyl and hydroxyl iv Amino Group nitrogen bound to two hydrogen v Phosphate Group phosphorous atom attached to 4 oxygen vi Methyl Group NO oxygen or nitrogen so it is not polar however it will change the shape of a carbon skeleton still making it a functional group 5 How are polymers made and broken Be able to recognize andor describe the reactions involved a Polymers are all macromolecules except for lipids b Formation of polymers is by the dehydration reaction i Pull water out of the reactants final product 0 Breaking polymers is by hydrolysis reaction i Water is going into the reaction and the water is then separated 1 Both processes require water being put in or taken out e Enzymes help form and break polymers and they are special proteins that are involved with chemical reactions but are not changed by the chemical reaction 6 What are the specific building blocks for each of the four macromolecules Be able to recognize the structural chemical formulas andor major components of each building block and associate each one to the correct macromolecule a Building Blocks i Polymers 1 Large molecules made up many smaller subunits that are attached to each other ii Monomers 1 Single subunit that makes up polymers b Macromolecules i Lipids fats More complex 1 Made of heads with chains of fatty acids ii Carbohydrates polysaccharide iii Proteins polypeptide 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide iv Nucleic Acids DNA RNA 7 What are the two functions for polysaccharides a Store energy carbon b Provide structure cellulose provides structure with plants 8 Compare and contrast starch glycogen and cellulose a Starch i Long chain of glucose monomers ii For plants to use as energy storage b Glycogen i Branching chain of glucose monomers ii Used for energy storage by animals including humans c Cellulose i Cross linked by hydrogen bonds ii Humans do not have the capability to break down cellulose iii Chain of glucose monomers 9 Describe and comparecontrast fats phospholipids and steroids in terms of structure andor function a Fats i Long term energy storage better than carbs ii Harder to get rid of fat iii Made of glycerol and fatty acids iv Triglycerides 3 fatty acids from the glycerol head V Dehydration reaction vi Saturated vs unsaturated fats hydrogen 1 Saturated single bonds between carbons meaning it has the max amount of hydrogens butter 2 Unsaturated atleast one double bond between the carbons can be more than one at some point there will be a double bon with the carbons making it not have the max amount of hydrogen bends or kinks the fatty acid because of bends they cannot pack close together making them liquid at room temp olive oil b Phospholipids i Has good structure and function ii Similar structure to fats iii Only two fatty acids off of the head iv Phosphate group is attached to the head as well v The head is hydrophilic and the tails are hydrophobic vi Inside needs to be water and the outside needs to be water making the membrane a bilayer so that the hydrophobic portion can be away from water vii We need hydrophilic parts on both sides of the membrane c Steroids i Cholesterol animal cell membranes 1 Stability 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide ii Anabolic 1 Manmade 2 Builds muscle mass 3 Medical uses anemia iii Different structure iv Has 4 rings that are fused or attached to each other V Variable 1 Compare i Used for long term energy storage ii Not polymersmore complex iii Not so large compared to carbohydrates 10 Why does the structure of phospholipids contribute to the formation of lipid bilayers a Phospholipids create a bilayer because they have a hydrophilic head water loving and hydrophobic tails water repelling which forces them to create a bilayer in which the tails go together so that the heads can be on the outside of the membrane touching the water 11 What impact do R groups have on amino acids a R group makes the amino acid have its own characteristics chemical i Acidic ii Basic iii Hydrophilic iV Hydrophobic 12 What happens when a protein is denatured What is the result of protein denaturation What conditions cause denaturation a When a protein is denatured it then falls apart which then makes the protein lose its interactions and functions b The result of protein denaturation is that the protein is unfolded which changes and destroys the structure in turn losing its function c The conditions that cause denaturation is when a protein is exposed to stress ex pH chemicals heat 13 Know the four levels of protein structure Be able to describe each a Primary i Amino acid sequence ii Chain of amino acid iii When protein denatures the primary structure sequence is not change even though the others can be iV encoded for by DNA b Secondary i Coilingfolding ii Hydrogen bonds are between parts of the primary structure iii Location of bonds alpha helix or beta pleated sheet c Tertiary i 3D structure of a protein 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide ii Overall structure iii 3Dinteractionsbonds between the R groups iV Where alpha helix is in comparison to beta pleated sheet V Sometimes with R group interactions disulfide bridges occur 1 Quaternary i More than one polypeptide interacting with each other ii 4 polypeptides interacting with each other to make one protein 14 What is the central dogma of biology a DNADRNAnProteins b Transcription i DNARNA nucleic acids transcribingnot changing c Translation i RNAProteins from a nucleic acid to a protein translating how to do something 1 Replication i DNA makes more of itself e Reverse Transcription i Use of RNA to make DNA 15 How do DNA and RNA differ a DNA i Deoxyribose ii A G C T iii Double stranded b RNA i Ribose ii A G C U iii Single stranded 16 Which nitrogenous bases are purines Pyrimidines How do they differ What are the base pairing rules What is meant by the term complementary in terms of DNA a Purines i Two rings ii Adenine A Guanine G b Pyrimidines i One ring ii Has a Y in the names besides uracil iii Cytosine C Thymine T Uracil U c Purines and Pyrimidine differ in that they have different nitrogenous bases and structures 1 The base pairing rules is that Purines and pyrimidines pair together with two strands of DNA connected with hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases and nucleotides e Complementary base pairing you can accurately predict the outcome of the other strand 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide 1 DNA 1 AT 2 TA 3 GC 4 CG 11 RNA39 1 AU 2 TA 3 CG 4 GC Chapter 4 Study Guide 1 Why do we study cells a We study cells because they are the first level where life is seen and they are too small to be seen with the naked eye It is important to study cells because every living thing is made up of cells and in order to determine certain things about life we need to know What a cell is and how it is made 2 Define magni cation and resolution a Magnification i How much the microscope makes an object look bigger than it actually is b Resolution i The ability to show you that two distinct objects really are two objects the ability to see clearly and what limits a microscope from magnifying as much as we wanted 3 Compare and contrast the different types of microscopes discussed in class a Light microscopes i Light that travels through an object then bent by a glass lens then projected to the eye at a magnification ii 1000K magnification b Electron microscopes i Can see much smaller things ii Increase resolution and magnification greatly iii 100000X magnification iv Scanning 1 External structures v Transmission 1 Through an object to look at internal structures 2 Not all of the object with be stained equally vi Differential Interference Contrast Microscope 1 3D 4 Explain what impacts the upper size limit of cells Why is being small an advantage 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide a The upper size limit for a cell is set because of the surface are to volume ratio b Being small is an advantage because it will increase the likelihood that things will run into each other 5 Describe in detail the structure of the plasma membrane a The plasma membrane is the boundary between a cell and the external enVironment It is thin and exible contains proteins and it is made up of a phospholipid bilayer 6 Compare and contrast the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Be familiar with the speci c parts of the prokaryotic cells nucleoid capsule etc a Compare i Are cells or are made up of cells ii Plasma membrane iii Phospholipid bilayer iV Chromosomes at least one 1 Large piece of DNA V Ribosomes 1 To make proteins 2 Prokaryotic slightly different than in eukaryotic Vi Cytosolcytoplasm 1 Fluid b Prokaryotes i DNA is not within a nucleus ii Nucleoidnothing more than the space within the cell in which you find the DNA 1 Like the nucleus without a membrane iii Still capable of everything a Eukaryotic cell can do just in a different way iV No mitochondria but can still go through cellular respiration c Eukaryotes i Membranebound organelles ii Membranebound nucleus 7 What are the four functional categories that eukaryotic organelles t into Know some examples organelles for each category a Nucleus and Ribosomes i Gives genetic control of the cell ii DNA iii Portions of RNA is made in the nucleus iV All of the instructions b Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Lysosomes Vacuoles and Peroxisomes i Make distribute and destruct molecules in the cell ii Lysosomesdestruct c Mitochondria and Chloroplasts i All cells have mitochondria for cellular respiration ii Plant cells have chloroplasts in addition to help with photosynthesis iii Energy process 1 Cytoskeleton Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall 10 11 12 13 14 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide i Structural support ii Movement iii Communication 8 Explain the connection between the nucleus the nucleolus mRNA and rRNA a The nucleus is where the nucleolus is located and where mRNA carries the message from the nucleic acid to the proteins b The rRNA is made in the nucleolus and is a structural component of the ribosomes that is never translated What types of proteins are made by free ribosomes Bound ribosomes Where are the free and bound ribosomes found within the cell a Free ribosomes make proteins to be used in the cytoplasm chemical reactions in the cytoplasm b Bound attached to ER or nuclear envelope i Usually not going to have the proteins they make function right where they are made they need to be transported somewhere else in the cell for them to begin working How do rough and smooth ER differ in structure and function a Smooth lacking bound ribosomes i Steroids lipids oils phospholipids ii Detoxifying things that get into the body drugs b Rough has ribosomes bound to it i Involved in the production of proteins that will be used somewhere else ii Can make more of itself Describe the steps involved in synthesis and packaging of a protein by the rough ER a With the rough ER there are ribosomes bound to it making it go through synthesis to produce proteins that will then be packaged and used somewhere else once it goes through the golgi apparatus Explain how the Golgi apparatus accepts finishes sorts and ships products from the ER a Accepts finishesalters sorts and sends off What comes from the ER b Set up to where there is a receiving side and a shipping side Describe the connections between organelles in the endomembrane system how would a secretory protein be made processed finished and secreted a The nuclear membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum are connected physically while the other organelles such as the golgi and the ER are attached by vesicles b A secretory protein is made in the rough ER and it is then packaged in a vesicle that takes it to the golgi to be finished and then put in a secretory vesicle to be secreted through the plasma membrane How do lysosomes act as digestive and recycling centers a Digestive center i Breaks down vacuoles to send out to the cytoplasm b Recycling Center 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide 15 How do lysosomes act as an example of the benefits of compartmentalization within eukaryotic cells a Lysosomes act as compartments to protect the rest of the cell from the acidic environments that the enzymes work best in This benefits the cell so that the acid does not leak from the lysosome and hurt the rest of the cell 16 How does structure support function in both mitochondria and chloroplasts a The structure of a mitochondria has a folded inner membrane also known as cristae which creates more surface area to then produce more ATP b The structure of a chloroplast has thylakoids and granum which are located in the inner membrane space that is full of thick uid called stroma This is where the enzymes are kept that are necessary for photosynthesis 17 Explain the endosymbiont theory What characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts support this theory a The endosymbiont theory is the evolution of mitochondria and chloroplast The fact that mitochondria and chloroplasts have DNA and Ribosomes of their own and they are able to reproduce just like bacteria and prokaryotic cells formed a hypothesis that these organelles were once living on their own and were then swallowed by a larger cell and now they cannot live without each other due to the fact that cells are the smallest unit of life 18 Describe the three types of filaments found in the cytoskeleton a Mircofilament i Protein fibers ii help cell maintain shape iii motility iv actin subunit b Intermediate filament i anchors ii Hold organelles in place iii Fibrous subunits c Microtubule i Tubulin subunits ii Rigidity to the structure iii Provides tracks for organelle movement 19 Compare and contrast cilia and agella a Compare i Used for movementmotility ii Have similar structure and mechanism of movement b Cilia i Short hairlike structure work like oars on a boat moving in the same direction ii Move mucus up and out o Flagella i Longer one or a few per cell 962015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030Chapter 1 Study Guide ii Whiplike motion wavelike 20 What are the functions of the extracellular matrix Functions of the cell wall a Functions of the extracellular matrix i Hold cells together to form a tissue ii Help protect the plasma membrane b Functions of the cell wall i Protect and provide structural support ii Composed of cellulose plant cells 21 Describe the four types of cell junctions 3 in animal cells and 1 in plant cells a Tight Junctions i Prevent things from getting through a layer of cells ii In between the cells seal at the top of a Ziploc bag iii Nothing can get from the inside of gut to blood stream b Anchoring Junctions i Help hold cells together 0 Gap Junctions i Like straws ii There so things can pass from cell to cell not through cells iii Communication 1 Plasmodesmata plant i to move food and water
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