Quiz 1 (September 10)
Quiz 1 (September 10) AFAS 160A1
Popular in The Africana Experience
Popular in African Studies
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nadia on Monday September 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AFAS 160A1 at University of Arizona taught by Professor Yuxuf Abana in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 898 views. For similar materials see The Africana Experience in African Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
AFAS 160 The Africana Experience Study Guide for Quiz 1 September 10 DEFINITIONS Humid tropical climatological zone RAINFALL greater than 2000 mm or 80 in rain is almost yearround The dry season if any lasts less than two months Subhumid tropical climatological zone RAINFALL 10002000 mm or 4080 in rainy season lasts between 6 to 10 months Semiarid tropical climatological zone RAINFALL 2001000 mm or 840 in rainy season lasts between 3 to 6 months Arid tropical climatological zone RAINFALL less than 200 mm or 8 in very short or no rainy season driest parts could go years without rain Foraging to search for food or provisions Foragers are referred to commonly as huntergatherers They ve existed in all areas since very early times They move following the best game or conditions and often remain as small travelling groups Though they re thought to have not affected the landscape much since they didn t settle for long they have been known to alter their environments dramatically by burning areas to drive game or destroying and preserving undesired or desired plant life The strategy of foraging gradually declined to be very low today Many of those who relied primarily on foraging tactics didn t survive the developmental turn of the current century Herding keeping or looking after livestock Herding is believed to come about around 7000 years ago in North Africa These societies domesticate animals cattle camels goats sheep etc It s most common in the savannas where the animals have grass to graze It s not likely in forests These small communities are still present though declining and they migrate cyclically to the best areas for water and raising livestock They have altered the landscape mostly by transferring of species to areas which they are not indigenous and allowing their animals to overgraze the land Agriculture practice of farming which includes cultivating soil for cropgrowing and animalrearing Agriculture has been one of Africa s most important production modes for thousands of years The way of life spread gradually allowing those who had it to develop larger settlements It was most common on savannas for the fertility of the land The main crops were grains millet sorghum maize which become staples in cultural foods Agriculture caused a decline in variety of plant life as the inhabitants focused on growing more of what they would use In the rain forests tree crops and root crops are common yams plantains cassava but don t support large communities since crops are more cyclical Coastal areas support fishing and trade developments Colonialism 1819 cent imposed new export crops cocoa coffee tea peanuts tobacco cotton sisal rubber palm oil to the land Over time many rural people have moved into the cities The agricultural economy is keeping up but Africa is just as much a part of global trade as any other country Patrilineal kinship tracing descent through the father men in the family Children of brothers consider themselves siblings and consider the father s siblings parents as well The connections remain closer than the way we recognize family in European standards Adoption is not common but fostering is even without the case of an emergency Majority of African societies were patrilineal Many have shifted from matrilineal through lslamization Matrilineal kinship tracing descent through the mother women in the family Significant numbers of groups maintained matrilineal ways Higher status groups within societies tend to retain more elements Intergenerational relations connections and interactions between people of different age groups Historically the elders maintained authority but we ve seen more recently the reversal of authority in intergenerational relations Young men gain respect by demonstrating financial ability Children are often needed to provide for the family and the social dynamic changes Young women have frequently found financial stability through the exploitation of sugar daddies Nonkin forms of community ties created between people who weren t connected by blood but treated like family These bonds were often forged in close friendships from childhood It was also common among agemates undergoing circumcision together as the process brought them together Scholars call initiation societies secret societies as they create special bonds between its members People who share professions have also created communities as they were often closeknit since crafts were passed down through families Childheaded households As children find the ability to earn and control money the dynamic with parents is changing Children who can find work are able to support the family see changing relationships with the elders who were once authority figures PEOPLE Herodotus Greek historian who gave account of sea journey made by Phoenicians in fifth century BCE The journey was ordered by King Necho ll of Egypt around Africa though Herodotus referred to the landmass as Libya The account is taken from The Histories assumed to be written around 425 BCE Though Herodotus report is secondhand knowledge from legend it is believed to be accountable because it discusses the position of the sun correctly Abu Abdullah Muhhammed lbn Battuta wellknown popular fourteenth century Moroccan adventurer wrote in Arabic about travels gave an account from Travels in Asia and Africa 1325 1354 of Africa around the Egyptian Nile s behavior and how the people in the area adapted to the rise and fall of the waters Sundiata 12351255 D T Niane transcribed oral stories in Sundiata An Epic of Old Mali Legend says he was born without using his legs but miraculously began to walk at 7 years old He became a prince of Keita clan to develop connections with Malinke mansas and defeat an evil Sosso kind Sumanguru in 1235 He expanded the empire through conquest Mansa Musa 13121337 one of Sundiata s most famous descendants and brother to Mansa Sulayman 13411360 maintained Mali s imperial authority and encouraged trade and education encouraged growth of Islam as imperial religion recognized as Islamic caliph of West Africa during hajj to Mecca 1324 1325 had Sudanese Islamic scholars trained in the Maghreb recruited teachers from Cairo to work with Muslim students in West African centers of scholarship Askia Muhammed Toure Askia the Great 14931528 golden age Soninke by birth successor and army general or askia of emperor Sunni Ali 14641492 who founded Songhay hajj to Mecca 1496 and waged jihad upon return caliph of West Africa made Songhay one of the largest multinational empires reformed government to merit system became blind 1528 Songhay declined after rule Many respected scholars taught at Sankore Timbuktu Leo Africanus papal emissary wrote many professionals worked and lived in Timbuktu and wrote famous expensive manuscripts and books IDEAS The Scramble for Africa c 18001900 During the period of New Imperialism European powers invaded occupied colonized and annexed African territory The intervention interrupted the steady progress Africa was making in developing large political economies European rule put Africa in the hands of distant foreigners who disregarded their way of life Any structures that had been created at local levels of Africa were lost for the time but are likely important now in reforming an independent Africa The Social Mirror The social mirror is a theory that we perceive ourselves based on how others judge us It represents how others see us When we look at ourselves in an actual mirror we see ourselves based on our own perceptions and senses The social mirror represents a metaphorical looking glass where we can find how others see us A lot of social interaction has to do with judgment regardless if it s wanted or not The social mirror frames social relations It has a lot to do with how we create our own identity and how we interact with or don t others Critical Thinking the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgement In class we discussed the importance of critical thinking Professor Abana discussed how we ll come across and be revealed to many issues in this class We should inquire and be open to new ideas in order to see arguments from many sides and create our own judgements PanAfricanism This is the idea that people who descended from African cultures should be unified because of common interests It s often seen in political and cultural movements Marriage formally recognized union It is the primary way to expand kinship and reproduce In many cases a goal of marriage is to reproduce in order to continue blood lines or provide social security as parents grow old It can also be used strategically to form alliances to others in high social standing Family In African cultures it s more important to maintain consanguinity and affinity For this reason marriages are often arranged between relatives to reestablish these ties Marriage is used as a tool to expand social networks for protection and need Africa as a force in globalization Africa has been important in the global landscape since as far back as we can see Science has traced all of our origins back to that continent Early trade with Asia and Europe is seen in the history of specific goods and the spread of cultural signs Though the development of societies and governments was stunted by the scramble for Africa the interaction between Africa and the rest of the world has and continues to become more involved in international relations
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