yes absolutely great source to study off of
AFAS 160 - The Africana Experience
Study Guide for Quiz 1 (September 10)
Humid tropical climatological zone- (RAINFALL: greater than 2,000 mm or 80 in.) rain is almost year-round. The dry season, if any, lasts less than two months
Sub-humid tropical climatological zone- (RAINFALL: 1,000-2,000 mm or 40-80 in.) rainy season lasts between 6 to 10 months
Semi-arid tropical climatological zone- (RAINFALL: 200-1,000 mm or 8-40 in.) rainy season lasts between 3 to 6 months
Arid tropical climatological zone- (RAINFALL: less than 200 mm or 8 in.) very short or no rainy season, driest parts could go years without rain.
Foraging- to search for food or provisions
Foragers are referred to commonly as hunter-gatherers. They’ve existed in all areas since very early times. They move, following the best game or conditions, and often remain as small travelling groups. Though they’re thought to have not affected the landscape much, since they didn’t settle for long, they have been known to alter their environments dramatically by burning areas to drive game or destroying and preserving undesired or desired plant life. The strategy of foraging gradually declined to be very low today. Many of those who relied primarily on foraging tactics didn’t survive the developmental turn of the current century.
Herding- keeping or looking after livestock
Herding is believed to come about around 7,000 years ago in North Africa. These societies domesticate animals (cattle, camels, goats, sheep, etc.). It’s most common in the savannas where the animals have grass to graze. It’s not likely in
forests. These small communities are still present, though declining, and they migrate cyclically to the best areas for water and raising livestock. They have altered the landscape mostly by transferring of species to areas which they are not indigenous and allowing their animals to overgraze the land. If you want to learn more check out What does Weber’s law tell us about the difference threshold?
Agriculture- practice of farming, which includes cultivating soil for crop-growing and animal-rearing
Agriculture has been one of Africa’s most important production modes for thousands of years. The way of life spread gradually, allowing those who had it to develop larger settlements. It was most common on savannas for the fertility of the land. The main crops were grains (millet, sorghum, maize) which become staples in cultural foods. Agriculture caused a decline in variety of plant life, as the inhabitants focused on growing more of what they would use. In the rain forests , tree crops and root crops are common (yams, plantains, cassava), but don’t support large communities since crops are more cyclical. Coastal areas support fishing and trade developments. Colonialism (18-19 cent.) imposed new export crops (cocoa, coffee, tea, peanuts, tobacco, cotton, sisal, rubber, palm oil) to the land. Over time, many rural people have moved into the cities. The agricultural economy is keeping up, but Africa is just as much a part of global trade as any other country.
Don't forget about the age old question of Domestic situation comedy refers to what?
Patrilineal kinship- tracing descent through the father, men in the family Children of brothers consider themselves siblings, and consider the father’s siblings parents as well. The connections remain closer than the way we recognize family in European standards. Adoption is not common but fostering is, even without the case of an emergency.
Majority of African societies were patrilineal. Many have shifted from matrilineal through Islamization.
Matrilineal kinship- tracing descent through the mother, women in the family
Significant numbers of groups maintained matrilineal ways. Higher status groups within societies tend to retain more elements.
Intergenerational relations- connections and interactions between people of different age groups
Historically, the elders maintained authority, but we’ve seen more recently the reversal of authority in intergenerational relations. Young men gain respect by demonstrating financial ability. Children are often needed to provide for the family and the social dynamic changes. Young women have frequently found financial stability through the exploitation of “sugar daddies.”
Non-kin forms of community- ties created between people who weren’t connected by blood, but treated like family If you want to learn more check out what is Geography?
These bonds were often forged in close friendships from childhood. It was also common among age-mates undergoing circumcision together, as the process brought them together. Scholars call initiation societies “secret societies” as they create special bonds between its members. People who share professions have also created communities as they were often close-knit since crafts were passed down through families.
As children find the ability to earn and control money, the dynamic with parents is changing. Children who can find work are able to support the family see changing relationships with the elders who were once authority figures.
Herodotus- Greek historian who gave account of sea journey made by Phoenicians in fifth century BCE. The journey was ordered by King Necho II of Egypt around Africa, though Herodotus referred to the landmass as “Libya.” The account is taken from The Histories, assumed to be written around 425 BCE.
Though Herodotus’ report is secondhand knowledge, from legend, it is believed to be accountable because it discusses the position of the sun correctly.
Abu Abdullah Muhhammed (Ibn Battuta)- well-known popular fourteenth century Moroccan adventurer, wrote in Arabic about travels, gave an account (from Travels in Asia and Africa 1325- 1354) of Africa around the Egyptian Nile’s behavior and how the people in the area adapted to the rise and fall of the waters If you want to learn more check out What are the effects of cigarettes?
Sundiata- (1235-1255) D. T. Niane transcribed oral stories in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali. Legend says he was born without using his legs but “miraculously” began to walk at 7 years old. He became a prince of Keita clan to develop connections with Malinke mansas and defeat an evil Sosso kind, Sumanguru in 1235. He expanded the empire through conquest.
Mansa Musa- (1312-1337) one of Sundiata’s most famous descendants and brother to Mansa Sulayman (1341-1360), maintained Mali’s imperial authority and encouraged trade and education, encouraged growth of Islam as imperial religion, recognized as Islamic caliph of West Africa during hajj to Mecca (1324- 1325), had Sudanese Islamic scholars trained in the Maghreb, recruited teachers from Cairo to work with Muslim students in West African centers of scholarship
Askia Muhammed Toure (Askia the Great)- (1493-1528 “golden age”) Soninke by birth, successor and army general (or askia) of emperor Sunni Ali (1464-1492) who founded Songhay, hajj to Mecca (1496) and waged jihad upon return, caliph of West Africa, made Songhay one of the largest multinational empires, reformed government to merit system, became blind 1528, Songhay declined after rule Many respected scholars taught at Sankore (Timbuktu)
Leo Africanus (papal emissary) wrote many professionals worked and lived in Timbuktu and wrote famous, expensive manuscripts and books
“The Scramble for Africa” (c. 1800-1900) We also discuss several other topics like What is magnetic force?
During the period of New Imperialism, European powers invaded, occupied, colonized, and annexed African territory. The intervention interrupted the steady progress Africa was making in developing large political economies. European rule put Africa in the hands of distant foreigners who disregarded their way of life. Any structures that had been created at local levels of Africa were lost for the time, but are likely important now in re-forming an independent Africa. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the Right to Counsel?
“The Social Mirror”
The social mirror is a theory that we perceive ourselves based on how others judge us. It represents how others see us. When we look at ourselves in an actual mirror, we see ourselves based on our own perceptions and senses. The social mirror represents a metaphorical looking glass where we can find how others see us. A lot of social interaction has to do with judgment, regardless if it’s wanted or not. The social mirror frames social relations. It has a lot to do with how we create our own identity and how we interact with (or don’t) others.
“Critical Thinking” – the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgement
In class, we discussed the importance of critical thinking. Professor Abana discussed how we’ll come across and be revealed to many issues in this class. We should inquire and be open to new ideas in order to see arguments from many sides and create our own judgements.
This is the idea that people who descended from African cultures should be unified because of common interests. It’s often seen in political and cultural movements.
“Marriage” – formally recognized union
It is the primary way to expand kinship and reproduce. In many cases, a goal of marriage is to reproduce in order to continue blood lines or provide social security as parents grow old. It can also be used strategically to form alliances to others in high social standing.
In African cultures, it’s more important to maintain consanguinity and affinity. For this reason, marriages are often arranged between relatives to re-establish these ties. Marriage is used as a tool to expand social networks for protection and need.
“Africa as a force in globalization”
Africa has been important in the global landscape since as far back as we can see. Science has traced all of our origins back to that continent. Early trade with Asia and Europe is seen in the history of specific goods and the spread of cultural signs. Though the development of societies and governments was stunted by the scramble for Africa, the interaction between Africa and the rest of the world has and continues to become more involved in international relations.