Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide PSY 271
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 271 at University of Miami taught by Barry Zwibelman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Final Exam Study Guide 0 Physical o Autogenics selfproduced selfregulation a series of exercises that bring about the sensation of warmth and heaviness in the torso How to do it focus on sensation of heaviness and warmth through arms legs heart abdomen amp coolness in the forehead Warmth caused by dilation of blood vessels Heaviness caused by gravity Direct method consciously moves blood to the extremities using imagery Indirect method concentrating on the feelings of warmth and heaviness without images For it to work individual must be highly motivated amp receptive and have a strong ability for selfdirection and control Mindbody integration the idea that the mind can override the ghtor ight mechanism 0 Change in distribution of blood ow from sending internal messages from conscious mind to speci c body parts bene ts concentration body awareness regulated circulatory system Helps you relax physically Gives you a sense of control over your relaxation o Diaphragmatic Breathing the correct way to breathe relaxing the shoulders upper chest and stomach muscles allowing the diaphragm and lower rib muscles to carry on the automatic breathing process most ef cient its location in the body gives it the most room to move in a pistonlike fashion facilitating air ow bene ts when you breathe this way your body continually adjusts the volume and breathing rate as needed to maintain the acidbase balance of the blood and other factors 0 Exercise Our bodies were made to be active the body s natural inclination when stressed is to move Anaerobic muscle strength and toning Aerobic with air rhythmic repetitive motion heart rate elevated for 1520 min Bene ts 0 Burns off stress hormones 0 Natural release of endorphins Return more easily to homeostasis following stress 0 Better quality sleep 0 Increased immune functioning o More complete relaxation attained 0Long term ef cient functioning of heart lungs blood vessels kidneys muscularskeletal tissue 0Helps your metabolic rate 0 Meditation the practice of solitary contemplation re ection on internal stimuli Points of intervention 0 Relaxation by reducing sensory overload Cognitive problemsolving by gaining new perspectives Refocusing attention amp narrowing consciousness Exclusive meditation restriction of consciousness focus on a single thought and exclusion of all other thoughts Inclusive meditation passively accepting all thoughts with no attempt to control judge or evaluate the content quotgaining control by giving up controlquot Bene t physiological reduced resting level of ANS lower blood pressure lower blood sugar levels improved sleep improved resting brain wave levels 0 increased concentration 0 increased awareness of whether you are tense or relaxed improved ability to relax when overstressed 0 Progressive Muscle Relaxation alternately tensing and relaxing muscles in order to return them to their naturally relaxed position Muscle tension is an automatic reaction of the stress response Muscles tense up to prepare for action 0 We may not be aware of muscle tension until it builds up and we experience pain 0 Feeling the tense muscles allows us to notice when they re tense during stress Combine PMR with deep breathing Bene ts feeling alert and refreshed at the end 0 can help you fall asleep 0 you can do it anywhere o T39ai Chi moving meditation The Chinese view of health the balance of opposites yin and yang Four principles 0 Fasting the heart 0 Wuwei going with the ow 0 Return to nature 0 Winning by losing T ai chi describes acting without physical force How to perpendicular stance low center of gravity continuous movement Qigong the softest least destructive of the martial arts Bene ts 0 Like yoga unites the body mind and spirit 0 Relieves chronic pain oQigong helps hypertension stroke and cardiovascular efficiency 0 Yoga union of mind body spirit Physicalmental training sleep diet leisure activities physical balance postures relaxation meditation Moral training do no harm to yourself or others Bene ts muscular exibility physical balance breathing control 0 Cognitive Techniques 0 Cognitive Restructuring Change the current mind frame appraisal interpretations assumptions belief system to a less threatening perception 3 basic assumptions l have the capacity to choose what I think l have the capacity to choose an interpretation of a situation lfl make any interpretation of a stimulus I can make another different one l have the ability to turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts Bene ts feelings of control this change will cause more positivity o Imagery Practice situations that you have already identi ed as potentially stress producing 39 types 0 Guided imagery using a prepared structured visualization with positive and relaxing mental images Hypnosisself hypnosis very deep levels of relaxation amp receptive frame of mind 0 Mental trainingrehearsal used to create a desired goal setting a goal and visualizing yourself accomplishing it can be used in a positive way to activate the parasympathetic nervous system or in a negative way to create fearful consequences Bene ts relieves anxiety because you will no longer feel unprepared going into these situations gives you a plan can be used anywhere you can start amp stop whenever you want 0 Mindfulness paying attention to an experience from moment to moment Using all senses to take in details Just the present not past or future No thoughts or opinions about what s going on Bene ts 0 Can be used anywhere improved focus and concentration avoids stress because there s no stress in the present 0 Optimism seeing stressful events as an opportunity Optimism can be learned Primary appraisal interpretation of rst event positive harmful irrelevant Secondary appraisal evaluating resources and deciding how to cope with threat 2 basic skills of optimism 0 think of positive events as being because of something you did a sign of more good things to come and evidence that good things will happen in other areas of your life 0 think of negative events as isolated occurrences that have no bearing on future events or other areas of your life key to optimism is maximizing your success any failure can be a learning experience bene ts more positivity learn from your mistakes develop an internal locus of control 0 Reframing Looking at a situation from a new reference or vantage point and nding a neutral or positive aspect of it without denying the situation Changing how you look at things will change the way you feel about things quotmanaging stress by changing the way you thinkquot bene ts more positivity less stress see things from another point of view 0 ThoughtStopping Whenever a negative thought enters your mind immediately visualize a big red STOP sign and thus distract the thought from being processed further I Bene ts it helps you keep your mind off your potential stressor and eliminates physiological arousal Behavioral o Anger Management Learn to outthink your anger recognize your thoughts and labeling that lead to anger Anger is a result of not getting your way one of your quotrulesquot being broken How to do it o Stopping to recognize your thoughts Pause to consider evidence am I overreacting am I jumping to conclusions 0 Practice adaptive selfstatements quotI can do thisquot 0 Practice competing response to anger deep breathing mental imagery relaxation exercises Focus on solving the problem rather than getting angry problemfocused coping Bene ts 0 People who don t ventilate anger correctly suppress feelings feel guilty erupt verbally or physically or take out their anger indirectly Learning anger management skills helps eliminate these poor coping mechanisms 0 You feel in control meaning you can change how youfeel Less feelings of physiological arousal body is more relaxed o Assertiveness direct and honest expression of thoughts and feelings in ways that are considerate of the rights of others I Standing up for your basic rights without violating anyon e else s rights The combination of selfrespect and respect for others each person is responsible for their own thoughts feelings and behavior How to Stick to factual explanations of what someone has done to upset you Use quot messagesquot not quotyou messagesquot DES formula when you feel would prefer Make sure you look con dent Be rm but pleasant Bene ts Can strengthen or help you handle dif cult relationships Reduces stress from con ict people will respect you Provides you with social support You are more likely to get what you want Prevents overloading your schedule and promotes balance in your life 0 Behavior Modi cation a therapeutic process designed to replace an undesirable behavior with a more desirable behavior 2 necessary components positive goal speci c behavior substitute quotI will do Y instead of Xquot stages awareness you realize that you think or behave in a manner that you want to change desire to change the motivation to change becomes greater than the bene ts of the existing behavior cognitive restructuring changes in perceptions and attitudes that must accompany behavior change behavior substitution specifying the behavior you wish to adopt Y instead of X bounce back falling back on old behaviors for a while is part of the process not an indication of failure evaluation analysis of the new behavior to determine if the desired results are being achieved bene ts you get to break old habits feeling of satisfaction 0 Fear Management 6 basic fears failure rejection unknown death isolation loss of control fear can become a conditioned response when it is paired with an unconditioned stimulus avoid avoidance face discomfort fear must be confronted to be resolved systematic desensitization break it into small manageable parts associating deep relaxation with visualizations of anxietyprovoking situations replacement of stressful feelings with more comfortable images bene ts the fear is eventually resolved feel more in control easier to do when broken into steps 0 Hardiness coping by problem solving rather than avoiding amp giving and getting assistance from others rather than giving Up 3 elements 0 Commitment rather than alienation 0 Control rather than powerlessness Challenge rather than threat Thinking of change as positive looking for growth seeking new experiences Learned resourcefulness using resources around you to help yourself Accepting what you cannot change changing what you can change Sense of humor Bene ts 0 Learn to focus on a goalproblem solving skills 0 Changing your point of view to become more open and positive 0 Not taking things too seriously will help eliminate stress because the body will not experience the stress response as much 0 journal Writing use a private place how was my daywhat are my thoughts amp feelings be spontaneous let thoughts and feelings ow freely if words fail you draw a picture write a poem or use an analogy bene ts 0 reduces rumination 0 letting go of toxic emotions anger amp guilt a script to resolve issues brainstorming identifying chronic stressors of which you may not be aware o Spirituality try to feel connected to where you are Stress is de ned as a lack of connectedness amp a lack of direction Sometimes but not always includes practicing a religion How to prayer re ection or quiet listening to one s intuition communion with nature enjoyment of nature drama art or dance inner dialogue with oneself or a higher power forgiveness empathy compassion hope etc Bene ts inner peace harmony with universe sense of meaning control over life positive emotion
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