Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide PSY 271
Popular in Stress Management
Popular in Psychlogy
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 271 at University of Miami taught by Barry Zwibelman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Test 2 Study Guide Personality Factors in Stress Management 0 What we think of as stress from life can be based off our automatic reactions Locus of Control Julian Rotter Your explanatory stylehow you de ne events 0 Spectrum most people are somewhere in between 0 Example blaming external for bad things and internal when good things happen External spectrum internal Chance my efforts Luck my work Fate I can control can t help it lam responsible Victim of circumstance master of my life Optimist expects positive sees positive Pessimist expects negative sees negative Personality Traits Stress prone more susceptible to perceive potential stressors as real stressors Stress resistant more optimistic resilient high selfesteem internal locus of control 4 Types of StressProne Personality types 1 type A pattern Friedman amp Rosenman a opposite type B b originally i ambitious hard driving ii life centered around work iii chronic activation of stress response c now i ambitious hard driving ii life centered around work iii always in a hurry quottime urgencyquot iv impatient v rapid speech vi unable to relax vii ultracompetitive winlose viii need to dominate manipulate and control others SU d poor health outcomes i not associated with poor health outcomes hard work time urgency competitiveness ii associated with poor health outcomes anger and hostility Codependent pattern a Doing favors for others b Desperate to please c Manipulation i Win approval ii Create dependency on themselves d Dependent on making other people dependent on them as a means of selfvalidation Helplesshopeless a Perceive their problems as too much for them b External locus of control Repressive coping Bottleitup Type C small correlation between this style and cancer Avoid con ict by suppressing feelingsresentment Don t admit when upset Unable to forgive Always angry May not be aware of own negative emotions MARY Need to dominatecontrol others Ultracompetitive Hostile aggression Denial Manipulative Low selfesteem External locus of control Physiological factor i More susceptible to sympathetic arousal ii Chronic activation of the stress responsemore reactive to potential stressors 39 awenceznnwence StressResista nt quotHa rdy Personalityquot Salvatore Maddi BLACKBOARD ARTICLE hardy personality a pattern of attitudes and actions transforming stressors from potential disasters into growth opportunity resilience coping by 0 problem solving rather than avoiding 0 giving and getting assistance from others rather than giving upstriking out 3 elements of Hardy Personality 1 commitment rather then alienation 2 control rather than powerlessness 3 challenge rather than threat stressresistant high selfesteem believing in yourself positivity good person internal locus of control think of change as positive seek new experiences look for growth connectedness optimism resilience synonymous with hardiness learned resourcefulness using resources around you to help yourself summary stress resistant The selfef cacy you have the ability to accomplish what you want to accomplish accepting what you cannot change changing what you can change not expecting life to be perfect don t sweat small stuff sense of humor Second Arrow every person goes through stressful events according to character optimists will see it as an opportunity pessimists will be hurt by it 1st is bad thing that happened 2nCI is what you do to yourself because of that bad thing Cognitive Factors in Stress Management Chapter 9 4 Sources of Stress 1 environmental 2 physiological 3 psychosocial 4 thoughts this chapter Stressful event appraisal l response Math test threatchallenge l stressed to distractionaroused focused Basic principle Candace Pert every negative thought produces a stress reaction in our bodies Richard Lazarus Cognitive Psychologist 0 primary appraisal rst event is interpreted as irrelevant positive or harmful o deciding if situation is relevant to you and it is a threat secondary appraisal evaluating your resources and deciding how to cope with a threat Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal Situation Inadequate stres St39mUIUS eve gt perceived as gt coping resources gt 39 relevant or Stimulus perceived as gt Adeqyate gt NE irrelevant or Cop39ng resources V No nl uAnn Cognitive restructuring changing current mine frame appraisal interpretations assumptions belief system to a less threatening perception Cognitive distortions a type of explanatory style leading to false conclusions 0 potential stressors do not trigger the stress response directly 0 it is the way we appraise a potential stressor either as a threat opportunity or something else that determines whether we experience stress or not 0 a mind is a very powerful tool and just as you can learn to control your own breathing with practice you can also learn to control and direct your thoughts 0 every negative thought produces a stress response in our bodies lntensity varies Types of Cognitive Distortions Chapter 9 1 allornone thinking absolute black or white categories 2 overgeneralization viewing a negative event as a never ending pattern of defeat 3 mental ltering dwell on negatives pessimism and ignoring positives discounting positives positive qualities quotdon t count jumping to conclusions mind readingfortunetelling thinking things with no evidence 6 magni cation or minimization blowing things out of proportion or minimizing importance emotional reasoning reasoning from how you feel quotshouldquot statements criticizing self or others with should would ought etc 9 labeling identifying your shortcomings 10 personalization and blame blaming yourself for something you re not entirely responsible for U39Ilgt CDI cognitive distortionsljcognitive restructuring cognitive distortions are 0 unrealistic thoughts 0 toxic thoughts 0 irrational thoughts 0 absolutes all or none thinking changing your appraisal of a situation to a less threatening perception 3 Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Restructuring 1 l have the capacity to choose what I think l have the capacity to choose an interpretation of a situation 2 lfl make any interpretation of a stimulus I can make another different one 3 l have the ability to turn negative thoughts into positive ones Techniques of Cognitive Restructuring Choosing Your Attitude 1 positive selftalk what do you say to yourself when something bad happens when you make a mistake or when someone upsets you a become an observer of your thoughts 2 imagery practice situations that you have already identi ed as potentially stressproducing 3 reframing replace the negative thought with a positive and more productive thought a quotManaging stress by changing the way you think b threatsljchallenges changing how you think about things will change the way you feel about things 4 thought stopping identify your negative selftalk Whenever a negative thought enters your mind visualize a big red stop sign and distract the thought from being processed further Cognitive Factors in Stress Pt 2 Becoming More of an Optimist explanatory styehow you de ne events 0 2 basic skills of optimism 0 think of positive events as being because of something you did a sign of more good things to come evidence that good things will happen in other areas of your life 0 think of negative events as isolated occurrences that have no bearing on future events or other areas of your life optimism can be learned 0 maximize your success and minimize time spent thinking about your failures 0 any failure can be a learning experience 0 look honestly at your shortcomings so you can work on them 0 but focus on your strengths more 4 Goals of Stress Management 1 increased awareness of your potential stressors and your reaction to them 2 awareness of the optimum level of stress for you 3 regulate the situations in your life which are potential stressors 4 reduce physiological arousal Seligman Ted Talk 0 positive psychology 0 psychology should be as connected with strengths as weakness concerned with repairing situations 0 measurement classi cation establishing causation 0 left hemisphere o extremely social happy 0 pleasantness 0 quotgood lifequot engagement 0 meaningful life 0 eudaimonia quotrightquot actions that lead to the wellbeing of an individual 3 Types of Happiness 1 Hollywood sense lling life with pleasant things 2 Engaged life absorbing activities and experiencing ow 3 Meaningful life lling life with purpose Positive Interventions Naughty thumb of science 0 Random assignment Placebo controlled 0 Long term 0 Examples 0 Plan and have a beautiful day 0 Gratitude visit saying thank you to someone One month of happiness 0 Strengths date you and bf show off strengths 0 Fun vs philanthropy 0 Write 3 good things about each day 6 months of happiness 0 using signature strengths in a new way 6 months of happiness 0 identifying signature strengths transient happiness Mental Imagery and Visualization Chapter 21 Visualization pictures in your mind Mental imagery broader term includes other senses smell touch hea ng You can either really eat a lemon or imagine eating a lemon using all of your senses Your brain and body will react the same way 0 Mental imagery and visualization can be used 0 In a positive way to activate the parasympathetic nervous system 0 Or in a negative way to create fearful consequences Types of Imagery Daydreaming MentalTrainingRehearsal 0 Used to create desired behavior such as better test performance 0 Setting a goal and visualizing yourself accomplishing it 0 Guided Imagery Using a prepared structured visualization o Directed journey 0 Positive and relaxing mental images Nature scenes Your own special place HypnosisSelf Hypnosis 0 Very deep levels of relaxation 0 Completely receptive frame of mind 0 Other examples of mental imagery and visualization 0 Systematic desensitization Associating deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasingly anxietyprovoking s uanns Replacement of stressful stimuli with more comfortable images Meditation Chapter 19 0 De nition the practice of solitary contemplation re ection on internal rather than external stimuli resulting in increased concentration and awareness 0 Think of nothingremove all thoughts from your mind 0 Produce an alternate state of consciousness Meditation is a group of techniques designed to Refocus attention 0 Narrow consciousness reduce sensory overload Yogis spend years in isolated retreat Secret selftransforming physical and mental exercises Control over mind and body 2 Points of Intervention 1 Relaxing by reducing sensory overload a narrow consciousness 2 cognitive problem solving a gaining new perspectives 3 Types of Meditation 1 Exclusive Meditation Restriction of consciousness Focus on a single thought Exclude all other thoughts o If your mind wanders genty bring it back 0 Example transcendental meditation TM 2 lncusive meditation 0 Free owing of thoughts 0 Mind wanders aimlessly 3 Passively accepting all thoughts 0 No attempt to control content Conscious mind accepts all thoughts 0 Detached observation all thoughts are treated objectively without judgment or evaluation 0 Example Zen meditation one with the world Mindfulness Meditation jon KabatZin Strive to focus on the present No thoughts of the past or the future No thoughts or opinions about what s going on Can be done sitting quietly or walking around 5 Components of any Meditation U39lbUUNH quiet environment minimize sensory stimulation mental device to focus on ex Candle ame comfortable position passivereceptive attitude I will improve regular practice Meditation benefits improved 0 immune function 0 blood pressure and other cardiovascular heart disease risk factors resting brain wave patterns ability to relax when overstressed concentration 0 sleep increased cortical thickness cortex of the brain 0 isn t caused by meditation but is correlated faster and more powerful gamma waves 0 associated with improvements in focus memory and learning increased awareness of whether you are tense or relaxed reducing level of ANS OOO Meditation Guidelines at least once per day destress time out not after eating body is busy digesting so you may get sleepy not associated with sleep 1020 minutes just do it don t make a big deal about when how or if you re good at it Mindfulness the state of being attentive to what is taking place in the present developed byJon KabatZinn from UMass blends basic meditation with Buddhist practices minus the religion heightened awareness of present moment rather than thinking about the past or the future momentbymoment awareness of what one experiences and feels paying attention to sounds breathing rhythms etc remember cartoon mindful vs mindfull Controlling Stress Trying very hard to control stress will in and of itself create stress What you don t do is just as important as what you do Gaining control by giving up control When the pupil is ready the teacher will come CommunicationAssertiveness Assertiveness the process of clearly and directly stating how you feel or what you want without infringing on the rights of others 0 neither passive nor aggressive diplomatic passive say nothing giving up your basic rights due to fear of con ict lack of communication skills etc assertive tell people how you feel and what you want aggressive demand what you want standing up for your rights at the expense of someone else s right 0 Passiveaggressive another form of aggressive indirectly expressing action by inaction Asserting yourself is no guarantee of happiness or even getting what you want The DES formula for assertive communication describing quotwhen youquot ex leave your dishes in the sink all day expressing quotI feelquot ex feel angry because specifying quotI would likequot or quotI would preferquot 0 have a solution in mind Your Perfect Right book about assertive communication you have the right to tell people how you feel and what you want underassertive assertive overassertive characteristi 1 passive 1 active 1 aggressive cs 2 submissive 2 direct hostile 3 constantly 3 selfcon dent 2 arrogant apologizes 3 belligerent 4 blames 4 blames 4 blames themselves nobody others 5 holds in feelings 5 expresses 5 sel sh one feelings and sided opinions to expression of others gives feeling honest feedback 6 voice barely 6 speaks 6 speaks loudly audible clearly 7 stares down 7 looks down or 7 sincere eye other person away contact consequence 8 rarely satisfying 8 reduces 8 more difficult s 9 self stress from for receiver to disappointing holding in reply to sender feelings 9 may produce 9 increased immediate selfesteem results but your feelings rarely satisfying are important con ict 10 avoids con ict 10 makes 10 encourages requests not con ict demands 11 usually win 11 best chance lose for winwin effectiveness ineffective effective temporarily in solving effective but problems negative social consequences Assertiveness is hard because 0 Fear of rejection 0 Fear of con ict 0 The need to be liked 0 Fear of appearing sel sh 0 Make sure your body re ects con dence stand up straight look people in the eye relax O O O 0 Use a rm but pleasant tone Don t assume you know what the other person s motives are especially if you think they re negative When in a discussion don t forget to listen and ask questions to understand the other person s point of view Try to think winwin compromise 0 Bene ts of Being Assertive 0 Fewer con icts from being passive 0 Less stress fewer unmet needs
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