Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 243 001
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlin Notetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Translation (end of Chapter 3) - Process of Translation (occurs in cytoplasm) • there are 3 RNAs involved in decoding the messenger RNA - 1. ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - forms part of the ribosome • remember: ribosomes = RNA + protein - 2. messenger RNA (mRNA) - contains the information for the sequence of amino acids for a specific protein • the code is a 3 nucleotide base code - 3 nucleotides is a codon • each arrangement decodes into a specific amino acid - 64 possible codons but only 20 amino acids (not a 1-1 correspondence) • 61 code for specific AA, 3 code for a stop signal for translation and the peptide will fall off (like a period at the end of the sentence) - codes are degenerate - more than one codon can code for the same amino acid - table of amino acid possibilities for each codon - figure 3.36 (slides) - 3. transfer RNA (tRNA) - has a clover-leaf structure • two important regions of the tRNA - 1. anticodon - complimentary to the codon • its the complimentary base (codon is A anticodon is U) to form base pair - 2. place where amino acid is attached different tRNA for different codons • • how does it work? - tRNA with attached growing polypeptide is bound to the ribosome - next tRNA (with its appropriate amino acid) will bind to adjacent site - peptide bond is formed - ribosome moves down the mRNA - when the ribosome comes to a stop sequence, there is no tRNA to bind to it, and the peptide will be released • only one specific tRNA works for each codon, no other tRNA will fit (like cinderella’s slippers) ▯ Tissues - Chapter 4 - there are two types of tissues: epithelial tissue and connective tissue - Epithelial Tissue • Characteristics: - sheet of cells that covers body surfaces or lines body cavities • located on “free surfaces” - functions: • protection, absorption, secretion, excretion, filtration and sensory reception - basement membrane is located directly below the cells • extracellular matrix - proteins and carbohydrates - barrier between cells and what is underneath - little intercellular space - cells are very close to each other and often touching - no blood vessels - capillaries are located near basement membrane • nutrients diffuse through basement membrane to supply epithelial tissue • Classification of Epithelia - each cell is classified by two names: layers present and shape • classifying by layers: - simple epithelia - one layer thick • all cells come in contact with basement membrane and free surface - stratified epithelia - the cells are in layers (thicker, stronger) • some cells touch basement membrane, some touch surface and some come in contact with neither - pseudostratified epithelia - some cells do not reach the surface but all come in contact with basement membrane • classifying by cell shapes - squamous cells - flat - columnar cells - taller than wide, like a column - cuboidal cells - shaped like a cube • classification types characteristics function location simple squamous▯ one layer thick of ﬂat diffusion and ﬁltration air sacs of lungs and in ▯ cells▯ where protection is not small thin capillaries▯ 1. endothelium ▯ important▯ 1. lining of blood 2. mesothelium vessels▯ 2. serous membranes and covering organs simple columnar one layer with tall cells secretion and regular - digestive tract, and lots of cytoplasm absorption; ciliated typegallbladder, excretory propels mucus▯ ducts of glands▯ ciliated - bronchi uterine tubes and uterus simple cuboidal one layer and cells secretion and salivary glands, sweat shaped like a cube with absorption glands, ovaries and lots of cytoplasm kidney tubules stratiﬁed squamous thick epithelium where protection where friction skin, mouth, vagina and the top layer is ﬂat takes place anus pseudostratiﬁed ciliated secrete mucus and respiratory tract and columnar propulsion of mucus sinuses transitional can change shape and stretching properties bladder and ureter stretch • Classifying by Location - mucus membranes - secretes mucin (slimy stuff that enables surface to be moist and slippery ) • goblet cells found here - synthesize and secrete mucin - cutaneous membrane - found in the “skin” - serous membrane - combination of connective and epithelial tissues • like a water balloon • outer wall is made up of simple squamous • surrounds heart, stomach, intestines, liver - glandular epithelium - • 1. endocrine glands - not connected to a free surface, secretions are absorbed into the blood stream - when they are absorbed into the blood, then transported through the rest of the body • 2. exocrine glands - directly connected to a free surface, act locally - sweat glands - connected to skin and deposit sweat onto skin but doesn't affect eye balls (local) - 3 classifications according to mode of secretion • merocrine - secretions pass through the membrane (exocytosis) and cell is not harmed - ex: sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas (with digestive juices), etc • holocrine - accumulate secretion and basically die and release the substance - ex: sebaceous glands - secretes seban (fatty, oil like substance) • apocrine - a part of the cell will bud off - ex: mammary glands - Classifying by structure • duct structure - 1. simple - duct does not branch • intestinal glands - 2. compound - duct branches • stomach glands • structure of the secretory parts - 1. tubular - does not branch • oil glands - 2. alveolar - duct branches • mammary and salivary glands - Connective Tissue • general characteristics: - location: many places throughout the body • fat, tendons, fills body spaces, attaches skin to the rest of the body - functions: varies based on makeup and location • protection, support, binds, things together, storage of fat - characteristics • very abundant - lots in our bodies • cells are not close together, widely spaced • good blood supply - lots of blood vessels going through the tissue - makeup: • cells - different types of cells in the different types of connective tissue • extracellular matrix - ground substance - could be very watery or very hard - fibers - different types of connective tissues have different amounts of each type of fibers • 1. collagenous fibers - made of collagen, large, strong, white • 2. reticular fibers - relatively short and branched • 3. elastic fibers - can stretch and coil - different types: • connective tissue proper and cartilage - A) Connective Tissue Proper • made up of fibroblasts that make and secrete the proteins that make up the different types of fiber (or extracellular matrix) Coonnecctvev matrix cells function location Tissue Propper loose connective 1. watery brown 1. ﬁbroblasts, 1. binds skin to 1. under most tissue ▯ substance and macrophages underlying epithelia▯ 1. areolar▯ all three ﬁber and mast cells▯ tissues, 2. under skin; 2. adipose▯ types - mainly 2. closely packed surrounds around kidneys 3. reticular collagenous▯ adipocytes (fat blood vessels and eye balls▯ 2. very sparse cells)▯ and ﬁlls body 3. lymphoid ﬁbers; all three3. reticular cells spaces▯ organs (lymph types present▯ 2. fat provides nodes, bone 3. reticular ﬁbers food fuel , marrow and in a loose insulates, spleen) ground cushions and substance supports▯ 3. forms soft internal skeleton Connective matrix cells function location Tissue Proper dense connective 1. parallel 1. ﬁbroblasts▯ 1. attaches 1. tendons and tissue▯ collagen ﬁbers 2. ﬁbroblasts muscle to bone most ligaments▯ 1. regular▯ and few elastic and bone to 2. ﬁbrous 2. irregular▯ ﬁbers; very bone▯ capsules of 3. elastic strong▯ 2. withstands joints and 2. irregularly tension in organs and interwoven different dermis of skin▯ collagen ﬁbers▯ directions - 3. walls of large 3. large amounts structural arteries, of elastic ﬁbers strength▯ vertebral 3. allows recoil, column maintains ligaments, blood ﬂow vocal cords through and walls of arteries and bronchial tubes aids lung recoil - B) Cartilage • characteristics: - made of of chondroblast cells (immature) and chondrocytes (mature) - has a little bit of “give” unlike bones (hyaline) • extracellular matrix - ground substance is made of chondrin - firm, hard but pliable - holes in the cartilage - lacunae • contains the cells • no direct blood supply - there is a membrane surrounding known as the perichondrium which contains blood vessels - nutrients must diffuse into the cartilage and waste diffuses out • three types of cartilage: hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage characteristics ﬁbers function location hyaline cartilage ﬁrm but pliable, collagenous supports and coastal cartilage glassy appearance ﬁbers reinforces - (attaches ribs to resilient and sternum)▯ cushioning, resists reticular cartilage compressive (provides smooth stress surface for joints)▯ trachea (when we breathe in air, air comes in without collapsing)▯ forms most of embryonic skeleton ﬁbrocartilage compressible like a collagenous absorb intervertebral discs - if mattress and elastic compressive shock you jump, it compresses ﬁbers (absorbs shock) then goes back to normal shape elastic cartilage allows a lot of many elastic allows ﬂexibility but external ear▯ ﬂexibility ﬁbers (some still maintains epiglottis collagenous) shape and structure The Integumentary System - Chapter 5 - consists of skin, hair, nails, glands, nerves (associated with the skin) - general functions - where our body meets the outside world • protection: - from bacteria - cannot enter unless there is a wound in the skin - from UV from the sun • waterproof - outside water rolls off, keeps the water we need inside without evaporation regulation of body temperature • - sweating to cool down • can excrete substances like NaCl and urea▯ • involved in sensation with the nerves▯ • vitamin D production - essential for absorption of nutrients▯ - two major parts of the skin - epidermis and dermis▯ • epidermis - made up of epithelial tissue (stratiﬁed squamous)▯ - cells of the epidermis ▯ • keratinocytes - comprising cells▯ - produces keratin for protective functions▯ melanocytes - produces melanin for skin pigmentation and protection from UV▯ • • dendritic cells “langerhan’s cells” - large role in phagocytosis and immune system function▯ • tactile cells “merkel’s cells” - attached to nerve endings▯ - are a sensory receptor for touch▯ - layers of the epidermis▯ • stratum basale - deepest layer▯ - most active in keratinocyte cell reproduction (division)▯ • stratum spinosum▯ - ﬁlls up with keratin immediate ﬁlaments▯ • stratum granulosum▯ - ﬁlls up with various lipids▯ • stratum lucidum - extra layer▯ - only found in thick skin - palms and soles▯ • stratum corneum ▯ - contains dead cells: keratin is inside cells and lipids in between cells▯ • dermis▯ - made up of 2 layers: papillary and reticular▯ - a) papillary layer - most superﬁcial ▯ • contains papillae - indentations where nerves and capillaries are found▯ • made of areolar tissue▯ - b) reticular layer - deep to papillary▯ • comprised of dense irregular connective tissue ▯ • hypodermis - deep to the skin (epidermis and dermis)▯ - consists of areolar connective and adipose tissue▯ - anchors skin to underlying structures▯ - Glands Associated with the Skin▯ • sweat glands and sebaceous glands▯ • Sweat Glands▯ - 1. eccrine sweat glands - merocrine mode of secretion▯ • produces the sweat deposited directly onto the skin▯ - secretes water, sodium chloride and urea▯ • located all over the body (except on hips, nipples and external genetalia)▯ • cooling purposes and cold sweats▯ - 2. apocrine sweat glands - merocrine mode of secretion▯ • secrete fatty, oily substance ▯ - secrete into hair follicles, not directly onto skin▯ • found in armpits, external genetalia, scrotum▯ - 3. ceruminous sweat glands - apocrine mode of secretion▯ • secrete cerumin “earwax”▯ • sebaceous glands▯ - secrete sebum (oily substance)▯ • secreted into hair follicles▯ - functions: ▯ keeps skin from drying out, slightly toxic to bacteria▯ • • acne is an infection to the sebaceous gland▯ - mode of secretion is holocrine - cells ﬁll up with oily substance and bursts▯ - hair ▯ • hair follicle ▯ • shaft - part of the hair that “sticks up” out of the skin▯ • root - in the epidermis▯ • bulb - deepest part of the follicle (most important part) ▯ - hair matrix - contains dividing cells ▯ - things that can go wrong with the skin▯ burns ▯ • - ﬁrst degree burn - skin is reddened: a mild sunburn ▯ • only the epidermis is affected▯ - second degree burn - reddened and blistered▯ • epidermis and dermis are affected▯ - third degree burn - ▯ • epidermis and entire dermis are destroyed - can only regenerate from the edges▯ • bacteria has direct contact with inside of body and infection is easy to occur▯ • tumorous carcinomas▯ - basale cell carcinoma - arises from basale layer of epidermis ▯ central ulcer on the outside of the skin ▯ • • will invade if not surgically removed▯ - squamous cell carcinoma - arises from stratum spinosum ▯ • presents as a raised, reddened elevation (sometimes with other pigmentation)▯ - sometimes will metastasize - can burrough through dermis and move to other parts of skin▯ • can be cured with surgery and proper drugs▯ - malignant melanoma - arise from melanocytes (cells that produce melanin)▯ • pigmented: black, blue red; asymmetrical; indentations around border; large▯ • can spread rapidly and are very dangerous▯ ▯ ▯ Skeletal System - 206 bones in the human body • the skeleton is divided into two portions: - 1. axial skeleton - comprised of the skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage • forms longitudinal axis; supports head, neck and trunk; and protects brain, spinal cord and thoracic organs - 2. appendicular skeleton - comprised of the bones of the limbs and their girdles • each limb is composed of 3 major segments connected by movable joints - characteristics: • endoskeleton - skeletons is inside the body (exo is like a cockroach) • bones are a connective tissue - cells found in bone: - osteoblasts - synthesize bone - osteocytes - bone cells - osteoclasts - breakdown bone • extracellular matrix - what surrounds the cells - ground substance - consists of various salts: calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate • hard and resists compression - various fibers: many collagenous fibers to provide tensile strength - classification of bones: • according to structure - long bones - arm, forearm, leg and thigh - flat bones - skull, ribs and sternum - short bones - carpals and tarsals - irregular bones - vertebrae • long bone - epiphysis - “head” of long bones • proximal (closer to origin) and distal (farther from origin) - diaphysis - shaft of the long bones • hollow and contains yellow bone marrow - fat - articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage on the surface of epiphyses - periosteum - connective tissue membrane that surrounds bone • inner layer is rich with osteoblasts - endosteum - lining on the inside that separates bone and bone marrow • types of bone structure - compact bone and spongy bone - compact bone - on the surface of all bones • few air spaces, very dense, very strong • organization: supplied with nutrients because of highly organized structure which allows nerves and blood vessels to run through - osteon (Haversian) system - group of parallel hollow tubes of bone matrix • central (Haversian) canal - blood vessels and nerves that run through osteons • nutrients diffuse through cracks (canaliculus) to supply the cells (osteocytes) with amino acids and oxygen • lamellae - different layers of bone - spongy bone - on the inside of bones except diaphysis • many air spaces, weaker than compact - help bones to resist stress • location of red bone marrow - hemophoiesis - red blood cell formation • no osteons but cells are present in lacunae - yellow bone marrow - located on inside of diaphysis • fat (not really bone) - Bone Development • 1. endochondral ossification - the hyaline cartilage of the embryonic skeleton is constructed to bone - hyaline cartilage will degenerate (die) and the membrane (perichondrium) is converted into a periosteum • a) a bony collar forms around the diaphysis (shaft) on the outside of the hyaline cartilage model, encasing it • b) cartilage inside diaphysis calcifies and develops cavities which will form spongy bone • occurs outside to inside - formation for nearly all bones in the body - except skull and facial bones • 2. intramembraneous ossification - starts with a matrix of fibers (mostly collagenous); osteoblasts invade matrix of fibers and makes spongy bone • then remodeled and compact bone forms • occurs from inside to outside • increase in the length of long bones - before birth, diaphysis are ossified (converted to bone) - after birth, epiphyses are ossified • leaves plate of hyaline cartilage between diaphysis and epiphysis - epiphyseal plate “growth plate” - cells in the growth zone are triggered by growth hormones to divide rapidly to lengthen long bone - the surrounding cartilage will calcify then ossify to produce new bone and growth • complications with epiphyseal plate - pituitary giant - continued release of growth hormone and growth of epiphyseal plate - pituitary dwarf - stopped release of growth hormone too early and long bones are shorter than normal • remodeling - bones are continually being broken down and rebuilt - occurs by remodeling packets that contain osteoclasts (break down bone) and osteoblasts (synthesize bone) • osteoclasts - erode bone by creating an acidic environment which dissolves calcium and establishes conditions where bone will break down • bone deposition - organic layer (glycoproteins, collagen, elastic fibers) are laid down first • mineralization - various calcium precipitates are laid down - processes active in controlling remodeling • hormonal mechanisms - keeps calcium levels in blood maintained - if calcium levels decrease, parathyroid hormone is released by parathyroid gland that stimulates the osteoclasts to enhance breakdown of bone in order to release calcium into the blood - if calcium levels increase, calcitonin is released by the thyroid to inhibit osteoclasts • response to stress - stress has a signaling pathway for bone to be deposited to strengthen - what can go wrong with bone • rickets - vitamin D deficiency - D is necessary for the consumption of calcium and phosphorous which forms and strengthens bones • osteoporosis - balance of breakdown and synthesizing (not synthesizing, just breakdown) - bones become brittle and beak easily, loss of bone mass - most common in post-menopausal females • fractures - types: • simple - bones are broken into two pieces (in half) • compound - (one of more) of bones are protruding through the skin • comminuted - splintering (broken into lots of pieces) • depressed - bones are pushed inward (in skull) - healing - occurs in stages • 1. hematoma (blood clot) is formed • 2. fibroblast and chondroblasts invade and generate a fibrocartilaginous callus • 3. osteoblasts invade to form a bony callus (similar to spongy bone) • 4. bone remodeling takes place and • compact bone is deposited on outside ▯ Joints: Part A - Articulations▯ • factors that involve movement▯ - structure ▯ - bones are held together by ligaments▯ - muscle tension ▯ • movement that occurs at a joint (amount)▯ - synarthroses - no movement▯ - amphiarthroses - slight movement▯ - diarthroses - permits a lot of movement ▯ • structure of the joint▯ - ﬁbrous joints - bones held together by just ligaments▯ • dense regular connective tissue▯ • no joint cavity▯ - cartilaginous - joints are made of cartilage (of various types in different joints)▯ • no joint cavity▯ - synovial - has a joint cavity▯ - ﬁbrous joints▯ • A) sutures - bones of the skull▯ - not held tightly early on in a baby’s life ▯ • fontanelles - “soft spot” on a baby’s head that allows the head to slightly override during vaginal birth▯ - hardens by around 18 months▯ • synostosis - totally fused in adults ▯ - synarthroses - no movement allowed (after hardening)▯ • B) syndesmoses - held together by a ligament ▯ - held together by dense regular tissue▯ - occurs between tibia and ﬁbula▯ • synarthroses - allows no movement▯ - ; radius and ulna▯ • amphiarthroses - little movement ▯ - cartilaginous joints▯ • A) synchondroses - hyaline cartilage joints▯ - temporary one between epiphysis and diaphysis ▯ - coastal cartilage - sternum and ribs▯ • B) symphyses - ﬁbrocartilage joints▯ - in between vertebrae ▯ - amphiarthroses - little movement▯ - synovial joints ▯ • permits different types of movement ▯ - movements are often in pairs:▯ • ﬂexion (decreases angle) and extension (increases angle) between two bones▯ - dorsiﬂexion and plantar ﬂexion (respectively) - angles between foot and leg▯ • abduction (moving away from midline) and adduction (towards midline) ▯ - abduction - moving arms from side to “T” position ▯ • circumduction - formation of a cone▯ - moving ﬁnger in circular motion while shoulder stays in place - cone▯ • rotation - movement around an axis▯ - twisting arm▯ • elevation (raising or closing jaw) and depression (dropping jaw)▯ • supination (outward rotation) and pronation (inward rotation)▯ - supination - twisting hand up & pronation - twisting hand down▯ • structure of synovial joints▯ - surfaces of bones with synovial joints has articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) ▯ - articular capsule ▯ • ﬁbrous capsule - on outside ▯ • synovial membrane - faces the inside and secretes synovial ﬂuid that ﬁlls joint▯ - sometimes you have an articular disc - made of ﬁbrocartilage▯ • acts as a cushion▯ • ex: in the knee▯ - bursae - ﬂuid ﬁlled sacs located between skin and bone, tendon and bone or ligament and bone▯ • reduces friction▯ • when they become inﬂamed, results is bursitis ▯ - restricts simple movements ▯ - tendon sheaths - wraps around a tendon ▯ • when they become inﬂamed, result is tendonitis ▯ - various individual joints ▯ • plane joints - non axial joints ▯ - ligaments determines movements▯ • can move in all different directions - ▯ - examples: between carpals; tarsals; metacarpals and carpals▯ • uniaxial joints ▯ - allows movement in one plane▯ • allows only extension and ﬂexion▯ - A) hinge joint▯ • the elbow, knee, phalanges▯ - B) pivot joint ▯ • rotation around an axis ▯ • ex: betweens ﬁrst and second vertebrae so we can move our heads; proximal joint between the radius and ulna ▯ • biaxial joint▯ - A) condyloid - between the radius and carpals; metacarpals and phalanges▯ • allows movement in two planes ▯ • allows ﬂexion and extension; adduction and abduction; circumduction▯ - B) saddle joint - found between carpal and metacarpal on the thumb▯ • multiaxial joint “ball and socket joint”▯ - allows all movement▯ - found in shoulders and hips ▯ - What can go wrong with joints▯ • arthritis - inﬂammation of a joint ▯ - osteoarthritis - “wear and tear” arthritis that people get with aging▯ • articular cartilage will degenerate so bone spurs can develop which will cause whole joint to swell up and cause problems▯ - rheumatoid arthritis - considered an autoimmune disease▯ • the body will attack the synovial membrane and “gunk” will form in joint called pannas which will restrict movement▯ - pannas can become calciﬁed ▯ - deformities are associated with this ▯ - gouty arthritis - uric acid crystals are deposited in joints ▯ • usually occurs in big toe - generates inﬂammatory response and is very painful▯ • genetic
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