Exam Review Guide (One)
Exam Review Guide (One) AST 111
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Childers on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AST 111 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Christopher Sirola in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see General Astronomy in Physics 2 at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
De nitions Universe Astronomy Light Year Theory Theoretical Model Scienti c Method Hypothesis Constellations Celestial Sphere Rotation Celestial poles Celestial Equator Solar Day Diurnal Motion Sidereal Day Revolution Ecliptic Zodiac Summer Solstice Winter Solstice Seasons Equinoxes Tropical Year Precession Sidereal Year Phases Exam One Study Guide Astronomy Echse Umbra Prenumbra Triangulation Parallax Azimuth Hodzon Zen h Altitude Meridian Right Ascension DecHnann Cosmology Retrograde Motion Geocentric Epicycle Deferent Ptolemaic Model Heliocentric Nicolaus Copernicus Copernican Revolution Galileo Galilie James Bradley Aberration of Starlight Friedrich Bessal Johannes Kepler Tycho Brahe Ellipse Focus foci Semimajor Axis Eccentricity Sidereal Orbital Pedod Astronomical Unit Radar Empirical Science Isaac Newton Newtonian mechanics Newton s 1st law Weight lnertia Mass Velocity Gravity Gravitational Force Escape Speed Unbound Questions 1 Construct a table showing Earths positioning terms and the celestial equivalent 2 What are the characteristics of a theory 3 Explain the method of Triangulation 4 Give an example of a parallax 5 List Kepler s three laws of planetary motion 6 Draw an ellipse and label the parts 7 What is the de nition of an Astronomical Unit and what does this mean 8 What is the difference between empirical and experimental science give examples of when each has been used historically 9 What are the phases of the moon 10 What is the cause of Earths seasons 11 Describe the different forms of eclipses 12 What is retrograde motion and what is its true cause Study Guide For Exam One Astronomy Answers De nitions Universe is the total of space time matter and energy Astronomy is the study of all the universe Light year distance travelled by light in a year inside the void of space 0 About 6 trillion miles Theory the framework of ideas and assumptions used to explain some set of observations and make predictions about the real world Theoretical Model prediction based on phenomenon that accounts for all of its known properties Scienti c Method process for combining theoretical reasoning with experimental testing Hypothesis one possible explanation of observed facts Constellations perceived patterns and relationships among the stars Celestial sphere a canopy of stars resembling an astronomical painting on a heavenly ceiling Rotation spin Celestial poles points where Earth s axis intercepts the celestial sphere Celestial equator representation of the Earth s equatorial plain in relation to the celestial sphere Solar day 24 hours as measured by the earths rotation Diurnal motion daily progress of the sun across the sky Sidereal day a day measured by the stars varies in length Revolution journey around the sun Ecliptic motion of the earth around the sun not quiet a circle Zodiac 12 major constellations Summer solstice the point at which the sun is at its north most point about the celestial equator Winter solstice point at which the sun is at the southern most point relative to the celestial equator Seasons the mark in temperature differences in various months caused by the Earth s rotational axis Equinoxes equal day and night two points where the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator Tropical year the interval of time between on vernal equinox to the next Precession caused by twisting forces on Earth due to the gravitational effects of the moon and sun Sidereal year time required for Earth to complete one orbit around the sun Phases regular cycle of changes moon Eclipse when the moon and sun line up perfectly as seen that the moon crosses in front of the sun Umbra the region of space the moon s shadow needs to occupy for an eclipse to be seen Prenumbra region of space the moon can occupy for a partial eclipse to be seen Triangulation distance measurement method based on the principles of Euclidean geometry and nds widespread appHcann Parallax the apparent displacement of a foreground object relative to the background as the observer s location changes Azimuth angle of object around horizon Horizon divides Earth from sky Zenith directly above ones head Altitude angle of object above horizon 090 Meridian divides east from west Right Ascension o Longitude 0 East west position 0 Divide full circle into 24 quothour anglesquot rather than 360degrees 0 Thus the object moves one hour per hour 0 Goes from 0 to 24 DecHnann o Latitude North south position Uses degrees Goes from 90 degrees NCP through 0 degrees CE and to 90 SCP Cosmology the study of the workings of the universe on the largest scale Retrograde motion motion in the westward sense backwards loops Geocentric the earth at the center and the planetssunmoon revolve around it Epicycle a uniform circle orbit Deferent larger orbits which they themselves orbit the smaller epicycle Ptolemaic model one of the rst explanatory models of the universe requiring a series of no fewer than 80 distinct circles Heliocentric sun centered model of the universe Nicolaus Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric model of the universe Copernican Revolution critical realization that Earth is not the center of the universe COO Galileo Galilie observational scientist which proved the heliocentric theory James Bradley rst to prove the Earth revolves around the sun discovered the aberration of starlight Aberration of Starlight a slight 20 shift in the observed direction of a star caused by the Earth s motion perpendicular to slanted tracks on the line of sight Friedrich Bessal proved the Earth s orbital motion with use of stellar parallax 1838 Johannes Kepler developed the laws of planetary motion Tycho Brahe observational astronomer who recorded great detail the motions of the planets Ellipse simply a attened circle like an oval Focusfoci the x within the oval Semimajor axis half the length of the long axis Eccentricity of an ellipse is simply a measure of how attened it is zero means perfect circle Sidereal orbital Period the time needed for the planet to complete one circle around the sun Astronomical unit the semimajor axis of Earth s orbit around the sun Radar Radio Detection and ranging using radio waves to detect astronomical bodies Empirical science resulting from only the analysis of observational data and not from theory or mathematical model Isaac Newton developed a deeper understanding of the way all objects move and interact with each other Newtonian mechanics three basic laws of motion gravity explained the behavior of the universe Frist law a moving object will move forever unless acted upon by some external force push or pull which alters the speed or direction of the motion Weight the force which gravity pulls towards the earth lnertia tendency of an object to keep moving at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by a force Mass total amount of matter the object contains Velocity constant motion in constant direction Acceleration change in speed or direction Gravity prevents objects from zooming into space Gravitational force force attractive between to objects with mass Center of mass average position of all the matter making up two bodies Escape speed speed at which gravity can be surpassed Unbound escaped objects which no longer orbit in an ellipse Questions 1 Construct a table showing Earths positioning terms and the celestial equivalent Earth s Term Celestial Term North Pole North Celestial Pole Equator Celestial Equator South Pole South Celestial Pole Longitude Right Ascension Latitude Declination Path of Sun Ecliptic 2 What are the characteristics of a theory a Testable the theory must admit to the possibility of being proven right or wrong b Must continually be tested c Should be simple should not be more complex than necessary d Elegance naturally ties together and explains several phenomena previously though to be completely distinct 3 Explain the method of Triangulation You are observing a tree from across the eld the tree looks only a little taller than you are so you wonder how far away it is Well without actually measuring your distance to the tree you decide to use the method of Triangulation First stand at one marked position and observe the tree next move to another position on the same line parallel to the tree and observe Now if you simply take the distance from position 1 to 2 the baseline and use the difference in the angles of both relative to the tree you can calculate the distance from yourself to the tree 4 Give an example of a parallax An example of a parallax is that of an observer in a moving car from your window you see a man sitting under a tree right in front of the door of a building As you pass the man his position relative to the building appears to move sideways until he is in line with the corner of the building or not even aligned with the building A parallax is an apparent change in an objects position even if the observed object is not moving 5 List Kepler s three laws of planetary motion a All planets orbit the sun in a ellipse where the sun is located at one focus b The planets sweep out equal area in equal amounts of time during their orbits c The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ration of the cubes of their average distances from the sun 6 Draw an ellipse and label the parts The X s are the foci and the line m Semimajor axis 7 What is the de nition of an Astronomical Unit and what does this mean The de nition of Astronomical Unit is the Earth s semimajor axis in its orbit of the sun or the average distance from the earth to the sun 8 What is the difference between empirical and experimental science give examples of when each has been used historically Empirical Science is the analysis of observational data and experimental science is the analysis of theory and mathematical models An excellent example of the two are Tycho and Kepler Tycho only observed the heavens w observations math and experimen workings of the planets camel Waning dresciqt 9 What are the phases of the moo New Waxing growing Crescent 39 First Quarter Waxing Gibbous full Waning shrinking Gibbous La st q ua rte r Wa n i ng Crescent Fquot 30n2 39 waxingbrace n1 I t 39 WaxliquotrcibbQ Us 39 First QLiarter39 10 What is the cause of Earths seasons Earth s seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth whether toward or away from the sun The earths tilt is 23 12 degrees relative to the plane of its orbit 11 1 2 3 4 5 12 Describe the different forms of eclipses Solar Eclipse sun is covered by the moon Lunar Eclipse the moon is covered by the earth s shadow Total all of object is covered Annular ring most of object is covered except for a ring a round the object Partial some of object is covered What is retrograde motion and what is its true cause Retrograde motion is the apparent backwards motion of the planets along their orbits it is simply an illusion created by the perception of the earth when it overtakes passes the speci c planet in its orbit
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