Test one study guide
Test one study guide BIOL 1000 - 001
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BIOL 1000 - 001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Matthew Aaron Kearley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 1 Characteristics of a living organism Organization Acquire and use energy Reproduce sexuallyasexually Adjust to surroundings hotsweat codshiver Maintain homeostasis temp pH etc Grow and develop Can adapt to their surroundings NP P PP N Science collection of insights that agree with each other about nature Scienti c sources 0 Most reliable peer reviewed works such as our book 0 Least reliable TV magazines ex Nat Geo internet Theory something that has been tested repeatedly and observed and believed to be true based off consistent results Hypothesis the basis for testing something as the book puts it quota tentative explanation for the natural eventquot 11 Madder Windelspecht Scienti c Method 1 Observation observe something 2 Hypothesis ask a question why something is the way it is and make an educated guess as to why 3 Experiment come up with a way of testing what the possible causes of an occurrence a Create a control then in uence the experiment by manipulating the independent variables to see what the dependent variable does 4 Conclusion look at your ndings and decide whether or not your original hypothesis was accurate Example this is TOTALLY made up 1 Observation some blood hounds are more wrinkly then others and I want to know why 2 Hypothesize this is probably because their mom was bigger than their dad 3 Experiment pick several pairs of male and female blood hounds a The control is an average sized mom and average sized dad b Then pair several of the larger females with several of the average males and several of the below average males c See how wrinkly their puppies are d The independent variable is the size of the parents e The dependent variable how wrinkly the puppies are 4 Conclusion the puppies wrinkliness made up work is not determined by the parents size but perhaps it39s determined by the wrinkliness of the parents new experiment Chapter 2 Atom broken down 0 Made up of protons neutrons and electrons o Protons have a positive charge found in nucleus determine the atomic number 0 Neutrons neutray charged found in nucleus atomic mass number is number of protons the number of neutrons o Electrons negatively charged rotate around the nucleus need 2 on the inner most shell and 8 on each shell after that will borrow take or share electrons in order to succeed at this Element broken down Boron Atomic number of 5 0 Atomic mass of 11 0 And a positive 2 charge 0 This means it has 5 protons because the atomic number is the same as the number of protons o It has 6 neutrons because the atomic mass atomic number number of neutrons 1156 0 Number of electrons is 3 because whatever number is subtracted from the atomic number to equal the given charge is the number of electrons 5e2 gt 532 e3 note that if it is an isotope there is no charge and so the protons and electrons are equal That kind of threw me for a loop when I was studying so remember that ions has a difference in charge negative or positive and isotopes have no difference in charge Example of determining number of electrons on each ring Potassium has 19 electrons so has 2 on the rst ring 8 on the second and third and one on the forth Gold Au has an atomic number of 79 and an atomic mass of 197 how many protons and neutrons does it have Subtract number 79 from mass 197 to get the number of neutrons 118 and of course remember that the number of protons is equal to the atomic number so the protons are equal to 79 Just to throw this in there for practice gold also has a 1 charge so 79e1 gt 79801 so it has 80 electrons lsotope one element in multiple forms with various number of neutrons Radioactive isotopes are radioactive because they are constantly loosing neutrons in your book it gives a better explanation on page 21 top left paragraph 7 Diagram and describe molecules that represent covalent bonding ionic bonding polar covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding Covalent bonds share electrons to complete their outer shell lonic bonds they take electrons from other elements 0 Polar covalent bonds share electrons but the electrons more attracted to the element with the bigger nucleus I remember it by in a football game the biggest guy has to have lots of people on him to stop him I realize this is not how football works but you get the point or could use the example of the big strong guy in high school was always surrounded by the most girls 0 Hydrogen bond weakest bond when hydrogen atoms in one H20 molecule are attracted to the oxygen atom of another H20 molecule through polarity Solute something dissolved by a solvent Solvent something that dissolves a solute Solution a mixture of two substances made by a solute being dissolved by a solvent Water properties 1 Has a high speci c heat takes a long time for water to become the temperature of the air around it 2 Surface tension 3 Less dense when frozen then when in its liquid form this is why it oats If the pH is below 7 it39s an acid if the pH is above 7 it is a base When pH is below 7 the H hydrogen ion concentration is more than the OH hydroxide concentration this is reversed for bases when the pH is above 7 pH is important because if living organisms don39t keep their pH from 68 they could slip into comma and die Carbon is the basic building block for all life and is important because it can bond with four other elements Functional groups are necessary for chemical reactions because they always react the same way 0 Hydroxyl takes the form of OH Carbonyl 30 Carboxyl has CO and a single bond to OH 0 Amino look for an N as in amiNo N with two hydrogen bound with a two single bonds Phosphate has a P with two OH and two 0 one of the O39s is bound with a double bond there is a diagram of these on page 29 Monomer single pieces that combine together to make more complex molecule Polymer monomers strung together Carbohydrates characteristics 1 Have H C OH with a ration of hydrogen to oxygen that is 21 Importance of carbohydrates 0 Act as structural support in insects chitin and trees cellulous Energy storage in animals Dehydration synthesis combining multiple monomers to create a polymer Hydrolysis the breaking apart of polymers into monomers by using water Lipid characteristics 1 Hydrophobic do not dissolve in water Importance of lipids Important for delivering steroids 0 Make up the membrane that determine what goes in and out of cells 0 Makes up fatty acids Types of lipids Fatty acids 0 Saturated fats carbon atoms do not have a double covalent bond between them 0 Unsaturated fats whenever the number of hydrogens is less than two per every carbon there is a double covalent bond between the carbons page 33 gives a better example Phospholipids have a phosphate group they are important because they form the phospholipid bilayer that surround cells and allow or disallow things from going in and out of the cell Steroids contain four carbon rings Protein characteristics 1 Made up of amino acid monomers Importance of proteins 0 They support everything from ligaments to skin 0 Make up enzymes so that the cell can work on a chemical level 0 They speed chemical reactions 0 Create hormones DNA determines a persons appearance contains the genetic information from both the mother and the father and replicates itself to create an organism blue prints RNA receives the instructions from DNA on protein organization blue print reader Chapter 3 Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Ces Archaea or bacteria Everything else No nuclei Nuclei DNA storage Single ceed Many are muticeuar Anaerobic most don39t need oxygen Most need oxygen No organees Has organees Parts of the Cytoskeleton Actin filaments provide structure just under the plasma membrane where they latch onto proteins that hold them in place 0 Intermediate filaments aso structural ropelike and are different depending on the type of tissue Microtubules small hollow cylinders Centrioles plants AND animals have these do most of the organizing of microtubules Cilia amp Flagella hair like structures that move the cell pages 5759 are super hepfu
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