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MSU - BIO 3014 - Exam 2 Study Material - Study Guide

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MSU - BIO 3014 - Exam 2 Study Material - Study Guide

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background image Physiology Exam Study Guide 2  1.  Everything an animal does involves _________  a.  Food 
b.  Energy 
c.  Communication 
d.  Reproduction 
2.  Animal signals that are conducted outside of the body are?  a.  Sounds 
b. scents  
c. chemicals 
d. a and b 
3.  Animal signals conducted within the body are?  a.   Chemical 
b.  Nervous 
c.  Electrical 
d.  A and c 
4.  What is the correct order of cell signaling?  1.  Production of a signal in/on a cell (signaling cell) 
2.  Transport of that signal to a target cell (chemical messenger) 
3.  The messenger binds to a receptor to give the signal into the target cell to create a 
response  a.  1,3,2 
b.  2,3,1 
c.  3, 1, 2 
d.  1, 2, 3 
5.  What are the types of direct signaling?  a.  Gap junctions 
b.  Connexins  
c.  All of the above 
d.  None of the above 
6.  Which is not a form of indirect signaling?  a.  Autocrine signaling- signals to self 
b.  Paracrine signaling- signals to cell close by 
c.  Endocrine signaling- uses circulatory system to carry signals long distances through 
the body  d.  pituitary signaling- uses nervous tissue to signal  7.  What messenger is secreted by a neuron but acts like a hormone?  a.  Neurohormones 
b.  Hormones 
c.  Vesicles 
d.  Cytokinins 
8.  The most important distinction among the different systems  is the  
background image a.  Method that they are created by the body 
b.  The distance that a messenger must travel between cells, and the speed of 
communication between cells  c.  All of the above 
d.  None of the above 
9.  What type of messengers can diffuse freely across cell membrane?  a.  Hydrophobic 
b.  Hydrophilic 
c.  Peptide 
d.  None of the above 
10. Not all hormones are perceived by cell surface receptors; most are recognized by  intracellular receptors, they are synthesized from cholesterols and are commonly referred 
to as ____ 
a.  Cortisols  
b.  Aminos 
c.  Steroid hormones 
d.  Secretions 
11. Process of cell signaling:  1.  Extracellular signaling molecule (1 st  messenger) recognized by receptor  2.  Forms chains of molecules (cascades) where each molecule passes the message to  the next until the cascade reaches the final signal that causes the cell event  3.  Leads to production of small transient signaling inside the cell (2 nd  messenger)  4.  Leads to alter activity of the next component of the transduction pathway  a.  4,3,2,1 
b.  3,2,4,1 
c.  1,4,3,2 
d.  1,3,4,2 
12. Which is not one of the four criteria of a functioning receptor:  a.  Has to be specific 
b.  The binding affinity must be high enough to detect the ligand in the concentration 
found around the cell  c.  It must be able to transmit its message into the cell 
d.  It needs to remain on once the message is received and acted on  
13. A ligand that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor  a.  Agonist 
b.  Antagonist 
14. A ligand that binds to a receptor and does not activate the receptor  a.  Antagonist 
b.  Agonist 
15. What results from greater intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor, it  involves a longer residence time for the ligand at its receptor binding site, it is often 
physiologically important binding energy that can be used to cause a conformational 
change in the receptor 
background image a.  Low- affinity ligand binding 
b.  Medium- affinity ligand binding 
c.  High-affinity ligand binding 
d.  All of the above 
16. What results from lesser intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor. It  involves a lesser residence time for the ligand at its receptor binding site  a.  Low- affinity ligand binding 
b.  Medium- affinity ligand binding 
c.  High-affinity ligand binding 
d.  All of the above 
17. Ligand binding will initiate a series of molecular events in what order?  1.  Change is transmitted through the membrane to induce conformational change in  the intracellular domain of the receptor  2.  Binding causes a conformational change in the outer domain of receptor 
3.  Change will either activate or inhibit receptors using intrinsic activity to interact 
with intracellular proteins  a.  1, 2, 3, 
b.  2, 3, 1 
c.  2, 1, 3 
d.  3, 2, 1 
18. What are found only in eukaryotes, yeast and animals. The receptors are coupled with  trimeric G proteins and function as guanine exchange factors to transduce signal. They 
are involved in many diseases. They are the target of about 40% of modern medicinal 
drugs. 
a.  Ligand gated channels 
b.  G protein-coupled receptors 
c.  Nicotninc acetylcholine receptor 
d.  Transient event 
19. what happens when the ion channels open for a short time, after which the ligand  dissociates from the receptor and the receptor is available once again for a new ligand to 
bind. 
a.  Ligand gated channels 
b.  G protein-coupled receptors 
c.  Nicotninc acetylcholine receptor 
d.  Transient event 
20. what is it called when acetylcholine is bound and it alters the receptors configuration and  causes an internal pore to open which allows Na+ (sodium ion) to flow into the cell; the 
inward flow of sodium ions depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane sufficiently to initiate 
an action potential 
a.  Ligand gated channels 
b.  G protein-coupled receptors 
c.  Nicotninc acetylcholine receptor 
d.  Transient event 
background image 21. Intracellular Receptors- what are receptors for steroid hormones, thyroid hormones,  retinoids, fatty acids, prostaglandins, leukotrienes- Commonalities: Small and 
hydrophobic, Allows for free passage into cell, Insoluble in aqueous fluids 
a.  Cytosolic 
b.  Intracellular receptors 
c.  Direct feedback loop 
d.  Indirect feedback loops 
22. What has to do with the endocrine system only, the endocrine cell senses a change in the  extracellular environment and releases a chemical messenger that acts on target cells 
elsewhere in the body; the endocrine cell acts as the integrating center that interprets the 
change in the stimulus 
a.  Direct feedback loops 
b.  First order feedback loops 
c.  Third order feedback loops 
d.  Second order feedback loops 
23. What is when the nervous system becomes involved; a sensory organ perceives a  stimulus and sends a signal via the nervous system to an integrating center (the brain) that 
interprets the signal; neurons then transmit the signal through neurotransmitters/ 
neurohormones to a specific target organ causing a response 
a.  Direct feedback loops 
b.  First order feedback loops 
c.  Third order feedback loops 
d.  Second order feedback loops 
24. What consists of 2 steps that link integrating center and the response; the organ senses the  stimulus and sends a signal to the integrating center; the integrating center will then send 
a signal by a neuron telling the neuron to secrete either a neurhormone or 
neurotransmitter; acts on endocrine glands which will secrete a hormone into the blood 
and then travels to the target cell to cause a response 
a.  Direct feedback loops 
b.  First order feedback loops 
c.  Third order feedback loops 
d.  Second order feedback loops 
25. What consists of 3 steps linking the integrating center and cell response; every step in a  response loop may act as a control point over the pathway; the provide the most 
sophisticated and tightly regulated feedback; the sense organ receives a stimulus and 
sends a signal to the integrating signal; it sends a signal by a neuron telling the neuron to 
secrete either a neurohormone or a neurotransmitter; acts on an endocrine gland to secrete 
a hormone into the blood; the hormone travels to the target cell which induces a response 
a.  Direct feedback loops 
b.  First order feedback loops 
c.  Third order feedback loops 
d.  Second order feedback loops 
background image 26. Excitable cells - rapidly change their membrane potential which acts as an electrical  signal, what are two types of excitable cells?  a.   nerve cells (neurons)- Neurogenic  
b.  muscle cells- myogenic  
c.  both 
d.  neither 
27. Goldman Equation –what equation describe the effects these factors have on the  membrane potential; predicts the equilibrium potential for certain ions. If the membrane 
is not permeable to an ion it does not contribute to the membrane potential. If the 
membrane is highly permeable to an ion, that ion makes a large contribution to the 
membrane potential. Excitable cells selectively alter their permeability to fit the 
surrounding ions by opening and closing the gated ion channels in the membrane; 
changing ion permeability alters the membrane potential and generates electrical signals 
a.  Fick’s law 
b.  Goldman equation 
c.  Pythagorean theorem 
d.  Theory of relativity 
28. Which is NOT one  of the neural zones?  a.  Signal reception zone (dendrites and the cell body) – receives incoming signals 
b.  Signal integration zone (axon hillock) – where the cell body meets the axon; if there 
is a large enough stimulus, the stimuli is converted to an electrical signal (change in 
membrane potential) that is sent down the axon 
c.  Signal conduction zone (axon) – neurons wrapped in a myelin sheath transmit the  electrical signal  d.  Signal sectioning zone – swelling at axon terminus where comes in close contact  with the target cell; does not touch  29. Electronic currents spread because:  a.  Leakage of charged ions across the membrane  
b.  Electrical resistance in the cytoplasm  
c.  Electrical properties of the membrane 
d.  All of the above 
30. Resting membrane potential  a.  must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential   b.  -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells  c.  membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky 
channels, especially leaky to potassium 
d.  too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential  31. Threshold potential  a.  must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential  
background image b.  -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells  c.  membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky 
channels, especially leaky to potassium 
d.  too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential  32. Inhibitory potential  a.  must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential   b.  -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells  c.  membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky 
channels, especially leaky to potassium 
d.  too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential  33. Depolarization  a.  must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential   b.  -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells  c.  membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky 
channels, especially leaky to potassium 
d.  too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential  34. repolarization  a.  becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential  b.  interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times  c.  returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump  d.  interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites  35. hyperpolarization  a.  becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential  b.  interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times  c.  returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump  d.  interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites  36. spatial summation 
background image a.  becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential  b.  interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times  c.  returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump  d.  interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites  37. temporal summation  a.  becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential  b.  interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times  c.  returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump  d.  interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites  38. axon hillock  a.  does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to 
reach peak depolarization 
b.  individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon 
membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like 
dominoes 
c.  go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the 
dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action 
potential further downstream 
d.   Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond 
threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many 
different stimuli 
39. “all-or-none”  a.  does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to 
reach peak depolarization 
b.  individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon 
membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like 
dominoes 
c.  go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the 
background image dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action 
potential further downstream 
d.   Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond 
threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many 
different stimuli 
40. self-propagation  a.  does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to 
reach peak depolarization 
b.  individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon 
membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like 
dominoes 
c.  go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the 
dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action 
potential further downstream 
d.   Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond 
threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many 
different stimuli 
41. electric currents   a.  does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to 
reach peak depolarization 
b.  individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon 
membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like 
dominoes 
c.  go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the 
dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action 
potential further downstream 
d.   Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond 
threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many 
different stimuli 
42. VOLTAGE GATED CHANNELS- memorize!!!!  1.  Action potential is due to the opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels 
2.  As the membrane potential reaches threshold at the axon hillock, sodium channels 
begin to open- beginning of depolarization 

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School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Physiology
Professor: James Stewart
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Name: Exam 2 Study Material
Description: Chapters 5-6, 11, 9.1
Uploaded: 02/29/2016
16 Pages 43 Views 34 Unlocks
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