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MSU / Biology / BIO 3014 / Which is not a form of indirect signaling?

Which is not a form of indirect signaling?

Which is not a form of indirect signaling?

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School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Physiology
Professor: James stewart
Term: Spring 2016
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Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Material
Description: Chapters 5-6, 11, 9.1
Uploaded: 02/29/2016
16 Pages 16 Views 9 Unlocks
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Physiology Exam Study Guide 2


Which is not a form of indirect signaling?



1. Everything an animal does involves _________

a. Food

b. Energy

c. Communication

d. Reproduction

2. Animal signals that are conducted outside of the body are?

a. Sounds

b. scents  

c. chemicals

d. a and b

3. Animal signals conducted within the body are?

a. Chemical

b. Nervous

c. Electrical

d. A and c

4. What is the correct order of cell signaling? If you want to learn more check out How do you manage political risk?

1. Production of a signal in/on a cell (signaling cell)

2. Transport of that signal to a target cell (chemical messenger)


What type of messengers can diffuse freely across cell membrane?



3. The messenger binds to a receptor to give the signal into the target cell to create a  response

a. 1,3,2

b. 2,3,1

c. 3, 1, 2

d. 1, 2, 3

5. What are the types of direct signaling?

a. Gap junctions

b. Connexins  

c. All of the above

d. None of the above

6. Which is not a form of indirect signaling?

a. Autocrine signaling- signals to self

b. Paracrine signaling- signals to cell close by

c. Endocrine signaling- uses circulatory system to carry signals long distances through  the body


What is the correct order of cell signaling?



d. pituitary signaling- uses nervous tissue to signal If you want to learn more check out When did heliocentrism begin?

7. What messenger is secreted by a neuron but acts like a hormone?

a. Neurohormones

b. Hormones

c. Vesicles

d. Cytokinins

8. The most important distinction among the different systems is the

a. Method that they are created by the body

b. The distance that a messenger must travel between cells, and the speed of  communication between cells

c. All of the above

d. None of the above

9. What type of messengers can diffuse freely across cell membrane? a. Hydrophobic

b. Hydrophilic

c. Peptide

d. None of the above

10. Not all hormones are perceived by cell surface receptors; most are recognized by  intracellular receptors, they are synthesized from cholesterols and are commonly referred  to as ____ Don't forget about the age old question of What are major trends?

a. Cortisols  

b. Aminos

c. Steroid hormones

d. Secretions

11. Process of cell signaling:

1. Extracellular signaling molecule (1st messenger) recognized by receptor 2. Forms chains of molecules (cascades) where each molecule passes the message to  the next until the cascade reaches the final signal that causes the cell event 3. Leads to production of small transient signaling inside the cell (2nd messenger) 4. Leads to alter activity of the next component of the transduction pathway a. 4,3,2,1

b. 3,2,4,1

c. 1,4,3,2

d. 1,3,4,2

12. Which is not one of the four criteria of a functioning receptor:

a. Has to be specific

b. The binding affinity must be high enough to detect the ligand in the concentration  found around the cell We also discuss several other topics like What is callus?

c. It must be able to transmit its message into the cell

d. It needs to remain on once the message is received and acted on  

13. A ligand that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor

a. Agonist

b. Antagonist

14. A ligand that binds to a receptor and does not activate the receptor

a. Antagonist

b. Agonist

15. What results from greater intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor, it  involves a longer residence time for the ligand at its receptor binding site, it is often  physiologically important binding energy that can be used to cause a conformational  change in the receptor

a. Low- affinity ligand binding

b. Medium- affinity ligand binding

c. High-affinity ligand binding

d. All of the above

16. What results from lesser intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor. It  involves a lesser residence time for the ligand at its receptor binding site a. Low- affinity ligand binding We also discuss several other topics like What is a talented tenth?

b. Medium- affinity ligand binding

c. High-affinity ligand binding We also discuss several other topics like

d. All of the above

17. Ligand binding will initiate a series of molecular events in what order? 1. Change is transmitted through the membrane to induce conformational change in  the intracellular domain of the receptor

2. Binding causes a conformational change in the outer domain of receptor 3. Change will either activate or inhibit receptors using intrinsic activity to interact  with intracellular proteins

a. 1, 2, 3,

b. 2, 3, 1

c. 2, 1, 3

d. 3, 2, 1

18. What are found only in eukaryotes, yeast and animals. The receptors are coupled with  trimeric G proteins and function as guanine exchange factors to transduce signal. They  are involved in many diseases. They are the target of about 40% of modern medicinal  drugs.

a. Ligand gated channels

b. G protein-coupled receptors

c. Nicotninc acetylcholine receptor

d. Transient event

19. what happens when the ion channels open for a short time, after which the ligand  dissociates from the receptor and the receptor is available once again for a new ligand to  bind.

a. Ligand gated channels

b. G protein-coupled receptors

c. Nicotninc acetylcholine receptor

d. Transient event

20. what is it called when acetylcholine is bound and it alters the receptors configuration and  causes an internal pore to open which allows Na+ (sodium ion) to flow into the cell; the  inward flow of sodium ions depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane sufficiently to initiate  an action potential

a. Ligand gated channels

b. G protein-coupled receptors

c. Nicotninc acetylcholine receptor

d. Transient event

21. Intracellular Receptors- what are receptors for steroid hormones, thyroid hormones,  retinoids, fatty acids, prostaglandins, leukotrienes- Commonalities: Small and  hydrophobic, Allows for free passage into cell, Insoluble in aqueous fluids a. Cytosolic

b. Intracellular receptors

c. Direct feedback loop

d. Indirect feedback loops

22. What has to do with the endocrine system only, the endocrine cell senses a change in the  extracellular environment and releases a chemical messenger that acts on target cells  elsewhere in the body; the endocrine cell acts as the integrating center that interprets the  change in the stimulus

a. Direct feedback loops

b. First order feedback loops

c. Third order feedback loops

d. Second order feedback loops

23. What is when the nervous system becomes involved; a sensory organ perceives a  stimulus and sends a signal via the nervous system to an integrating center (the brain) that  interprets the signal; neurons then transmit the signal through neurotransmitters/  neurohormones to a specific target organ causing a response

a. Direct feedback loops

b. First order feedback loops

c. Third order feedback loops

d. Second order feedback loops

24. What consists of 2 steps that link integrating center and the response; the organ senses the  stimulus and sends a signal to the integrating center; the integrating center will then send  a signal by a neuron telling the neuron to secrete either a neurhormone or  neurotransmitter; acts on endocrine glands which will secrete a hormone into the blood  and then travels to the target cell to cause a response

a. Direct feedback loops

b. First order feedback loops

c. Third order feedback loops

d. Second order feedback loops

25. What consists of 3 steps linking the integrating center and cell response; every step in a  response loop may act as a control point over the pathway; the provide the most  sophisticated and tightly regulated feedback; the sense organ receives a stimulus and  sends a signal to the integrating signal; it sends a signal by a neuron telling the neuron to  secrete either a neurohormone or a neurotransmitter; acts on an endocrine gland to secrete  a hormone into the blood; the hormone travels to the target cell which induces a response a. Direct feedback loops

b. First order feedback loops

c. Third order feedback loops

d. Second order feedback loops

26. Excitable cells - rapidly change their membrane potential which acts as an electrical  signal, what are two types of excitable cells?

a. nerve cells (neurons)- Neurogenic  

b. muscle cells- myogenic  

c. both

d. neither

27. Goldman Equation –what equation describe the effects these factors have on the  membrane potential; predicts the equilibrium potential for certain ions. If the membrane  is not permeable to an ion it does not contribute to the membrane potential. If the  membrane is highly permeable to an ion, that ion makes a large contribution to the  membrane potential. Excitable cells selectively alter their permeability to fit the  surrounding ions by opening and closing the gated ion channels in the membrane;  changing ion permeability alters the membrane potential and generates electrical signals a. Fick’s law

b. Goldman equation

c. Pythagorean theorem

d. Theory of relativity

28. Which is NOT one of the neural zones?

a. Signal reception zone (dendrites and the cell body) – receives incoming signals b. Signal integration zone (axon hillock) – where the cell body meets the axon; if there  is a large enough stimulus, the stimuli is converted to an electrical signal (change in  membrane potential) that is sent down the axon

c. Signal conduction zone (axon) – neurons wrapped in a myelin sheath transmit the  electrical signal

d. Signal sectioning zone – swelling at axon terminus where comes in close contact  with the target cell; does not touch

29. Electronic currents spread because:

a. Leakage of charged ions across the membrane  

b. Electrical resistance in the cytoplasm  

c. Electrical properties of the membrane

d. All of the above

30. Resting membrane potential

a. must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential  

b. -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells c. membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky  channels, especially leaky to potassium

d. too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential 31. Threshold potential

a. must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential

b. -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells c. membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky  channels, especially leaky to potassium

d. too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential 32. Inhibitory potential

a. must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential  

b. -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells c. membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky  channels, especially leaky to potassium

d. too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential 33. Depolarization

a. must be reached for action potential to “fire”, remember these are graded potentials,  requires -55 mV to reach excitatory potential  

b. -70mV, the inside of the cell is much more negative than the outside, defined as a  relatively stable, ground value of transmembrane voltage in animal and plant cells c. membrane potential becomes less negative; either positively charged ions enter the  cell or negatively charged ions leave the cell; the sodium/potassium pump has leaky  channels, especially leaky to potassium

d. too low is subthreshold potential, too high is suprathreshold potential 34. repolarization

a. becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential

b. interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times c. returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump d. interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites 35. hyperpolarization

a. becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential

b. interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times c. returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump d. interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites 36. spatial summation

a. becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential

b. interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times c. returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump d. interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites 37. temporal summation

a. becomes more negative; either the negatively charged ions entering the cell or  positively charged ions leaving; re-establishing membrane potential

b. interaction of graded potential that occurs at slightly different times at the axon  hillock; adds together to reach action potential; sums up at different times c. returns to the normal resting potential, either negatively charged ions enter the cell or  positively charged ions leave the cell; re-established by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump d. interaction of graded potentials from different receptors will “meet” at the axon  hillock, adds together to reach action potential; energy comes from different sites 38. axon hillock

a. does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to  reach peak depolarization

b. individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon  membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like  dominoes

c. go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the  dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action  potential further downstream

d. Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond  threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many  different stimuli

39. “all-or-none”

a. does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to  reach peak depolarization

b. individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon  membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like  dominoes

c. go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the

dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action  potential further downstream

d. Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond  threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many  different stimuli

40. self-propagation

a. does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to  reach peak depolarization

b. individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon  membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like  dominoes

c. go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the  dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action  potential further downstream

d. Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond  threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many  different stimuli

41. electric currents

a. does or does not occur, once an action potential has been initiated by the opening of  Na+ channels it always proceeds to the conclusion; never stops halfway or fails to  reach peak depolarization

b. individual action potential does not actually travel across the axon; action potential  in one part of the axon triggers other action potential in adjacent area of the axon  membrane; every action potential is identical without degradation of the signal; like  dominoes

c. go between ion channels of axon Na+ ions entering; voltage-gated channels;  depolarize the membrane immediately surrounding the channel; spreads through the  dendrites and cell body; wave of depolarization along the axon which triggers action  potential further downstream

d. Acts as a decision point for the neuron, creates an action potential only if the  combination of graded potentials causes the axon hillock to depolarize beyond  threshold; summation of graded potentials allows integrated inputs from many  different stimuli

42. VOLTAGE GATED CHANNELS- memorize!!!!

1. Action potential is due to the opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels 2. As the membrane potential reaches threshold at the axon hillock, sodium channels  begin to open- beginning of depolarization

3. Sodium influx further depolarizes the region causing more sodium channels to open;  increase permeability which increases sodium in cell

4. Equilibrium potential is +60mV reached

5. Sodium channels close- ends depolarization

6. Sodium channels close- ends depolarization

7. Threshold depolarization of the membrane at the axon hillock causes a change in  membrane potential, which causes potassium channels to open; same time that the  sodium channels close

8. Potassium are slow channels

9. Potassium channels will slowly close as equilibrium potential of potassium is reached  -90mV

10. As potassium ions try to get to their equilibrium- hyperpolarization “overshoot”  43. Astrocytes –

a. most abundant; controls ionic environment around neurons

b. produce myelin sheaths that insulate neurons

c. smallest and least abundant; macrophages of CNS engulfing microbes, injured or  dead neurons  

d. form epithelium lining central cavity of spinal cord and brain; circulate cerebrospinal  fluid with cilia

44. Microglia 

a. most abundant; controls ionic environment around neurons

b. produce myelin sheaths that insulate neurons

c. smallest and least abundant; macrophages of CNS engulfing microbes, injured or  dead neurons  

d. form epithelium lining central cavity of spinal cord and brain; circulate cerebrospinal  fluid with cilia

45. Ependymal cells 

a. most abundant; controls ionic environment around neurons

b. produce myelin sheaths that insulate neurons

c. smallest and least abundant; macrophages of CNS engulfing microbes, injured or  dead neurons  

d. form epithelium lining central cavity of spinal cord and brain; circulate cerebrospinal  fluid with cilia

46. Oligodendrocytes 

a. most abundant; controls ionic environment around neurons

b. produce myelin sheaths that insulate neurons

c. smallest and least abundant; macrophages of CNS engulfing microbes, injured or  dead neurons  

d. form epithelium lining central cavity of spinal cord and brain; circulate cerebrospinal  fluid with cilia

47. Satellite cells  

a. surround neuron cell bodies to support and protect  

b. lipoprotein that surrounds thicker axons

c. gaps in myelin sheath; nerve impulses do not travel along myelin-covered regions  but jump from node to nodes- salutatory conduction

d. surround axons in PNS and form myelin sheaths

48. Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes)  

a. surround neuron cell bodies to support and protect  

b. lipoprotein that surrounds thicker axons

c. gaps in myelin sheath; nerve impulses do not travel along myelin-covered regions  but jump from node to nodes- salutatory conduction

d. surround axons in PNS and form myelin sheaths

49. Myelin 

a. surround neuron cell bodies to support and protect  

b. lipoprotein that surrounds thicker axons

c. gaps in myelin sheath; nerve impulses do not travel along myelin-covered regions  but jump from node to nodes- salutatory conduction

d. surround axons in PNS and form myelin sheaths

50. Nodes of Ranvier 

a. surround neuron cell bodies to support and protect  

b. lipoprotein that surrounds thicker axons

c. gaps in myelin sheath; nerve impulses do not travel along myelin-covered regions  but jump from node to nodes- salutatory conduction

d. surround axons in PNS and form myelin sheaths

51. Neurotransmitter release

a. has to do with electrical potential status, it is excitable (excitatory postsynaptic  potential or EPSP)- depolarizing event on postsynaptic cell membrane, can be  inhibitory (inhibitory postsynaptic potential or IPSP)- hyperpolarizing event on  postsynaptic cell membrane, can change the effects of other neurotransmitters

b. synthesized in neurons they are released by the presynaptic cell following  depolarization binds to a postsynaptic receptor and causes and effect

c. Is determined by axon terminal membrane potential and axon terminal calcium  concentration; it can be affected by drugs and diseases; it requires the removal of the  unbound transmitter in order to reuptake, diffuse away from cleft, and do enzymatic  transformation into inactive substances

d. formed from the amino acid tyrosine: dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine 52. Postsynaptic factors

a. has to do with electrical potential status, it is excitable (excitatory postsynaptic  potential or EPSP)- depolarizing event on postsynaptic cell membrane, can be  inhibitory (inhibitory postsynaptic potential or IPSP)- hyperpolarizing event on  postsynaptic cell membrane, can change the effects of other neurotransmitters

b. synthesized in neurons they are released by the presynaptic cell following  depolarization binds to a postsynaptic receptor and causes and effect

c. Is determined by axon terminal membrane potential and axon terminal calcium  concentration; it can be affected by drugs and diseases; it requires the removal of the

unbound transmitter in order to reuptake, diffuse away from cleft, and do enzymatic  transformation into inactive substances  

d. formed from the amino acid tyrosine: dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine 53. Neurotransmitter characteristics

a. has to do with electrical potential status, it is excitable (excitatory postsynaptic  potential or EPSP)- depolarizing event on postsynaptic cell membrane, can be  inhibitory (inhibitory postsynaptic potential or IPSP)- hyperpolarizing event on  postsynaptic cell membrane, can change the effects of other neurotransmitters

b. synthesized in neurons they are released by the presynaptic cell following  depolarization binds to a postsynaptic receptor and causes and effect

c. Is determined by axon terminal membrane potential and axon terminal calcium  concentration; it can be affected by drugs and diseases; it requires the removal of the  unbound transmitter in order to reuptake, diffuse away from cleft, and do enzymatic  transformation into inactive substances  

d. formed from the amino acid tyrosine: dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine 54. Catecholamines

a. has to do with electrical potential status, it is excitable (excitatory postsynaptic  potential or EPSP)- depolarizing event on postsynaptic cell membrane, can be  inhibitory (inhibitory postsynaptic potential or IPSP)- hyperpolarizing event on  postsynaptic cell membrane, can change the effects of other neurotransmitters

b. synthesized in neurons they are released by the presynaptic cell following  depolarization binds to a postsynaptic receptor and causes and effect

c. Is determined by axon terminal membrane potential and axon terminal calcium  concentration; it can be affected by drugs and diseases; it requires the removal of the  unbound transmitter in order to reuptake, diffuse away from cleft, and do enzymatic  transformation into inactive substances  

d. formed from the amino acid tyrosine: dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine 55. Somatic Motor Pathways

a. controls “fight or flight” response, increases heart rate, vasoconstriction, respiration,  pupil dilation and cell metabolism; decreases non-essential functions like digestion  and waste mobility

b. controls routine maintenance or “housekeeping” functions when the body is at rest c. Contain 2 neurons in series: Preganglionic neuron- Located within the CNS; will  synapse with several postganglionic neurons; Postganglionic neuron (Autonomic  ganglia)-Located in with the PNS and will synapse with the effector organ d. controls skeletal muscle performance, usually under conscious (voluntary) control;  also known as voluntary nervous system; some efferent pathways are not under  conscious control- reflex control

56. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Pathways

a. controls “fight or flight” response, increases heart rate, vasoconstriction, respiration,  pupil dilation and cell metabolism; decreases non-essential functions like digestion  and waste mobility

b. controls routine maintenance or “housekeeping” functions when the body is at rest

c. Contain 2 neurons in series: Preganglionic neuron- Located within the CNS; will  synapse with several postganglionic neurons; Postganglionic neuron (Autonomic  ganglia)-Located in with the PNS and will synapse with the effector organ

d. controls skeletal muscle performance, usually under conscious (voluntary) control;  also known as voluntary nervous system; some efferent pathways are not under  conscious control- reflex control

57. Parasympathetic 

a. controls “fight or flight” response, increases heart rate, vasoconstriction, respiration,  pupil dilation and cell metabolism; decreases non-essential functions like digestion  and waste mobility

b. controls routine maintenance or “housekeeping” functions when the body is at rest c. Contain 2 neurons in series: Preganglionic neuron- Located within the CNS; will  synapse with several postganglionic neurons; Postganglionic neuron (Autonomic  ganglia)-Located in with the PNS and will synapse with the effector organ d. controls skeletal muscle performance, usually under conscious (voluntary) control;  also known as voluntary nervous system; some efferent pathways are not under  conscious control- reflex control

58. Sympathetic 

a. controls “fight or flight” response, increases heart rate, vasoconstriction, respiration,  pupil dilation and cell metabolism; decreases non-essential functions like digestion  and waste mobility

b. controls routine maintenance or “housekeeping” functions when the body is at rest c. Contain 2 neurons in series: Preganglionic neuron- Located within the CNS; will  synapse with several postganglionic neurons; Postganglionic neuron (Autonomic  ganglia)-Located in with the PNS and will synapse with the effector organ d. controls skeletal muscle performance, usually under conscious (voluntary) control;  also known as voluntary nervous system; some efferent pathways are not under  conscious control- reflex control

59. ______________ are chemical messengers, they are responsible for long-term, on-going  functions in the body such as: growth and development, metabolism, regulation of  internal environment (homeostasis), and reproduction  

60. There are 3 basic ways that ________ act on target cells: 1. By controlling rates of  enzymatic reactions 2. By controlling transport of ions or molecules across cell  membranes 3. By controlling gene expression and synthesis of proteins  

61. What makes a chemical a hormone? 1. ______by a discrete and identifiable cell or group  of cells derived from epithelial cell lineage 2. Secreted into the ______3. Transported to a  distant target and bind to target receptor 4. Exert their effect at very ___ concentrations  

62. __________- chemical signals released into the blood by a neuron o Divided into 3 major  groups: 1. Catecholamines- tyrosine derived neurohormones (dopamine, epinephrine,  norepinephrine) 2. Hypothalamic neurohormones secreted from the posterior pituitary 3.  Hypothalamic neurohormones that control hormone release from the anterior pituitary  

63. _________________- it is a true endocrine gland, the hormones secreted are  adenohypophyseal, it is a second order feedback loop system

64. __________________- it is a false endocrine gland, it is an extension of neural tissue in  the brain, the hormones that it secretes are made in the hypothalamus and are  neurohypophyseal secretions, it is a third order feedback loop system  

65. _________(antidiuretic hormone (ADH))- it is released from the posterior pituitary in  response to low blood volume, it acts on the collecting ducts in the kidney nephrons to  retain water in the body, it makes blood vessels constrict, decreased release or decreased  sensitivity to this hormone leads to diabetes insipidus, hypernatremia (increased sodium  concentration in the blood), polyuria (excess urine production), and polydipsia (thirst);  too high levels of this hormone can lead to hyponatremia (hypo- or hypervolemia)  

66. __________- it is released from the posterior pituitary, it plays an important role in the  neuroanatomy of social trust and intimacy/ sexual reproduction; during childbirth it is  released in large amounts causing distension of the cervix and the uterus; after childbirth,  it facilitates maternal bonding, lactation, and milk ejection; it results from a positive  feedback mechanism; the name is derived from oxytocic, which means “quick birth”  

67. Anterior pituitary neurohormones- secretes 6 neurohormones (trophic hormones- controls  the secretion of other hormones): 1. _________(PRL): milk production 2.  _________(TSH): thyroid stimulating hormone 3. ___________(ACTH): adrenal cortex  hormone synthesis and secretion 4._________ (GH): somatotrophin- affects cellular  metabolism 5. __________(FSH): gonadotrophin 6. __________- ex. Estrogen,  progesterone, testosterone, thyroid hormones: thyroxin, retinoids (vitamin A), cortisol,  and vitamin D  

68. ________- hormone binding causes receptor conformational change (non-genomic)  69. _________- hormone binding causes receptor conformational change (genomic)  70. Intramuscular elements such as the ______________and __________________ govern  movement  

71. Most common method of cellular movement is _______- motor proteins act like trucks  carrying cargo (vesicles) over the complex cytoskeletal network, cells mediate traffic by  controlling where roads go, who rides on the roads, and what type of cargo is being  carried  

72. Active reorganization of the cytoskeletal networks is another form of cellular movement.  Cytoskeletal fibers act like bulldozers pushing cellular contents forward (______),  regulated by controlling rate and direction of growth of cytoskeletal fibers  

73. Motor proteins pull on ______ __________is the last type of movement. Cells organize  the cytoskeleton in a way that translates tugging action into movement, cells regulate this  movement by controlling the activity of the motor proteins  

74. _________- hollow tubes about 25 nm in diameters, whose subunits are composed of the  protein tubulin; it has alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimers and is the most rigid of the  filaments; they are easily arranged, most cells gather the ends of microtubules near the  

nucleus of the cells at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC), they radiate outward  like spokes on a wheel where the ouward ends are anchored to PM integrated proteins,  the motor proteins can move either toward the central MTOC or to the edge of the cell  

75. Factors influencing microtubule dynamics 1. Local concentration of tubulin: At high  concentration, it will add more dimers and grow; At low concentrations, it will lose

dimers and shrink; At ________ concentration, growth and shrinkage are in balance and  there is no net change in length.  

76. _________-__________ _______ (MAPS)- Normal cell function depends on the  regulation of both assembly and disassembly of microtubules; preventing them from  dissociating impairs many cellular processes, including cell division

77. ___________-__________ ______ _______(STOPs) used to make long, stable  microtubules Abundant in nerves where microtubules are important for the development  of long axons and dendrites  

78. ________ ______-long neck, Fan-like tail- attaches to cargo, globular head has ATPase  activity; attaches to the microtubule

79. _________ _______- Globular head, Neck, Tail o Dynein Function: Larger than kinesin  and moves about 5x faster. Moves in (-) direction to MTOC, Does not attach directly to  cargo; large multiprotein accessory complexes link dynein to cargo, Provides layer of  regulation of microtubule movement  

80. When a microfilament moves but retains the total length of the microfilament is constant  is called ________

Answers

1.C

2.D

3.D

4.D

5.C

6.D

7.A

8.B

9.A

10.C

11.D

12.D

13.A

14.A

15.C

16.A

17.C

18.B

19.D

20.C

21.b

22.A

23.b

24.d

25.c

26.c

27.b

28.d

29.d

30.b

31.a

32.d

33.c

34.c

35.a

36.d

37.b

38.d

39.a

40.b

41.c

42. ----

43.a

44.c

45.d

46.b

47.a

48.d

49.b

50.c

51.c

52.a

53.b

54.d

55.d

56.c

57.b

58.a

59. hormones 60. hormones 61. Secreted;  blood; low

62.

Neurohorm

ones

63. anterior  pituitary

64. Posterior  pituitary

65.

Vasopressin

66. Oxytocin 67. Prolactin  Thyrotropin  Adrenocorti

cotropin  

Growth  

hormone  

Follicle-

stimulating  

hormone  

Cholesterol  

derived  

hormones

68. Cytosolic 69. Nuclear

70.

cytoskeletal  element and  the motor  

protein  

element

71. roadway 72. amoeboid  movement

73.

cytoskeletal  rope

74.

Microtubule s

75. critical

76.

Microtubule - associated  

proteins

77. Stable-

tubule only  

polypeptide

s  

78. Kinesin  Structure

79. Dynein  

Structure

80. treadmilling

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