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Midterm 2 Chapter 11, 35-39

by: Sophia Notetaker

Midterm 2 Chapter 11, 35-39 BIOC 0170

Marketplace > University of Pittsburgh > Biology > BIOC 0170 > Midterm 2 Chapter 11 35 39
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About this Document

Cell-Cell Communication Plant Response Plant Structure Plant Transport Soil and Plant
Foundation of Biology I
Barbara Barnhart
Study Guide
Cell-Cell Communication, Plant Response, Plant Structure, Plant Transport Soil, Biology, Chapter 11, Chapter 35, Chapter 36, Chapter 37, Chapter 39
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Notetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOC 0170 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Barbara Barnhart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Foundation of Biology I in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Chapter 35 – Plant Structure  Name the 3 main organs of plants  Explain the purpose of roots  Know at least 3 examples of modified roots  Describe the basic anatomy of a stem o Nodes and internodes o Axillary and terminal buds  Know at least 3 examples of modified stems  Describe the basic anatomy of a leaf o Flattened blade o Stalk o Petiole  Know at least 3 examples of modified leaves  Check out the “Plants in Motion” link on Blackboard to see the time­lapse movies we watched in class  Name the 3 main tissues in plants o Dermal tissue o Vascular tissue – what are the 2 types? o Ground tissue  Besides xylem cells and phloem cells, name the 3 types of plant cells, and give  their functions  Describe what a meristem is  Explain where apical meristems are located and what they are responsible for  Explain where lateral meristems are located and what they are responsible for  Name the 2 types of lateral meristems  What is the difference between primary growth and secondary growth?  Describe Primary Growth in the roots:  o What is a root cap? o Name the 3 zones of growth cells  Be able to identify the epidermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular cylinder when  looking at a cross­section of a root (Figure 35.14 in book)  Be able to identify the above structures in a cross­section of a root which shows  the development of a lateral root   Be able to differentiate between the cross­sections of stems from a monocot and  from a eudicot  o Be able to identify the epidermis, the vascular bundles, the ground tissue,  the pith and the cortex in each stem cross­section (do both have pith and  cortex??)   Be able to identify the epidermis, the ground tissue and the vascular tissue in the  cross­section of a leaf  Explain what secondary growth is responsible for and where it occurs  Describe what the vascular cambium is, and be able to identify it on a cross­ section of a tree trunk   Describe what the cork cambium is, and be able to identify it on a cross­section of a tree trunk  Describe what bark is composed of  Name the 3 developmental processes that occur as a plant grows  What process is mainly responsible for the increase of plant size?  Give an example of a signal that contributes to morphogenesis  Explain how gene expression controls the differentiation (aka specialization) of  cells Chapter 37 – Plant Nutrition  Most of the organic material (solid mass) of a plant comes from _______  Define essential element  Explain how scientists used a hydroponic culture to determine which minerals  were essential to plant growth  Define macronutrient  Define micronutrient  Name the 2 properties that affect soil quality  Describe the components of topsoil  The lower (deeper) layers of soil are called ________  Explain what makes “loams” such fertile soils  Describe the process that allows root to absorb positively charged nutrient ions  from soil particles   Explain how phytoremediation can be used to reclaim soil of poor quality  Explain how nitrogen­fixing bacteria help plants absorb nitrogen  Describe the symbiosis between legume plants and nitrogen­fixing bacteria, and  describe how they physically interact  o Nodules o Bacterioids  Explain how farmers use crop rotation to take advantage of this symbiosis  between plant and bacteria  Describe the symbiosis between plants and fungus in the form of mycorrhizae  Describe the physical properties of the 2 types of mycorrhizae  o Ectomycorrhizae o Endomycorrhizae  Give 3 examples of plants that use other organisms for nutrition in ways that do  NOT benefit the other organisms  Explain why carnivorous plants eat insects (what nutrient to they get from the  bugs?) Chapter 39 – Plant Responses  List the 3 Stages of Signal transduction  List the 2 major mechanisms of response  Define hormone  List the 3 processes hormones affect  Describe the general function of “auxin”  Describe the general function of “cytokinin”  Describe the general function of “gibberellin”  Describe the general function of “brassinosteroids”  Describe the general function of “abscisic acid”  Describe the general function of “ethylene” o Give 4 processes the ethylene hormone affects  List the 2 types of Light receptors that plants have  Name the special molecules that allow plants to respond to gravity  Define thigmotropism  Give a general explanation for how plants respond to: o Drought o Flood o Salt o Heat o Cold Chapter 11 – Cell Communication  Be able to give the basic definition of a signal­transduction pathway  Give some examples of local signaling  Give an example of long distance signaling  Know the 3 stages of Cell Signaling:  Reception, Transduction, Response  Be able to describe what happens in “Reception”  Be able to describe the 3 types of membrane receptor proteins o G­protein linked receptor  o Receptor tyrosine kinase  o Ion channel receptor   Where are the receptor proteins for hydrophobic signal molecules, like steroids?   (In the cell membrane, or inside the cell?) Why?   Be able to describe what happens in “Transduction”  Explain how proteins in the transduction pathway get “activated” – what role does phosphorylation play?  Be able to define “second messenger”, and give an example of one.    Be able to describe what happens in “Response”  Explain the necessity of so many steps between the initial signal and the final  response in signal transduction  o Amplification o Specificity o Efficiency o Termination


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