Archaeoastronomy Midterm Study Guide
Archaeoastronomy Midterm Study Guide PHYS 10293
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 10293 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Kat Barger in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Archaeoastronomy in Physics 2 at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
ARCHAEOASTRONOMY MIDTERM NOTES Stellar amp Solar Motions In general objects rise in the East amp set in the West because earth rotates However this is a general trend as the stars near the poles might not rise or set circumpolar stars At the equator there are no circumpolar stars If you are at the equator the sun can be directly ahead at the zenith for NO days in the year At the solstices the sun will not be directly ahead at the equator Latitude matters for both the stars and the Sun It takes the Earth 1 year 365 days to circle the Sun Each day the Earth doesn t move much Each solar day lasts 24 hours but the sidereal star day is slightly shorter because of this annual motion there is a mismatch between the two The star day and sun day are very close to each other but we rotate slightly more for the solar day The observable stars each night slowly shift You will see different set of stars throughout the year It takes a full month for a new Zodiac constellation to be high in the sky The stars never moved Sun light blocks different stars from view as the Earth moves around the Sun The stars don t actually move it just seems like they do because the motion of the Earth As the Earth moves around the Sun it s tilt affects how high the Sun moves in the sky throughout the year If Sun is below the Celestial Equator to the south more direct light on the Southern Hemisphere If takes 30 earth diameters to reach distance to the moon At a given location the Sun rises towards the East and sets towards the West A sundial gnomon casts a shadow away from the sun towards the West in the morning The invention of the gnomon is attributed to the ancient Greek philosopher Animaxander successor to Thales At noon the sun reaches its highest point in the sky amp the shadow points directly North this was a common method used by ancients to determine North InClass Multiple Choice Practice The diameter of the Sun is to 109 Earths At the north pole how many of the stars are circumpolar all of them At Fort Worth how many of the stars are circumpolar only the ones close to the north star You observe a star rising due east When this star reaches its highest position above the horizon where will it be High in the southern sky 0 At TCU you see a star directly overhead zenith In what direction will you have to look to see this star set Northwest 0 At the North Pole in June how long do you experience night during each 24 hours day 0 hrs 0 You go out tonight amp see the brightest star in the constellation Orion just rising above your eastern horizon at 10PM 1 week later at 10PM this same star will be slightly higher in the sky 0 One night you see the star Sirius rise at exactly 736PM The following night it will rise slightly earlier 0 One evening at midnight you observe Leo high in the southern sky at midnight Virgo is to the East of Leo amp Cancer is to the west One month earlier Cancer 0 What component of Earth s motion causes stars to rise earlier on successive nights its orbit around the Sun 0 If the Earth s rotational axis was not tilted 235 degrees which of the following would be true All of the above 0 Day amp night would last 12 hours over all of earth all year round 0 Sun would always pass directly overhead of an observer at equator each day at local noon 0 There would be no seasons 0 In Athens Greece the sun crosses the meridian at 1228pm This corresponds to noon local time Homework Questions 1 In big cities the stars in the night are harder to see because the city lights are scatters in the sky 2 A conscious sense of time permits us to all of the above plan amp execute complicated activities plan amp coordinate activities with others interrupt the patterns of our personal lives 3 Which direction do celestial objects ex sun moon amp stars rise and set rise in east amp set in west 4 North is defined by Straight down to the horizon from a position in the sky where all stars rotate in the northern hemisphere 5 Circumpolar stars are stars that never set but are only visible at night 6 Officially designated constellations are regions on the sky that bound star patterns of different shapes that have been defined by the International Astronomical Union IAU 7 Two stars in the same constellation may actually be very far away from each other 8 If you traveled to the country Chile in South America the constellations in the night sky would look exactly the same as they do in Fort Worth TX false 9 If you were to travel directly east until you hit Africa the constellations on the night sky would appear the same true Correct the patterns of the sky change with your latitude going north or south Since you39re going west or east longitude is changing the constellations you see on a given night won t change 10 11 12 13 14 9908091 11 12 13 14 15 Beijing and Philadelphia are about the same distance south of the North Pole Therefore tonight39s night sky in these two places will look about the same In the winter the star Polaris is directly above the North Pole In the spring the star Polaris is directly above the North Pole To see the greatest number of stars possible over one year39s time a person should be located at the equator As you move from Earth39s equator towards the North Pole the number of circumpolar stars increases Which culture uses dark regions of the sky to define some of their constellations Aborigines from Australia You are stranded on a desert island You locate the pole star Polaris It is 17 degrees above the northern horizon What is your latitude 17 degrees N One night you see the star Arcturus rise at exactly 830 pm The following night the star will rise slightly earlier One evening at midnight you observe Gemini high in the southern sky at midnight Cancer is to the east of Gemini and Taurus is to the west One month earlier which of these constellations was high in the southern sky at midnight Taurus The Big Dipper is midnight You look up in the sky and see the Big Dipper stretched out on the sky like a large question mark see below What season is it Winter If it is spring in North America what season is it in Europe Spring If it is spring in North America what season is it in South America Fall On the 1st day of winter in Fort Worth the Sun sets south of west Alaska has cold days in January because the Sun is lower in the sky in January During which season does the Plane of the Ecliptic make its smallest angle with the southern horizon Winter The planet Durboon is similar to Earth in all respects except that it has an orbital tilt of 15 From a latitude of 10 which of the following is true The sun rises amp sets every day amp the Sun passes through Zenith at some point during the year The planet Durboon is similar to Earth in all respects except that it has an orbital tilt of 15 From a latitude of 80 which of the following is true The Sun stays above the horizon for the entire day at some point during the year The entire globe is divided into 24 time zones Although time zones aren t equal in size what is their average width in degrees 15 New York New York at 407 N and 740 W and Miami Florida at 258 N 802 W are in the same time zone The purpose of daylight savings time is to make the daylight period of the day longer amp results in a slight savings in electricity
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