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Contemporary Issues in Biology STUDY GUIDE TEST 2 Emma WeithasEating Disorders & the Digestive System Humans are made of 2 million types of proteins runs on energy from glucose and fats → • Cellular respiration (ATP= form of chemical energy our cells use) energy comes from ATP, made through cellular respiration “raw materials” for energy are air and food (glucose and o^2)→ cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria ADP: like an uncharged battery, charge molecules through cellular respiration to make ATP again •Food Moleculescarbohydrates: chains or individual simple sugar units 2 glucose molecules make a disaccharide (and secretes water), is a simple carb (sugar), polysaccharide → (many in a chain aka starch), humans can’t break down cellulose (plant fibers), glycogen is a complex carbproteins: amino acid chains peptide bond: what bonds amino acids, secretes water→ fats: glycerol bonded to three fatty acids fatty acid, always 3 (triglyceride) secretes water→ • Digestive Process food needs to be broken to simpler molecules, needs glucose for cellular respirationorder of food digestion= mouth, esophagus, stomach(gastric glands), small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus*ase= enzymesalivary glands: amylase→gastric glands: HCL and pepsin→pancreas: amylase, trypsin, lipase→liver: bile→small intestine: maltase and peptidase→ digesting starch: amylase (salivary glands) in mouth, no digestion in stomach, pancreas converts starch to maltose, small intestine absorbs glucose to circulate though the bodydigestion of fat: none in mouth or stomach, all in the small intestine and liver with lipase and bile digestion of protein: in stomach• Getting food to the cells Small intestine has folds intended to absorb and move small food molecules to the circulatory systemCapillaries: exchange of food molecules going into and out of the circulatory system why do we need amino acids? to make more proteins• Anorexia and Bulimia 90% of cases are in women and affect 10 million americansanorexia: self starvation bulimia: episodes of binge eating and inappropriate ridding of food (vomiting/ laxatives) results in premature death and interferes with food molecules getting to circulatory system→ can result in premature death→ causes: social pressures, inherited genetic disorders or personality traits • Review Questions: 1. How do stomach enzymes that digest protein damage the stomach (leads to an ulcer)
acid is in the stomach to digest protein, if not enough mucus lining in the stomach it will digest its own stomach 2. Orlistat is a drug that blocks the enzymatic breakdown of fat by bile, how does it work?you lose weight because the small intestine doesn't soak up and store fat, side effects are anal leakage though 3. How does someone die from anorexia?Their heart is too weak to pump blood to the body (needs ATP energy from food)Circulatory System and Heart Disease • The Heart Functions: pump blood to lungs, rid carbon dioxide, pump blood to organs and cells (supply nutrients and pick up waste)blood is mostly water→ Four chambers of the heart: Right atrium Left Atrium Right Ventricle Left VentricleCardiac cycle: steps of how your heart beats1. atria contract, 2. ventricle contracts, 3. rest→ SA node aka pacemaker: makes an electrical charge starting at top (atria) spreading to bottom → (ventricle) AV node: pause between atria and ventricle in heartbeat→ ECG (heartbeat on monitor) the first bump: atria firing, second bump is ventricles firing it is bigger because he has to push it out of the heart • Diet and Clogged Arteries arteries: carry blood away from the heart, stronger veins: carry blood to the heartoxygenated blood is red, deoxygenated blood is dark red (not blue)→ • Diet and Heart Disease: intake of saturated fats leads to increase LDL:HDL ratio (LDL is bad cholesterol, HDL is good cholesterol) leads to increased deposition of cholesterol in arteries of the heart, leads to blockage of arteries and death of heart muscleslow process, plaque builds up and embeds itself into artery walls, if it rips off the body tries to clot forming a blood clot and blocking blood from traveling through the arterycoronary bypass: combats a clot in an artery, grafted veins working (above or around) the blocked blood vessels Mediterranean diet: high exercise and olive oil (unsaturated fats) perhaps its why they have less recorded heart disease cases Lyon Diet Heart Disease Study 1994: much reduced risk of 2nd heart attack , little red meat and → unsaturated fatsblood clots blocking arteries triggers the most heart attacks • Blood Pressuresystolic: measured as ventricles contract (max, 1st number) diastolic: measures as ventricles rest (min, 2nd number)normal is around (120/80) high is (140/90220/80)→ need enough pressure to circulate but not too much to make the arteries rigid( where it’s easier for plaquebuildup)could result in heart attack or stroke → • Review Questions 1. Why would a person die of a stroke?
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School: Texas Christian University
Course: Contemporary Issues in Biology
Term: Winter 2016
Name: Contemporary Issues of Biology (Professor Sawey) Test 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers what will be on the second test.