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Contemporary Issues of Biology (Professor Sawey) Test 2 Study Guide

by: Emma Weithas

Contemporary Issues of Biology (Professor Sawey) Test 2 Study Guide BIOL 10003

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Biology > BIOL 10003 > Contemporary Issues of Biology Professor Sawey Test 2 Study Guide
Emma Weithas

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This study guide covers what will be on the second test.
Contemporary Issues in Biology
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Weithas on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Sawey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Issues in Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Contemporary Issues in Biology  STUDY GUIDE TEST 2 Emma Weithas Eating Disorders & the Digestive System  ­Humans are made of 2 million types of proteins → runs on energy from glucose and fats  • Cellular respiration (ATP= form of chemical energy our cells use) ­ energy comes from ATP, made through cellular respiration  → “raw materials” for energy are air and food (glucose and o^2) ­cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria  ­ADP: like an uncharged battery, charge molecules through cellular respiration to make ATP again •Food Molecules ­carbohydrates: chains or individual simple sugar units → 2 glucose molecules make a disaccharide (and secretes water), is a simple carb (sugar), polysaccharide  (many in a chain aka starch), humans can’t break down cellulose (plant fibers), glycogen is a complex  carb ­proteins: amino acid chains → peptide bond: what bonds amino acids, secretes water ­fats: glycerol bonded to three fatty acids → fatty acid, always 3 (triglyceride) secretes water • Digestive Process ­food needs to be broken to simpler molecules, needs glucose for cellular respiration ­order of food digestion= mouth, esophagus, stomach(gastric glands), small intestine, large intestine,  rectum, anus *­ase= enzyme →salivary glands: amylase →gastric glands: HCL and pepsin →pancreas: amylase, trypsin, lipase →liver: bile →small intestine: maltase and peptidase ­digesting starch: amylase (salivary glands) in mouth, no digestion in stomach, pancreas converts starch  to maltose, small intestine absorbs glucose to circulate though the body ­digestion of fat: none in mouth or stomach, all in the small intestine and liver with lipase and bile ­digestion of protein: in stomach • Getting food to the cells ­Small intestine has folds intended to absorb and move small food molecules to the circulatory system ­Capillaries: exchange of food molecules going into and out of the circulatory system ­why do we need amino acids? to make more proteins • Anorexia and Bulimia ­90% of cases are in women and affect 10 million americans ­anorexia: self starvation ­bulimia: episodes of binge eating and inappropriate ridding of food (vomiting/ laxatives)   →results in premature death and interferes with food molecules getting to circulatory system → can result in premature death ­causes: social pressures, inherited genetic disorders or personality traits  • Review Questions:  1. How do stomach enzymes that digest protein damage the stomach (leads to an ulcer)  acid is in the stomach to digest protein, if not enough mucus lining in the stomach it will digest its own stomach     2.  Orlistat is a drug that blocks the enzymatic breakdown of fat by bile, how does it work?  you lose weight because the small intestine doesn't soak up and store fat, side effects are anal  leakage though      3. How does someone die from anorexia?  Their heart is too weak to pump blood to the body (needs ATP energy from food) Circulatory System and Heart Disease  • The Heart ­Functions: pump blood to lungs, rid carbon dioxide, pump blood to organs and cells (supply nutrients  and pick up waste) →blood is mostly water ­ Four chambers of the heart: Right atrium        Left Atrium                      Right Ventricle    Left Ventricle ­Cardiac cycle: steps of how your heart beats →1. atria contract, 2. ventricle contracts, 3. rest → SA node aka pacemaker: makes an electrical charge starting at top (atria) spreading to bottom  (ventricle) → AV node: pause between atria and ventricle in heartbeat ­ECG (heartbeat on monitor) the first bump: atria firing, second bump is ventricles firing it is bigger  because he has to push it out of the heart  • Diet and Clogged Arteries  ­arteries: carry blood away from the heart, stronger ­veins: carry blood to the heart →oxygenated blood is red, de­oxygenated blood is dark red (not blue) • Diet and Heart Disease: intake of saturated fats leads to increase LDL:HDL ratio (LDL is bad  cholesterol, HDL is good cholesterol) leads to increased deposition of cholesterol in arteries of the heart,  leads to blockage of arteries and death of heart muscle ­slow process, plaque builds up and embeds itself into artery walls, if it rips off the body tries to clot  forming a blood clot and blocking blood from traveling through the artery ­coronary bypass: combats a clot in an artery, grafted veins working (above or around) the blocked blood  vessels  ­Mediterranean diet: high exercise and olive oil (unsaturated fats) perhaps its why they have less recorded heart disease cases  → Lyon Diet Heart Disease Study 1994: much reduced risk of 2nd heart attack , little red meat and  unsaturated fats ­blood clots blocking arteries triggers the most heart attacks  • Blood Pressure ­systolic: measured as ventricles contract (max, 1st number) ­diastolic: measures as ventricles rest (min, 2nd number) →normal is around (120/80) high is (140/90­220/80) ­need enough pressure to circulate but not too much to make the arteries rigid( where it’s easier for plaque buildup) →could result in heart attack or stroke  • Review Questions  1. Why would a person die of a stroke?  blood clot blocks flow and brain cells die 2. Why is blood pressure higher in the south? Is it dangerous to the heart? ­bad diet, eat a lot of saturated fats, high bp which leads to artery damage which leads to deposition of  cholesterol in arteries which leads to heart disease and stroke 3. Statins (drug) lower/block cholesterol, how does it help you?   not as much bad cholesterol, so it is less likely to build up plaque, drugs are more effective than  just diet and exercise because it’s usually genetic and because of your liver not things you are  consuming Alcohol and Human Health  • French Paradox and moderate drinking  ­ they eat alot of saturated fats and consume wine with each meal, they have very low rates of heart  disease  →concludes that wine, or alcohol, in moderation counteracts bad foods for your heart, but is even more  effective with a good diet, moderate drinking lowers the risk of heart diesase →one drink a day for women, maybe two for men, difference is because of different sizes and metabolism → one drink measurements; 5 ounces =wine, 1.5 ounces= liquor, 12 ounces =beer • Risks of Drinking Alcohol ­many deaths with drunk driving, high doses can kill you →alcohol enemas can kill you very fast with very little amounts of alcohol because it doesn’t filter  through the liver ­Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: affects babies in early stages when mom doesn’t know she’s pregnant  ­J­shaped curve: a graph that shows that moderate drinking is the lowest risk for heart disease then the  more you drink the higher and higher the risk goes up  ­social drinking leads to friends= less depressed • Effects of Heavy Drinking on the Liver ­The liver: acts as a filter, detoxes blood, conversion of ammonia (poisonous)  to urea, production of  cholesterol and bile, regulates blood sugar levels *alcohol detox* →Fatty liver: most common alcohol­induced liver disease (ALD), stores fat here, can’t function,  reversible with abstinence  →Alcoholic Hepatitis: serious liver ALD, swelling of the liver, makes cells swell then burst, can be  reversed by abstinence →Cirrhosis: scarred liver, not reversible by abstinence or anything, prevents liver from functioning, starts  accumulation of liver leading to death, 10­20% of heavy drinkers develop this, requires a liver transplant • Binge Drinking and College Drinkers ­Binge drinking: 5 or more drinks consumed on any given occasion  →works your liver, more alcohol consumed than can be processes, flows through liver and poisons cells  (brain cells, muscles= why bad decision making and loss of motor skills/slurred words) → If you’re 120 lbs, takes two drinks to be over the legal driving limit →can lead to hangovers, DO NOT take Tylenol when hungover cause can lead to liver failure, drink lots  of water instead because hangovers are from being dehydrated  ­Review Questions: 1. Why is the liver an important organ? ­detoxifies blood, urea, ‘gateway to the body’, blood sugar, cholesterol 1. What is the J shaped curve and what does it predict? ­low levels of alc. are helpful, no alc. is the left of the j (more susceptible to heart disease), lowest point is low levels of alcohol, and the right side of j goes higher and higher risk the more you drink  1. Why do women reach a BAC level of .08 faster than men when they drink the same amount at the same rate?  size, and men have more blood, men have more dehydrogenase (breaks down alc) Kidney & the Urinary System ­most kidney infections start in urethra and move to kidney •Formation of urine ­amino acids break down (make ammonia) ­>urea in liver­>travel in blood to kidney & removed from  blood and incorporated into urine •Urinary System ­Kidneys produce urine, ureters transport urine, urinary bladder stores urine, urethra passes urine outside  the body →kidneys: filter waste from blood, adjust blood levels, conserve or excrete water ­nephron: BP takes water, sugar, amino acids from capillaries into nephron ­>sugar and amino acids  reabsorbed into blood ­> water reabsorbed ­>urine (urea and salt) get concentrated in water •Water balance & Alcohol ­brain monitors blood water content ­> pituitary releases ADH if too little water ­>ADH travels in blood  to nephron ­> ADH cause more water to leave urine to go to blood ­ ADH: Anti­Diarrhetic Hormone, makes you pee less, holding onto water →more ADH= more water in  blood, higher blood pressure →less ADH= water leaves body, lower blood pressure ­alcohol suppresses production of ADH, water stays in urine, highly water concentrated urine leaves the  body (leaving to hangovers, dehydrated few to lack of ADH) •Kidney Stones ­form in kidney pelvis, cause pain when moving through urinary system (moves from ureters ­> bladder  ­>urethra ­4 types of stones, most common is calcium ­treatments: →small ones pass w/out pain →large ones pass with extreme pain, can take pain medication →too large have to be removed surgically •Kidney Infections ­symptoms: frequent urination, burning while peeing, cloudy urine, blood in urine, back or groin pain,  fever →bacteria is fecal matter, more common in women because closer proximity from urethra to anus ­Acute Kidney Failure: kidney can’t filter/do its job, blood becomes toxic ­Diagnosis & Treatment: antibiotics, is cleared if tended to  → other cases of failure: diabetes, high BP → Dialysis: mechanically does what kidney does to filter blood and rid toxins, used for kidney failure →transplant: works if your body doesn’t reject it, don’t need dialysis if you get this ­Review Questions: 1. Why does drinking give you a headache?  ­ water level in your blood is too low due to lack of ADH 2. Most effective treatment for kidney infection? ­antibiotics, b/c infection is caused by bacteria in urethra Smoking & Lung Cancer • Why and how do humans breathe ­to get oxygen and rid body of carbon dioxide →muscle contractions use ATP ­alveoli: clustered balls/air sacs in lungs, maximizes surface area ­> more efficient exchange of molecules ­inhale: diaphragm contracts down, ribs expand, lungs full ­exhale: diaphragm relaxes, lungs empty ­circulatory system: brings oxygen from lungs to the whole body ­capillary system: exchanges take place here, touch almost every cell in body •Smoking and Lung cancer ­top killer, very deadly, 87% of cases result from smoking ­how smoking leads to cancer: cilia line airway (sweep particles/music to pharynx from lungs to be  coughed), smoking cigarettes (their tar) destroys these cilia and mucus and toxins accumulate in the lungs **→ carcinogens (40 known) are trapped in lungs without cilia and damages DNA and mutates it to  cancer →small tumors cant be detected by xrays, always is detected after its spread to other organs  ­spiral CT scans can maybe detect tumors earlier →women more likely to get lung cancer than men ­smokers at greatest risk: over 50 yrs old, females, family history ­nonsmokers likelihood of getting lung cancer is near 0% • Does quitting help? ­many width drawl symptoms, hard to quit → ½ way in between nonsmokers and smokers curve for lung cancer risk for those who quit ­2  hand smoke infects nonsmokers and bystanders and causes 3000 deaths per year


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