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Microbiology 201 Exam 2

by: Trisha Sinwelski

Microbiology 201 Exam 2 Microbiology 201

Trisha Sinwelski
GPA 4.0
Elementary microbiology
Dr. Hamilton-Brehm

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About this Document

This is the study guide for Exam 2.
Elementary microbiology
Dr. Hamilton-Brehm
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Trisha Sinwelski on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Microbiology 201 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr. Hamilton-Brehm in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Elementary microbiology in Microbiology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide Structure of eukaryotic cell 0 Organelles specialized structures in cytoplasm ie mitochondria chloroplasts endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus and lysosomes 0 Origin of mitochondriachloroplast both evolved from freeliving bacteria via symbiosis within a eukaryotic host cell 0 Size difference bigger than prokaryotic cells circular External structures of Eukaryotic cells 0 Flagella long tails for attachment and movement 0 Cilia short hairlike projections movement and transport materials 0 Glococalyx thick outer covering of cell membrane Slime loosely organized and attached Capsule highly organized and attached Difference of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes 0 Prokaryotepeptidoglycan o Eukaryote no peptidoglycan Internal structures of Eukaryotic cells 0 Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuole Mitochondriachloroplasts o Cytoskeleton Symbiosisinteraction between two different organisms living close typically to the advantage of both Ribosomescomplex structure in all living cells job protein synthesis translation 3 domains and 4 eukaryotic kingdoms 0 Domain bacteria 0 Domain archaea 0 Domain eukarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom fungi Kingdom plantae Kingdom Animalia Memorable characteristics of kingdom fungi 0 Cell wall made of chitin o Morphology of yeast and hyphae o Mycosis o Myceliumsporesetc 0 little chemical factories39 General aspects of kingdom algae o Plankton fresh or marine water OOOOO Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide 0 O 0 Produce large portion of the 02 in atmosphere Dino agellates give off toxins red tide Cell wall made of cellulose or silicon dioxide alginic acid 0 Main topics of Kingdom Protozoa 0 000000 0 Vary in shape Mostly unicellular All are heterotrophic Can form cysts Can have agella cilia or pseudopods Mastigophora euglena agella Sarcodina amoebas pseudopods Ciliphora cilitates cilia 0 Some Protozoan Pathogens cause high pro le diseases O 0000 0 African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei symptoms fever rash fatigue swelling Chaga39s disease Trypanosoma cruzi brief or chronic symptoms redness of skin vomiting swollen lymph nodes Amoebic dysentery Entamoeba Histoytica infection of intestines spread by contaminated foodwater symptoms violent bloody diarrhea weight loss abdominal tenderness Structure Average size 2 micrometers or less 100x bigger than bacteria Capsid structure Helical continuous helix of capsomers forming cylindrical nucleocapsid lcosahedral 20sided with 12 corners Nucleocapsid a DNA or an RNA plus a capsid Capsomers make up capsomere proteins Naked virus composed of only a nucleocapsid Enveloped virus enveloped around nucleocapsid protects nucleic acid amp helps bind to cell surface Complex Atypical Poxvirus lack typical capsid and covered by dense layer of lipoproteins Bacteriophages polyhedral nucleocapsid along with helical tail amp attachment bers DNA viruses nucleoacid Double stranded circularlinear usually double stranded RNA viruses nucleoacid Single stranded usually single stranded may be segmented ssRNA ready for translation positive strand ssRNA must be converted to cDNA reverse transcriptase negative sense strand 0 Enzyme Viruses use or make prepackaged in capsid O O O Polymerases DNA or RNA Replicases copy RNA Reverse transcriptases RNADDNA Modes of Viral multiplication Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Adsorptionhost range binding of virus to speci c molecules on host 0 Penetration genome enters host cell without enveopeendocytosis with enveopefusion Endocytosis entire virus is enclosed in vacuolevesicle Fusion envelope merges with membrane 0 Uncoating viral nucleic acid released from capsid 0 Synthesis vira components produced 0 Release assembled viruses releaseexit by budding exocytosis or cell ysis Budding Exocytosis ce transports moecues out of cell in an energyusing process Cell Lysis breaking down of membrane often viral Cytopathic effects structural changes in host cells caused by viral invasion Cell size and shape change Inclusion bodies Cell lysis ce dies without ysis due to inability to reproduce DNA is altered 0 Transformation into cancer cells 0 Persistent infection eventually cleared while latent slow infections last the life of the host 0 Vs Chronic latent state virus is at rest Oncovirus virus that can cause cancer 0 Lysogeny silent virus infection 0 Prophage viral DNA inserted into host genome 0 Induction activation of prophage in a lysogenic cell 0 Lysogenic conversion prophage generates toxins or enzymes that cause pathology 0 What are the basic metabolic needs all livings things on earth need 0 Carbon course 0 Energy source 0 Electron sink waste 0 Carbon sink waste 0 Growth curve 0 Lag phase at period itte growth A C 0 Log phase exponential growth phase maximum B A 0000 growth will continue B o Stationary phase ce growthce death C 0 Death phase ces die exponentially D 0 Generation time 0 Example G3O minutes one cell becomes two cells in 30 minutes two cells becomes four cells in another 30 minutes etc o Turbidity cloudiness or haziness of a uid caused by a large number of individual particles 0 Generating numbers for quantifying cell growth 0 Absorbance measure of amount of light absorbed as the light passes through a sample 0 Enumeration viable colony count direct cell count all cells present Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Flow cytometry sorting cells based on charge dye coloring andor size 0 Metabolism all chemicalphysical workings of a cell 0 Catabolism breaks bonds of larger molecules to form smaller molecules releases energy 0 Anabolism forms larger macromolecules from smaller molecules requires energy input 0 Energy Transportation 0 Oxidation loss of electrons gaining of oxygen and losing of hydrogen 0 Reduction gain of electrons losing of oxygen and gaining of hydrogen 0 Inner and outer workings of enzymes 0 Energy of activation resistance to reaction enzymes are biological catalysts increase activity by lowering energy 0 Activity measure of enzymes ability to work 0 Substrate surface on which a plant or animal livesD algae lives on rock rock substrate Apoenzyme protein portion inactive enzyme Holoenzyme complete enzyme with all parts necessary to function Cofactors nonprotein portion carries to assist enzyme in its activityD ex ATP Extracellular transported to outside of cell lntracellular function to keep cell in operation most common Constitutive enzymes always present produced in equal amounts Regulated not constantly present Labile chemistry unstable enzymes Denaturation weak bonds maintain shape of apoenzymes Competitive inhibition resembles normal substrate competes with substrate for active site Noncompetitive inhibition binding of molecules other than substrate away from active site Enzyme repression control synthesis of key enzymes Enzyme induction suitable substrates present 0 Endergonic reactions consume energy Energy A B D C o Exergonic reactions release energy X Y D Z Energy 0 Parts of Aerobic Respiration o Glycolysis glucose oxidized split into 2 molecules NADH generated Glucose 6 C 2 ADP 2 NAD D 2 Pyruvate 3 C 2 ATP 2 NADH 0 Transition step pyruvate turn into acetyl coA o Krebs CycleTCA pyruvic acid generates 3 C02 0 Electron Transport Chain ETC accepts electrons generates energy through oxidative phosphorylation 0 Parts of Anaerobic Respiration 0 Uses oxygen containing ions as nal acceptor Nitrate sulfate nitrite sul te Parts of Anaerobic Fermentation 000 0000000 0 Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Incomplete oxidation of glucose or other carbohydrates in absence of oxygen Produces about 2 ATP 0 Parts of Photosynthesis o Lightdependent reaction ight needed to break H20 0 Lightindependent dark reaction Calvin Cycle 0 ATP Formation o Proton motive force generated by ETC pumps protons across membrane separating the charge across the membrane 0 Chemiosmosis pump hydrogen ions across membrane 0 Prokaryotic 38 ATP Eukaryotic 36 ATP everything same except 2 NADHs brought to mitochondria 0 ATP yields Aerobic 38 ATP Anaerobic 2 18 ATP 0 Biosphere o Hydrosphere water 0 Lithosphere soil 0 Atmosphere air 0 Terms 0 Biome particular climate region Communities interacting group of various species in common oca on Population group of same kind of organisms Producers autotrophs self nourishing Consumers heterotrophs another nourishing o Decomposers mineralization bioremediation 0 Nutrition chemical substances acquired from environment 0 Essential nutrients must be provided to organism 0 Trace elements needed in very small quantities for proper growth 0 Organic nutrients carbon and hydrogen atoms usuay products of living things 0 Inorganic nutrients do not have carbon or hydrogen 0 Ecosystem community of living organisms o Mutualism bene cial to both 0 Commensalism one bene ts one not affected 0 Synergism 2 independent organisms cooperate to breakdown nutrient they couldn39t have done alone 0 Syntrophic one bene ts other feeding on each other 0 Atmospheric Cycles 0 Carbon Cycle 0 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Fixation Ammoni cation Nitri cation Denitri cation o Sedimentary Cycles 0 Sulfur Cycle 0 OOO Microbiology Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Phosphorous Cycle 0 Oligotrophic of a lake low accumulation of dissolved nutrient salts high oxygen low organic Eutrophication of a lake abundant accumulation of nutrients depletes oxygen in summer


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