New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Quiz 3 Study Guide

by: jjb13n

Quiz 3 Study Guide PSB 3004C

GPA 2.54

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Material for quiz 3
Physiological Psychology
Dr Hull
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Physiological Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by jjb13n on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSB 3004C at Florida State University taught by Dr Hull in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


Reviews for Quiz 3 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/29/16
Quiz 3 Study Guide    ● Name 3 areas of the body where ACh is the (or a) transmitter.  What are its 2 types  of receptor?  What is one of its functions in the brain, and what major disorder is  associated with degeneration of cholinergic input?  ○ Neuromuscular junctions  ○ Parasympathetic neurons (including the vagus, which slows the heart)  ○ Several basal forebrain nuclei that project to the hippocampus and widely  throughout the brain   ○ Receptors  ■ Nicotinic (most are ionotropic and excitatory)  ● On muscles and in the brain  ■ Muscarinic (metabotropic and can be excitatory or inhibitory)  ● Mediate parasympathetic effects and also in the brain  ○ Arousal and memory  ○ Alzheimers   ● What is the effect of curare?  Of botulinum toxin?  Of nicotine?  ○ Curare blocks nicotinic receptors; can be used to induce paralysis  ○ Botulinum toxin (Botox) blocks ACh release   ● Name the 3 catecholamines.  Name the 2 indoleamines.  ○ Catecholamines  ■ Dopamine   ■ Norepinephrine  ■ Epinephrine  ○ Indoleamines  ■ Serotonin  ■ Melatonin  ● Where do the 2 major dopamine tracts originate?  What are their names and their  major functions?  ○ Nigrostriatal tract (midbrain ­­­> substantia nigra)  ■ motor control  ○ Mesolimbic tract (midbrain ­­­> VTA)  ■ “engine” driving motivated behavior  ● What disorder is caused by degeneration of the nigrostriatal tract?  What is the  common effect of drugs of abuse?  ○ Parkinson’s disease  ○ Increased dopamine release in the mesolimbic tract  ● What is the neurotransmitter of postganglionic axons of the sympathetic nervous  system?  What is the main effect of that same transmitter in the brain?  What is the  hormone released from the adrenal medulla during times of stress?  ○ Norepinephrine ­­­> Arousal  ○ Epinephrine  ● How do SSRI antidepressants work?  What type of behavior releases that same  transmitter?  What is a major source of 5­HT neurons throughout the brain?  ○ SSRIs keep 5­HT in the synapse longer  ○ Rhythmic exercise  ○ Raphe nuclei of the midbrain and brainstem  ● What are the 2 main amino acid transmitters?  Which one is excitatory at ionotropic  receptors, and what are its 2 main ionotropic receptors?   Which is inhibitory, and  how does its ionotropic receptor work?  What drug is sometimes useful in treating a  stroke and can also→ ​symptoms of schizophrenia?  ○ Glutamate (excitatory)  ■ AMPA  ■ NMDA  ○ GABA (inhibitory)  ■ It opens Cl­ channels to hyperpolarize cells  ○ Ketamine    ● Which transmitters mimic the effects of morphine and heroin?  ○ Opioid Peptides  ● What is unusual about NO?  What are two main effects of NO?  ○ It’s a gaseous transmitter and is often produced in postsynaptic cells, from where  it diffuses back to the presynaptic cell  ○ Acts through cGMP and may promote neurotransmitter release  ○ Vasodilator  ● What is unusual about endocannabinoids?  What is one presumed  endocannabinoid?   ○ Activates same receptors as marijuana  ○ Anandamide (retrograde transmitter that inhibits release of glutamate and/or  GABA)  ● Define: ligand, agonist, antagonist  ○ Ligand (molecule that binds to a receptor)  ○ Agonist (molecule that stimulates a receptor (or increases transmitter release)  ○ Antagonist (molecule that blocks a receptor)  ● What may happen to postsynaptic receptors after repeated doses of an agonist?  An  antagonist? What is tolerance?  What may give rise to withdrawal symptoms?  What is sensitization?    ○ Agonists may decrease numbers of postsynaptic receptors, making later drug  doses less able to elicit a responsetolerance  ■ Gives rise to withdrawal symptoms  ○ Antagonists may increase the postsynaptic receptors, so that neurons can respond  to lower amounts of natural stimulation  ○ Sensitization (when drug responses become stronger, rather than weaker)  ● What is adenosine?  What does caffeine do to adenosine and to the release of  catecholamines?  How does this affect arousal?  ○ Caffeine blocks the effect of adenosine, an endogenous neuromodulator that  normally inhibits catecholamine release  ○ Adenosine is co­released with catecholamines and acts on autoreceptors to inhibit  further release of the catecholamines.  ○ Since caffeine blocks those inhibitory effects, more catecholamines are released,  resulting in greater arousal  ● How do benzodiazepine anxiolytics like Valium work?  Where on the receptor do  they bind?  A metabolite of what hormone may also bind to that receptor?  ○ Reduce nervous system activity  ○ Benzodiazepines bind at an ​orphan receptor​  site– no endogenous ligand has  been found  ○ Progesterone  ● What is the main mechanism of alcohol’s effects?  ○ Activates inhibitory GABA​ A​receptors, including in prefrontal cortex (PFC  normally inhibits impulses). It also inhibits NMDA receptors  ■ Inhibition of PFC ­­­> social disinhibition  ■ Inhibition in cerebellum ­­­> loss of motor coordination  ○ Stimulates dopamine pathways  ● Name 3 endogenous opioids. ​    ○ Enkephalins  ○ Endorphins  ○ Dynorphins  ● What are 2 psychological effects of marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)?   What are 2 medical uses of it?  How does it exert its effects?  What is one  endogenous cannabinoid?  ○ Psychological  ■ Impairs memory  ■ Intensifies sensory experience  ○ Medical  ■ Relieve pain/nausea  ■ Combat glaucoma  ○ Cannabinoid receptors mediate the effects of THC and other compounds  ○ Endocannabinoids ­­­> homologs of marijuana produced in the brain; act as  retrograde messengers and may inhibit the release of neurotransmitter from the  presynaptic neuron  ■ Anandamide  ● What are the physical and psychological effects of nicotine?  How does it exert its  psychological effects?  ○ Increases nervous system activity  ○ Physical  ■ Increases heart rate, blood pressure, hydrochloric acid secretion, and  bowel activity, at least in part by stimulating release of epinephrine and  norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla  ○ Psychological  ■ Activates nicotinic ACh receptors in the ventral tegmental area → increase  firing in DA neurons and DA release in N. accumbens  ● What is the main way that cocaine exerts its effects?  Why is crack cocaine even  more addictive than powdered cocaine?  ○ Blocks reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, & norepinephrine  ○ Crack is smoked and enters the brain more rapidly  ● How does amphetamine work?  ○ Makes synaptic vesicles containing dopamine “leaky,” so dopamine pours into the  cytoplasm  ○  Also reverses the transporter, driving dopamine into the synapse  ● How does Ritalin work?  Why is Ritalin, when taken as prescribed, not addictive?  ○ Blocks dopamine reuptake  ○ More gradual effect; no sudden “rush”, withdrawal effects, or cravings  ● What are the common psychological effects of hallucinogens?  Which transmitter is  structurally similar to LSD?  ○ Alter sensory perception and produce peculiar experiences  ○ Serotonin  ● Which tract is stimulated, either directly or indirectly, by essentially all drugs of  abuse?  ○ Mesolimbic dopamine tract, which projects from the ventral tegmental area  (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens  ● Why are methadone and nicotine patches not addictive?   ○ They are agonists/analogs ­­­­> they partially activate the same pathways                                                              


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.