Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide PSYC 4130
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4130 at University of Georgia taught by James Stringham in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Physio Comp Psych in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
PSYC4130 Exam 1 Study Guide The power points posted on eLC are the BEST way to study for this exam Below are some points that you should definitely know for the test The list is short again go through the power points thoroughly By no means is this list allinclusive but you should definitely know it 1 Anatomy The brain fairly basic what we covered anatomical directions cranial nerves and neuron 2 The nervous systembranches functions organization 3 What did some of the historical figures of physiological psychology do and why was it important to advancing our knowledge of neuroscience 4 Neural plasticity What is it Examples 5 The neural tubeearly development of the nervous systemanatomy 6 Genetics How does genetics work to produce the quotstuffquot of life 7 Be able to apply the acronym SAME DAVE to various aspects of anatomy and function In other words don t just memorize what each letter stands for understand what the acronym means The Human Brain Most complex structure in the universe Comparative Psychology How the brain works comparing among different species 0 Ex human brain compared to a rat brain Einstein Ordinary brain but had rich white matter 0 Had a lot of myelin so his communication was enhanced Why do people do the things they doquot Ex why are people addicted to gambling how does anxiety medicine work YOU are YOUR brain Charles Whitman The Texas tower Sniper 1966 Former marine sniper Goes to school goes to his psychiatrist telling them that he has murderous thoughts He ended up killing 13 people on campus from the Texas Tower After an autopsy was done on is brain and a tumor was found to be pressing up against he amygdala which controls aggression NGRI Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity Rarely used in US Some states have banned used of insanity defense 0 Montana Idaho Utah Kansas NGRI tricky it relies on a psychologist to determine mental states but ultimately the legal system determines whether or not an be used Durham NH standard a defendant is entitled to acquittal if the crime was a product of his mental illness President Reagan s attempted assassination led to the reform act of 1984 Can you be temporarily insane Yes The answers to complicated questions are rarely black and white Your brain malfunctions then you malfunction Should kids be given medication to correct behavioral emotional problems Under 10 years old Such as ADHD Are they just being a kid Take home message your brain LEARNS often without you knowing it When you change the chemical environment of your brain it creates new set pointsquot and assumes the current state of being is going to be relatively constant 0 The earlier stuff happens the more it stays This plasticity is especially potent during development some changes can be permanent The brain does not stop developing until age 25 when the prefrontal cortex is fully formed later in men Should it be legal to perform brain surgery or to administer electroconvulsive shock to control behavior Frontal lobotomy pierces frontal lobe and messes it up 0 Makes people calm but unaware and takes away decision making process Biological Physiological Psychology What Where Who When How and Why Biological psychology The study of the in uence of biological and physiological systems on behavior Behavior Anything an organism does that involves action and response to stimulation What produces behavior The mind The brain Are they different They seem to be Aristotle 384 322 BCE the mind resides in the heartbrain serves to cool the blood Later said brain produces human actions Ancient Egyptians heart is where the mind is when they embalmed a person the heart was preserved and the brain discarded Before Aristotle Plato Aristotle s teacher 427 347 BCE reasoned that the mind resides in the brain The sphere is the perfect geometrical shape so the mind must be located in the spherical head Hippocrates 460 377 BCE said brain is the organ of the mind Galen 130 200 AD propelled Hippocrates theory forward Dualism the idea that both body brain and mind exist as separate entities Rene Descartes 1596 1650 a dualist contended that movements of the pineal gland ultimately produced the mind Leibniz 16461715 a dualist mind and body brain don t interact they only appear to interactlike two perfectly synchronized clocks Thomas Hobbes 1588 1679 epiphenomenalism The activities of the brain produce the mind but the activities of the mind are irrelevant to the brain The noise of a vacuum cleaner is an epiphenomenon and totally unnecessary for sucking up dirt and hair What do you think a modern neuroscientist says about the mind and the brain Modern neuroscience subscribes to monism where the mind and brain are considered one and the same Could it be possible that the roughly 3 lb glob of jelly between your ears is the mind The brain has no moving parts On visual inspection it is just a lump of grayish tissue No indication that there are many billions of smaller units called neurons that make up the brain How could we determine what the brain actually does So who discovered that the brain is composed of billions of individual unitsand how did it happen Camillo Golgi 1870 developed a staining technique that yielded good contrast between the different types of tissues in the brain Place a thin slice of brain into silver nitrate and some of the individual cells can be seen under a microscope Only about 1 of the cells took up the stain which actually made visualization of the cells easier Santiago Ramon y Cajal 1878 Spanish physiologist used the Golgi staining method in newborn animals brain tissue less dense with neural processes to discover that those cells that took up the stain were individual units He also discovered other types of neurons receptors which are like other neurons but with specialized parts for detecting information from the environment Also discovered the synapse a tiny gap found between neuron units So we ve got billions of neurons but NONE of them are touching each other How in the world do neurons communicate with each other Charles Sherrington 1857 1952 tested spinal re exes in dogs which required the function of three neurons 1 a sensory neuron 2 a motor neuron and 3 a neuron that connected the two called an interneuron He measured the time it took for electrical pulse to travel down a single neuron Then he measured the time it took for an electrical pulse to travel through the three neurons involved in a spinal re ex It took longer than the time of the single neuron multiplied by 3 This suggested that electrical current was not the source of communication between neurons Must be something else Otto Loewi 1863 1961 despite prevailing wisdom of the day says neurons don t communicate with electricity I believe it s chemicalsquot Conducts an amazing experiment with frog hearts the idea for his key experiment came to him in his sleep Loewi dissected out of frogs two beating hearts one with the vagus nerve which slows heart rate attached the other heart without the vagus nerve Both hearts were bathed in a saline solution Loewi electrically stimulated the vagus nerve of the first heart which caused it to beat slower How vagus parasympathetic slow down Then he took some of the liquid bathing the first heart and added it to the other heart s bathing solution The application of the liquid made the second heart also beat slower proving that some soluble chemical released by the vagus nerve was controlling the heart rate Before Loewi39s experiments it was unclear whether signaling across the synapse was bioelectrical or chemical Loewi39s famous experiment published in 1921 largely answered this question He called the unknown chemical Vagusstoff It was later found that this chemical corresponded to acetylcholine we ll learn plenty about acetylcholine later Broca s area Paul Broca 1860 s Frontal lobe structure in left hemisphere in roughly 90 of people for 10 it s in the right hemisphere responsible for speech production Near motor strip of frontal lobe Wernicke s area Carl Wernicke 1874 Temporal lobe structure again left hemisphere in most responsible for speech comprehension Broca s aphasia non uent aphasia Wernicke s aphasia uent aphasia a Wilder Penfield 1935 Famous brain surgeon responsible for modernday formulation of localization of functionquot Electrophysiological studies EEG electroencephalograph1930 s many electrodes placed on patient s scalp often used in sleep research Animal Studies Animal Models a Lesioning a small part of an animal brain is removed the effects of the lesion are then studied b Ablation studies a large portion of the brain like an entire lobe of the cortex is removed Modern Techniques CAT scan Computerized Axial Tomography Xrays pass through the patient s head a computer creates an image of the brain Abnormal tissue eg tumors tend to show up darker in the picture Decent resolution September 2014 24year old woman discovered to have been born without a cerebellum responsible for motor coordination riding a bike posture balance motor learning and speech She was nearly normal in most ways but had serious issues with motor function didn t speak until she was 6 and couldn t walk until 7 Also had never been able to play and jump like normal kids Gave birth to a neurologically normal daughter b MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Uses strong magnetic fields radiofrequency pulses and computers to compose the image The resolution of the picture is much greater than the CAT scan Can be threedimensional c fMRI functional MRI Allows realtime imaging of brain function with MRI resolution Very cool research tool d PET scan Positron Emission Tomography A small amount of radioactive material is injected into the bloodstream The material binds to glucose which the brain uses together with oxygen to function The PET scan detects where the radioactive material goes Autoradiography inject a radioactive chemical into the bloodstream of an animal wait for the chemical to ow through the nervous system eg brain sacrifice the animal thinly slice the brain and place it onto xray film Can see where the specific chemical goes in the brain Right postmortem human brain radioactively tagged serotonin found to selectively bind in neocortex hippocampus and raphe nucleus where it is synthesized in the brain Microdialysis chemical analysis performed on a living animal A very small tube cannula is inserted into neural tissue in a specific location in the brain Neurochemicals diffuse into the tube can be identified with a chromatograph which detects the spectral signature of specific chemicals The image at right shows a rat with a dialysis probe chronically implanted into the nucleus accumbens Dopamine levels were found to be elevated in this area when rats were anticipating or engaging in sexual behavior brain uses 20 of resting oxygen Burns 20 of your calories more if you are thinking hard The Autonomic Nervous System Contains efferent neurons that control glandular activity and internal organ functioning Two divisions 1 sympathetic nervous system SNS and 2 Parasympathetic nervous system PRNS The SNS activated by conditions that promote arousal particularly in situations involving emotional reactions to stressors Stimulation of the SNS prepares an organism to respond to challenging or dangerous conditions Fight or ightquot response The PRNS activated by conditions of recovery or the termination of stressors allows the organism to replenish energydepleted stores The SNS and PRNS are generally antagonistic and serve to balance the overall state of arousal SNS rapid activation due to short preganglionic axonsmass effect on organ activation PRNS relatively slow activation due to long preganglionic axonsspecific organs affected Ganglion a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies Protective Features of the Central Nervous System 3 major protective features 1 The skull and vertebral column Provide bony physical protection for the soft tissue of the nervous system 24 individual vertebra fused regions of the sacral and coccygeal regions see right 2 The meninges Found between the skull and the brain and between the spinal cord and the vertebral column ie spine Outermost layer dura mater Thick durable exible Middle layer arachnoid mater Thin weblike sheet of tissue Subarachnoid space filled with CSF found between arachnoid mater and Innermost layer Pia mater Thin membrane that adheres to the surface of the brain Meningitis an infection or in ammation of the meninges caused either bacteria a virus or a fungus Can be fatal Excruciating headache stiff neck fever extreme sensitivity to light Similar to u symptoms 3 The ventricular system A series of hollow interconnected chambers in the brain and spinal cord Consist of 4 total ventricles The lateral ventricles and the 3rd and 4th ventricles The ventricles contain CSF which resembles blood plasma CSF cushions and protects the brain from injury provides buoyancy against gravity and contains nutrients needed by the CNS CSF is constantly manufactured by cells in the choroid plexus a rich network of blood vessels inside each ventricle The absorption of CSF into the bloodstream prevents excess accumulation the BBB is another protective featurewe ll discuss in Ch 4 The Brain Three main functions Recognizing detected stimuli Analyzing the information Executing the appropriate response Anatomy 3 primary divisions Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain The Hindbrain The hindbrain is divided into two major sections the myelencephalon and the metencephalon Myelencephalon contains the medulla oblongata which controls basic life functions eg respiration heart rate vomiting salivation Reticular formation reticular activating system begins in the medulla extends to other areas of the brain and is involved in arousal also extends to midbrain Metencephalon consists of two major structures Pons a bridge for many fibers passing from one side of the brain to the other Sensory fibers fibers from the cortex to cerebellum and fibers that relay information on sleep arousal and dreaming pass through it Cerebellum involved in the development and coordination of movement Raph system located along the midline of the hindbrain between the medulla and the midbrain Plays a crucial role in sleep and arousal The Midbrain Tectum quotroofquot relays visual and auditory information and controls simple re exes eye and ear orientation movements superior colliculi little hillsquot relays visual information visual re exes Orients the head and eyes to all types of sensory stimuli inferior colliculi relays auditory information auditory re exes Tegmentum oor coveringquot substantia nigra black substancequot integration of voluntary movements Dopaminergic neurons here red nucleus controls basic body movements reticular formation controls arousal and consciousness brain stem midbrain hindbrain minus the cerebellum The Forebrain The Diencephalon Epithalamus contains habenula olfactory functions and pineal gland produces melatonin Melatonin sleep hormone Thalamus sensory relay center Medial geniculate nucleus MGN relays auditory information Lateral geniculate nucleus LGN relays visual information Other nuclei connect to areas not involved in sensation eg the ventrolateral nucleus receives information from the cerebellum and relays it to the motor cortex Hypothalamus detects need states eg hunger and thirst controls the autonomic nervous system and controls pituitary hormone production and release Links nervous system to endocrine system via the pituitary gland releases MANY hormones responsible for among other things growth growth hormone secreted from anterior pituitary FAT RAT In the rat on the right the ventromedial hypothalamus has been damaged This leads to an inability to feel quotfullquot after eating called satiety The rat therefore seeks more food and gets bigger and bigger The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates circadian rhythm The Brain Forebrain The Telencephalon The telencephalon end brain consists of three parts 1 Limbic system Amygdala fear aggression anger Cingulate gyrus control of emotional behavior unpleasantness of pain Hippocampus plays an essential role in memory processes 2 Basal ganglia play a major role in initiating voluntary movements maintaining posture and muscle tone Also learning or choosing appropriate motor or behavioral quotprogramsquot Widespread connections to cortex and other areas of the forebrain Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus 3Cerebral cortex The shriveledup awesomeness that makes us superior beings Seriously though the cerebral cortex is the convoluted outer layer of the forebrain that processes sensory information controls thinking decision making stores and retrieves memory and initiates motor responses The cortex is divided into two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and each hemisphere has four lobes Frontal lobes anterior to the central sulcus is the motor cortex involved in muscle movement The area for programming and sequencing of motor movements for speech production Broca s area is also in the frontal cortex The prefrontal cortex controls complex intellectual functioning such as planning and sequencing of behavior Parietal lobes The anterior portion somatosensory cortex analyses sensory information such as pain pressure and body position The posterior portion is involved in spatial perception Temporal lobes includes the primary auditory cortex a visual area and language centers Occipital lobes Vision Period Somatosensory and Motor Cortexand Wilder Penfield Somatosensory cortex anterior portion of the parietal lobe Motor cortex area of the frontal lobe anterior to the central sulcus The face and hands have a large amount of representation in these areas This representation allows for great sensitivity and motor control for these areas of the body The 6 layers of the neocortex about 4 millimeters thick layers differentiated primarily by cell type Nissl staining reveals only cell bodies of neurons specifically the endoplasmic reticulum A basic dye eg cresyl violet binds to negatively charged nucleic acids like RNA and or DNA Camillo Golgi Golgi stain entire neuron is stained by impregnating fixed nervous tissue with potassium dichromate and silver nitrate Genetics The Basics Genetics The study of heredity or inheritance Gene A unit of heredity a region of DNA that directs the making of a protein Genes are located on chromosomes structures contained within the nucleus of each cell except red blood cells which lack a nucleus 22 pairs 1 each from Mom amp Dad PLUS the sex chromosomes A gene is a portion of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA the large doublehelix molecule 4 nitrogencontaining bases bases are substances that form salts when they interact with acids 1 Adenine 2 Thymine 3 Cytosine 4 Guanine Hydrogen bonds A T C G All attached to a sugar called deoxyribose DNA determines physical characteristics such as hair color eye color and blood type and also behavioral characteristics such as emotional disposition and intelligence DNA molecules provide the information to build proteinsand so it is involved in EVERY aspect of the body s structure and function How Via direction of RNA ribonucleic acid a singlestranded molecule Like DNA RNA contains 4 bases 3 are the same adenine cytosine guanine The fourth uracil binds to adenine A U C9 G A protein consists of a string of amino acids Different proteins have different amino acid sequences Each amino acid in the protein is determined by a sequence of three bases in the DNA molecule Triplet of bases governs the specific amino acid inserted into a protein during its synthesis Example the DNA triplet thymineguaninethymine TGT leads to the insertion of the amino acid cysteine in a protein molecule There are 20 quotstandardquot amino acids that can be combined to make a protein The sequence of amino acids determines each protein s unique 3dimensional structure and its specific function The process of DNA triplet sequences amino acid instructions to RNA proteins is very COMPLEX Sometimes things go wrong and certain proteins aren t made or are incorrectly transcribed Example Phenylketonuria Normally our genetic material facilitates production of an enzymatic protein called phenylalanine hydroxylase that metabolizes the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine Build up of phenylalanine can cause major problems ie mental retardation seizures Tyrosine is metabolized to produce among other things the neurotransmitters dopamine norepinephrine and epinephrine ie noradrenaline and adrenaline Thanks Mom amp Dad Inheritance Meiosis the process by which gametes sperm and egg cells with half the number of chromosomes found in other cells are formed When a baby is conceived genetic material is combined from both gametes to form a full set of chromosomes Allele an alternative form of a gene Can be two forms 1 Dominant the form of a gene that determines the expression of a physical characteristic when either or both members of a pair of alleles are in that form 2 Recessive same as above except that BOTH members of a pair of alleles are in that form So each of our genes or combination of them is responsible for a physical outcome that presumably makes us more likely to survive in an evolutionary sense Many diseases are due to a quotbrokenquot gene that can be covered upquot by having an effective gene on the homologous chromosome 9 heterozygous homozygous PlusEPIGENTICSthe other effect of the environment on our genes DNA is like a scriptnot a predetermined outcome The information is always the same but how it is interpreted can be different depending on the environment Dutch hunger winter 194445 Babies in last trimester of growth vs Babies in first trimester of growth Long term Babies born during shortage stayed small their entire lifeless obesity than normal Babies conceived during shortage seemed healthy but had higher rate of obesity These same effects were seen in the children of these babies as well The Evolution of the Nervous System Why do we have a nervous system Why did a nervous system evolve in the first place We know that a nervous system allows an organism to react and adapt to its environment Evolution a nervous system must contribute to survival of the species Those organisms with a nervous system were able to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions and react appropriately to threatening situations Simply put organisms that exhibit adaptive traits survive long enough to reproduce In evolution She who leaves the most babies winsquot Adaptive traits often happen quotaccidentallyquot Genetic mutations can be advantageous and become an essential part of a species genetic makeup Example Lactose tolerance into adulthood in most Northern Europeans Over the last 20000 years domestication of cattle Extra Somatosensory and Motor Cortex the bigger parts on the diagram are more sensitive The Cortex roughly 6 layers and different kinds of cells in different layers Nissl vs Golgi Stain Golgi was able to stain the entire neuron In the final weeks of pregnancy the baby s brain grows by 50 brain keeps growing about 18 months to 2 years after born Born with 200 BILLION NEURONS Genetics The Basics genetics study of heredity 0 gene unit of heredity region of DNA that direct the making of a protein 0 genes located on chromosomes I red blood cells lack a nucleus protein consists of a string on amino acids 0 there are 20 amino acids Tyrosine is crucial to formation of neurotransmitters o Phenylketonurics cannot convert phenylalanine into tyrosine Epigenetics turning genes on a off Emergence of the Nervous System Invertebrates animals without a backbone Most animal on earth are invertebrates 0 Ex insects outnumber humans by a billion to one Invertebrates have a simpler nervous system but nevertheless highly successful at adapting to a large number of situations Very simple creatures like jellyfish have nerve nets which only serve sensory or motor functions So technically not a nervous system A true nervous system when nerve fibers are grouped together to form ganglia on each side of the body and the ganglia are bridges together via nerve cords our major nerve cord is the spinal cord 0 Each ganglion receives information from one side of the body and controls function on that side 0 The specialization of unction makes the nervous system of the roundworm more complex than the jelly fish The evolutionary process of concentrating neurons in the head region is called cephalization o Cephalization or encephailization increases as the complexity of the nervous system increases 0 Primitive invertebrates gt complex invertebrates gt vertebrates The vertebrate nervous system differs from the invertebrate nervous system in the ways listed in the table below 0 Most notably the vertebrate nervous system has a protective covering and myelinated axons for rapid transmission of neural messages The nervous system of an insect Many neurons are combined to form a large supraesophageal ganglion brain and paired ganglia in each body segment below the brain with nerve fibers connecting each ganglion to the brain The sixe of the forebrain relative to the hindbrain and midbrain increases in the more advanced vertebrates The midbrain and part of the hindbrain are surrounded by the forebrain in humans In mammalian species the cerebral cortex is a deeply folded or convoluted in mammals which gives it greater surface area and correspondingly more neurons The Structural Development of the Human Nervous System Conception moment of fertilization of an egg by a sperm Fertilization the fusion of an egg nucleus and sperm nucleus Single ejaculation has 250000000 sperm 0 Roughly 100 have a chance to make it to the egg Ovulation when an egg enters the fallopian tube it profuces a scent that drive sperm cells like crazy 0 Being process called capacitiation where they ched certain proteins I Enables increased mobility fastest sperm can get to fallopian tuve in 30 min I Coneption can occur as many as 5 days after sex Single celled zygotes has 46 chromosomes 23 from egg 23 from sperm Chromosomes contain entire genetic blueprint for embryonic and fetal development 0 12 hours post conception zygote divides I Called embryo for next 8 weeks for remained of pregnancy it is referred to as a fetus Cells of embryo continue to divide and after 3 days the result is a mass of homogenous cells that looks like a cluster of grapes Called blastocyst Formation of the Nervous System 2 weeks after conception embryo has divided into 3 distinct layers of cells called gastrulation o endoderm innermost layer form lining of intestines lungs and liver 0 mesoderm middle layer form connective tissues such as muscle bone and cartilage o ectoderm outermost layer become nervous system epidermis and parts of the eyes and ears The neural tube and CNS in the human embryo Neurulation transformation of neural tube into primitive structures that will become the CNS 0 Notochord directs the development after a while gets absorbed into the bond Where can this go wrong If the neural folds fail to close completely it causes a neural tube defect o Situation where we have exposed neural tissue I See this in Spina bidfida Most common at the caudal end of the spinal cord Babies live but usually unable to properly use legs I Anencephaly born without major portions of the brain Major portions of brain skull and scalp fail to develop Usually still born or die shortly after birth Studied have shown that NTDs neural tube defects can be prevented with maternal folic acid supplementation Human embryo neural tube 9 spinal cord 9 brain By day 23 brain has differentiated into 3 separate structures forebrain midbrain and hindbrain Development is shown at 4 5 and 11 weeks the major division of the brain are apparent at 11 weeks Spinal Cord Differentiation Ventricular zone site where mitosis occurs 0 Make 500 000 neurons per minute Intermediate zone cellular area that contains post mitotic neurons and form the CNS gray matter Marginal zone axonal region that becomes the CNS white matter The dorsal spinal cord primarily contains neurons related to sensory function whereas motor neurons reside in the ventral spinal cord Dorsal root ganglia sensory are derived from neural crest cells And are part of the peripheral nervous system Motor neurons originate in the ventral neural tube and extend their axons to muscle targets SAME DAVE o Sensory a erent motor e erent o Dorsal a erent ventral e erent Differentiation of the brain Swellings within the neural tube called vesicles become what we recognize as the brain Neuroplasticity you can teach an old brain adult brain new tricks brain new radical things Throughout fetal development the formation of new neurons occurs called neurogenesis 0 500000 a minute at peak neurogenesis o In humans few neurons are formed after birth The are exceptions however I Cerebellar cells continue to form for several months after birth I Olfactory smell receptor neurons are replaced throughout our lives I Hippocampal neurogenesis can occur 9 memory formation I Ares of cortex can also generate newrewire existing cells Esp pre frontal cortex and other areas associated with cognitive functions 0 All of this facilitates neuroplasticity the ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions Once was though that the adult human brain was hardwired fixed in form and function by the time we reach adulthood we are pretty much stuck with what we have 0 Increasingly convincing evidence that this is simply not true Phantom limb the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately with other body parts VS Ramachandran 17 year old patient involved in an automobile accident left arm amputated 6 cm above elbow o Experienced a vivid phantom hand that was telescoped so that it felt as if it were attached just a few centimeters below his stump 0 With the patients eyes closed Ramachandran used a cotton swab to brush various areas of the skin surface I Asked the patient to report what he felt When the left side of his face was touched the patient indicated that he felt sensation in his amputated hand Specific digits of the phantom hand could be stimulated by touching specific areas of his face 0 This was the first instance of someone experiencing neural reorganization o The patients cortex that was originally devoted to touch sensation for his hand had started to encroach on the face area 0 Mirror Therapy buy mirror and look in mirror and mirror the arm so it looks like another arm Tricking the brain 30 to 40 seconds of moving this around and the pain is gone
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