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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natasha on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 202 at St. Cloud State University taught by Schoenfuss, Heiko in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Anatomical Nomenclature fair game for all exams Lecture and Laboratory in BIOL 202 amp BIOL 204 Body Regions And Regional Adjectives Abdominal Regionstwd Abdominal Epigastricwsupgrwp 39l39D Umbil tal Warmquot Antebrachial Hypogast c 1nl3u ior 1 umbilical 330 439 AXlllary Hypochondriac Regions lie lateral 4quot W elm r3950 Brachial Iliac Regions la l39arql 9 Mae hypo qs lfk warm Buccal Lumbar Regions la39l39ml 4 4m Umb icql New Calcaneal Umbilicalvchrermsl39 mm an in 6 Summig mms carpal Orientation 391 Cephalic Caudal Cervical Cranial COXEll Deep wa3 W m body Sergei Mere m lemq DlSlal39 atrnar Lem he ot g m o as looAy pawl Frontal DOFSElPOStGl39lOF loulmd remit OJP badmbel m Gluteal Inferiorlgwer earl o 0142 6053 below J IngUlnal Lateraluamg From medium a bats Fragquot 535 6 Lumbar 39 Medialviwmro marine DJ ii 3 m 3 639 o r quotn 3 We 5035 parl Mammary PrOXImalncloScr l9 quotHat 3quot Manus Superficialhum w chm body that Mental Superior MONA e hepcl and o H e above Nasal Ventral 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531mm 3 Transverse Mclmmh sugc oca W rbOJHOm Pronation rQA UsUina realms ml a a e W Cavities raw Supination decilesvim 39pnr allel 9mm 3 Cranialwslzuu Protraction nonungulqr animor movanen l39 m a 4mm Pram Thoracic rib5 hcs mums Lama Qima maesom ylmm Retraction Postwar moments in a transverse 91am Abdominalarshmm ni39csknapmunknee mm A a Joints tees Mediastinum oo l ains vmmrdia MM WW5 alwa Ball and Socket Joint multimd lr swam 5m shouldmvg Pelvic wzwx omAacr ccvlumsom reemcluciwe scams Condyloid Joint ma bone was in WW Mimi Pericardial emloses HM Wt Hinge Jointsm ko m one emu elbow Cyclvicnl bum Peritoneum mcmam 43mm i m m 5 thaw Mt Pivot JOlntDuf c bane WW quotquot W quotcf 1 WWW W Pleural analog x3 a has Plane Joints new wee a imam mama flaws mm Vertebral Wins willtin 44mg bony vetlevth Cplumh Saddle Joint go ch aWX like A 55M Juneau WMBS enclose M delich W NA Study Guide Review the Power Point and book for more information on things you do not understand Terms to know Dermskin Ectooutside Endoinner Mesoin between Ectoderm outside your body Mesoderm muscular tissue and most skeletal tissues Endoderm lining inside your mouth Osmosismovement of WATER across a membrane Diffusionmovement of molecules not water across a membrane Benign tumor that does not spread Malignant tumor that can move to other parts of the body Apicaltop of cell Basolateral side and bottom or cell Cytoplasmmaterial between plasma membrane and the nucleus Cytosollargely water with dissolved protein salts sugars and other solutes Cytoplasmic organelles metabolic machinery of the cell Inclusionschemical substances such as glycosomes glycogen granules and pigment The hydrostatic properties of the cytoplasm help maintain the shape like water in a balloon The Cell Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann purposed the cell theory 0 The cell is the unit of structure physiology and organization of living things 0 The cell retains a dual existence as distinct entity and building blocks of an organism 0 All cells come from preexisting cells The cell theory has since expanded and says 0 All metabolic events occur Within a cell The phospholipid bilayer is not homogeneous It has a polar head and a nonpolar tail It contains 0 75 Phospholipids 0 5 Glycolipids 0 20 Cholesterol Membrane proteins have six functions 0 Transport 0 Receptors for signal transduction 0 Attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix 0 Enzymatic actiVity 0 Intercellular Joining 0 Cellcell recognition How will you remember the six functions proteins Transport through the plasma membrane can happen in a few ways 0 Simple Diffusion 0 More molecules outside the cell then inside the cell the outside molecules go to the inside 0 Nonpolar and lipid soluble substances 0 Passive 0 Facilitated Diffusion 0 Specific channels that are somewhat selective O Glucose Amino Acids and ions 0 Carriers 0 Large molecules 0 Can be passive or active Usually it is passive SodiumPotassium Pump 0 It moves against the concentration gradient 0 It is vital to our nervous system 0 Sodium moves outside of the cell 0 Potassium is being pumped into the cell Vesicular Transport moves large amounts of particles across the plasma membrane 0 Exocytosismoves substances from the inside of the cell to the outside 0 Endocytosis large substances can enter the cell 0 Phagocytosis pseudopods eat substances and bring them into the middle of the cell Do you know the di erences Cell junctions stabilize the cells that need to be held in place 0 Tight Junction 0 Gap Junction 0 Desmosomes Where are these found and what do they do Cytoplasmic Organelles 0 Some organelles have their own membrane Mitochondria 0 Membrane bound organelle 0 Power house of the cell 0 Turns ADP into ATP 0 Contains its own DNA and RNA Ribosomes 0 Lack a membrane 0 Located on the Rough ER 0 Some oat freely Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 Rough ER that contains ribosomes 0 Smooth ER catalyzes reactions Golgi Apparatus 0 Packages vesicles for exocytosis 0 Sit of maturation of proteins Peroxisomes 0 Maintains health of cell 0 Looks like a little bubble 0 Detoxifies the cell Lysosomes 0 Get rid of harmful small organisms by digesting them 0 Breakdown molecules Nucleus 0 Contains DNA 0 Ribosomes are produced 0 Has its own plasma membrane 0 Centrioles are close to the nucleus O Responsible for cilia and agellum Nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus The cytoskeleton 0 Microtubules 0 Microfilaments 0 Intermediate filaments Tissues Tissues have four primary types 0 Epithelium 0 Connective tissue 0 Nervous tissue 0 Muscle Tissues serve functions 0 Protection outerskin in your elbow and knee 0 Absorption allows oxygen into the bloodstream 0 Filtration filters kidneys 0 Secretion cells dump things into the environment Why are these functions important Naming epithelial tissues 0 Simple or stratified 0 Squamous cuboidal or columnar 0 Other special features ie goblet Know the location and function of the following epithelium Simple Epithelium 0 Simple squamous epithelium 0 Simple cuboidal epithelium 0 Simple columnar epithelium 0 Pseudostratified epithelium Stratified Epithelium 0 Stratified squamous epithelium 0 Stratified cuboidal epithelium 0 Stratified columnar epithelium 0 Transitional epithelium epithelium Make sure to always name the epithelium fully Four types of membranes 0 Mucous membranes 0 Serous membranes 0 Cutaneous membranes 0 Synovial membranes How will you remember the four types of membranes Two types of glands 0 Endocrine glands secrete hormones 0 Exocrine glands salivary glands in the mouth Excretion includes 0 Apocrine mammary gland 0 Merocrine fuses Within the cell 0 Holocrine Whole cell is secreted Connective tissue fibers 0 Collagen most common 0 Reticular limited honeycomb structure 0 Elastic stretch and still retain shape Connective tissue characteristics 0 Connective tissue can be well vascularized 0 It can also be avascular 1 One element of the extracellular matrix is the ground substance a Contains water With proteins and polysaccharide molecules 2 Fibers Which are produced by cells a Collagen fibers b Elastic fibers c Reticular fibers Connective Tissue Types 0 Bone osseous tissue 0 Living tissue 0 Lacunae 0 Protect and support the body Hyaline cartilage 0 Most common cartilage and rubbery Elastic cartilage O Elasticity to it 0 Found in ear and voice apparatus Fibrocartilage 0 Very compressible 0 Found in knee and elbow joints Dense connective tissue 0 Collagen fibers and fibroblasts O Tendonmuscle to bone 0 Ligamentsbone to bone 0 Like a rope strength in one direction Areolar connective tissue 0 Also known as loose tissue 0 Soft and pliable 0 Contains all fibers not organized or dense O Absorb a lot of water Adipose tissue 0 Important because it keeps us warm 0 Protects organs in the body bubble wrap when you mail a package 0 Fuel storage Reticular connective tissue 0 Interwoven fibers 0 Found in lymph nodes spleen and bone marrow Blood 0 Surrounds the uid matrix 0 Can see the fibers during clotting 0 Moves nutrients and wastes around the body 0 Erythrocytes RBCs are the most common 0 Leukocytes Remember these by Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas 0 eutrophil 0 Lymphocyte 0 Monocyte 0 Eosinophil 0 Basophil Tissue repair 0 Regenerate natural turn over 0 Fibrosis scar tissue which is less exible 0 Epithelial tissue and fibrous connective tissue and bone regenerate easily because they have a good and immediate blood supply 0 Skeletal muscle regenerates poorly since it does not get good blood supply 0 Cardiac muscle nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord are usually replaced largely With scar tissue This is a problem in the heart because scar tissue doesn t contract 0 Cartilage and dense connective tissue take a long time to regenerate Integument and Glands Epithelial membranes 0 Cutaneous membrane 0 Dry membrane 0 Protective O Superficial epidermis is dead and filled With keratin O Underlying dermis is connective tissue 0 Mucous membrane 0 Lines all the body cavities that are open to the exterior of the body 0 Many types of different surface epithelium depending on the site 0 Serous membrane 0 Simple squamous epithelium Lines the body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body Secretes uid to reduce friction and prevent in ammation Peritoneum abdominal cavity Pleura surrounds the lungs Pericardium surrounds the heart OOOOO Connective tissue membrane 0 Synovial membrane 0 Contains connective tissue only 0 In knee joints not a place where epithelium can survive Integumentary system 0 Skin covers a huge surface area 0 Contains 0 Sweat glands 0 Oil glands scalp gets oily from hair 0 Hairs we have few hairs compared to animals 0 Nails The difference in thin skin and thick skin is how thick the stratum corneum picture in powerpoint Stratum comeum Stratum lacidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum vasalegerminativum Two layers in the epidermis 1 Papillary layer a Pain receptors b Nerve endings 2 Reticular layer a Blood vessels b Glands c Nerve receptors Hair Produced by a hair bulb Made of hard keratinized epithelial cells Hair follicle The dermal and epidermal sheath surrounds the hair root Arrector pilli causes goose bumps on us and hair to stand up straight in a dog Nails They are colorless because they lack melanocytes The stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed Which is responsible for growth Glands All glandular tissues come from an epithelial tissue type Glandular secretions come from processes inside the cell Glands are extremely diverse in form and function Exocrine glands the epithelial surface Endocrine glands into the blood stream Paracrine glands the interstitial space Sebaceous glands 0 Produce oils that lubricate skin and kill bacteria 0 Glands are activated at puberty Sweat glands 0 Eccrinie 0 Open from a duct and go onto the skins surface 0 Apocrine 0 Empty into hair follicles 0 Mostly water 0 Some metabolic waste 0 In apocrine it contains fatty acids and proteins 0 Helps body cool down 0 Gets rid of waste products 0 Acidic in nature to inhibit bacterial growth Skin homeostatic imbalances 0 Exposures latex gloves causes allergic reactions 0 Impetigo caused by bacterial infection 0 Psoriasis trauma infection stress trigger it 0 Burns 0 Tissue damage caused by heat electricity UV radiation chemicals 0 Dangers are dehydration electrolyte imbalance circulatory shock 0 First degree burns only epidermis is damaged 0 Second degree burns epidermis and upper dermis is damaged 0 Third degree burns destroys the entire layer of skin 0 Skin graft since the hair is completely burned away Cancer 0 Abnormal mass of cells 0 Skin cancer is the most common type 0 Basal cell carcinoma 0 Squamous cell carcinoma 0 Malignant melanoma I am a student in the class and have no idea What Will be on the test I would reVieW this and be comfortable With the material on it Also look over powerpoints and do reVieW questions from the book I uploaded a terms sheet With some of the terms I defined Good luck
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