Study Guide Ascent of Europe
Study Guide Ascent of Europe HIST 031
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Shore on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 031 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Benjamin Nathans, Thomas Max Safley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Ascent of Europe in History at University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Sophie Shore February 23, 2016 International Production, International Markets: Slavery, Consumption, and Hegemony International trade transforms business and life o Longdistance trade required largerscale companies Joinstock company first appears in Portugal, 15 century Ordinary partnership Partners hold stock jointly, are liable jointly Early corporations East India Companies (Dutch, English, French) Limited liability Evolution of defining institutions Shares Governing structure/voting rights Liability o These companies carry luxury goods that begin as luxuries A fascination for the exotic: emporia, curiosities Inspires new patterns of production Inspires new patterns of consumption Imitative commodities Cheaper imitations o Marchands merciers The trade in “luxuries” brings with it a trade in humans o Definition of a slave o Origins of slavery Captives o Preconditions of slavery Abundance of land Shortage of labor Underdevelopment of technology Laborintensive production Slave societies in history o Moses Finley – Greece as first “slave society” Slaves as a major source of productivity Slaves as a major influence of culture Necessary conditions for the emergence of a “slave society” Private ownership of land Commodity production for markets Labor shortage o “Slave societies” in Western history th Athens in the Age of Solon (5 century BCE) Roman Empire (2 century BCE2 century CE) Medieval Europe Plantation society in early modern Europe and the New World Sophie Shore Spread of slavery to the New World o Medieval slave plantations in the Mediterranean Sugar production on Cyprus o Sugar production spreads to Eastern Atlantic islands Madeira in the 15 century o Sugar plantations in Brazil in 16 century th o Sugar plantations in Caribbean in 17 century Barbados o Atlantic islands lack suitable labor source Profits depend on labor Indigenous Indentured Enslaved: Resort to African people Demand for slaves o Only in ancient Rome did supply precede demand o Demand for slaves creates slave trading routes and frontiers Ancient Greeks purchase slaves in the Black Sea basin Medieval traders seek slaves in Eastern Europe (Slavs) o Slave trade uniquely important in Africa Portuguese acquire slaves on the West African coast in the 15 century As the demand and price increase, frontier moves inland Slaves moved across the Sahara, up the Nile, and across the Red Sea West African states develop economies specializing in the slave trade o Slaves sold, captured, and stolen Economic impact of slavery o Relationship of slave trade to regional disparities in economic development Slavery essential to economic development of America Slavery detrimental to economic development of Africa o Estimates of volume of slave trade (Philip Curtin) C. 11 million slaves traded in Atlantic Mist carried by Portuguese and British merchants o Impact on Africa Limited geographically to WestCentral Africa Economic costs and benefits mixed Social externalities o Impact on Europe and America Slavery a source of profit and, thus, capital Slavery and industrialization o Eric Williams (1944): Slavery is essential to Industrial Revolution o Further studies have modified this extreme view Profits from slavery were more modest than Williams projected Slaveproducing regions were outlets of industrial goods The end of the slave trade Sophie Shore o West Indies and USA end slave imports in 1808 o Productivity of slave labor vs. free labor Keeps slavery alive in the USA o All major religions sought to limit slavery th No systematic attack on slavery brought until mid18 century Slavery already in decline in the Atlantic trade Why abolitionist movements develop when they did Enlightened ideologies Unprofitability of slave labor in some industrial niches Opposition by free labor o Fear of competition What makes slavery hegemonic? o Slavery in the West is tied to economic development o Today slavery is illegal o Is slavery worth the price? Modern capitalism generates the highest standard of living for the largest portion of the Earth’s population in all of Earth’s history The distribution of wealth is characteristically uneven (Thomas Pickety) February 25, 2016 Introduction o Industrial Revolution Series of events that took place in Britain, 17601840 Sustained technological progress – modern economy o Technological production was a sustained and continuous process Reorganization of production – factory Alters every aspect of the human condition o Industrial Revolution not the beginning of: Industrialization Innovation Expansion o Industrial Revolution limited classically to Britain Other nations follow other developmental paths Topics of Discussion o Nature of the Industrial Revolution o Technology is Everything o Immediate effects were largely negative o Emergence of the Factory Technology is everything o Britain as a technologically competent society General, sustained interest in matters technical o Most important technological breakthroughs Power – steam engine Sophie Shore Denis Papin: first steam engine Thomas Newcomen James Watt: watt pumping, made steam engine more efficient Smeaton’s breast wheel Textiles – spinning mule Spurs further mechanization Samuel Crompton Spreads to other fibers o Philippe de Girard – linen weaving o JosephMarie Jacquard – pattern weaving Ironmaking Coke as fuel Blast furnace o James Nielsen Puddling o Henry Cort (reverberatory furnace) Other industries o Industrial Revolution as a period of sustained technological advance Immediate effects are largely negative o Growth of income per capita limited until 1840 “Modern” sectors of economy !!!!!! o Gains to consumers offset by suffering of producers Loss of employment to traditional, handicraft laborers Dangerous conditions in factories o Rapid urbanization Population growth outruns infrastructure expansion o Risks to investors and entrepreneurs Little support for limitedliability corporations Frequency of bankruptcies Insecurity of patents Child labor Industrial city: Manchester Emergence of the factory o Factory transforms the workplace o Why did the Industrial Revolution occur? o Timing 17601840 Resolution of technical problems of production Existence of markets o Location: Britain Resources Geography Sophie Shore Institutions Laws Culture o Form – dependent variable Significance of the Industrial Revolution o Britain becomes the leading power in the worlds o Altered parameters for economic development Technology becomes the driving source o Other nations follow other paths to economic development o Industrial Revolution changes course of economic history Capitalists mobilize capital and labor on a new scale Yields unimaginable prosperity
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