Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 BISC207
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Notetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BISC207 at University of Delaware taught by JaneNoble-Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Ryan Cleary Exam 1 Study Guide Topic 1 Biologythe science of how life works Observationsthe act of viewing the world around us Experimenta disciplined and controlled way of asking and answering questions about the world in an unbiased manner Hypothesestentative explanations of observations Predictionsguesses for the outcome of untested experiments Testrun experiments to test predictions A single observation can support or reject a hypothesis prediction but cannot say it is correct Scientific methodmaking predictions hypotheses and running experiments tests to support or reject 0 Fossil examplediscovered that Iridium was found in large deposits in the sedimentary rock and hypothesized that it was a meteor that killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago Theorycomes about after a number of experiments and hypotheses come to similar conclusions Composition of the earth s crust is 495 oxygen and 257 silicon which is very different than the composition of human body 65 oxygen and 10 hydrogen First Law of Thermodynamicsenergy can never be created nor destroyed only transformed Second Law of Thermodynamicsthe degree of disorder in the universe tends to increase over time o Entropya measure of the disorder in a system 0 Entropy is given off to environment in organisms helps speed up molecules around the cell 0 Entropy has to be looked in terms universewe take in energy and give off entropy Early ideas of living things 0 Spontaneous creation of living things from air and nutrients 0 Meat and maggots example from class Pedi conclusionmaggots come from ies that lay eggs on the meat not spontaneously because there is air and nutrients o Pasteur experimentblew out the neck of a ask to make it curved while the other ask had a straight neck the curved neck remained sterile over time while the straight neck did not this proves that the microbes that appear in the broth are not produced spontaneously but from particles that ow into the ask curved neck trapped the particles owing into ask There was a lack of oxygen in the early atmosphere that would have oxidized the parts coming together to create the first cell Cellunit of life all living things are a collection of cells 0 Stores and transmits energy 0 Has a plasma membrane that separates the cell from the surroundings o Harnesses energy from environment each cell works independently DNAdoublehelix carries information to produce elements that do work for cell in gene sequence Central dogmaDNA 9 through transcription 9 RNA 9 through translation 9 protein Proteinthe key structural and functional molecules that do the work of the cell Energy comes from the sun electromagnetic radiation and oxidation of chemical compounds Evolution is a change over time 0 Changes can be environmental or genetic 0 Changes occur over populations of species not individuals 0 Beetles exampleenvironmental factors impact the different colored beetle s ability to reproduce differently differential reproduction 0 Natural selectionmechanism of how we get evolution natural factors determine which organisms are best suited to environment and can produce the most fertile offspring 0 Success in evolution means contributing the most fertile offspring 0 Tree of life LUCA universal phylogenetic tree has three domains Bacteria prokaryotes Archaea prokaryotes and Eukarya eukaryotes Topic 2 Molecules of life 0 Six major elementscarbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen sulfur and phosphorous o Atomnucleus contains neutrons and protons and electron cloud Bohr s model of the atomelectrons are specialized to specific energy rings 0 Chemical bonds I Covalentatoms share electrons I Polar covalentunequal sharing of electrons which creates a partial positive negative charge I Hydrogen bonding occurs from the interaction between H bonded to O N or F and O N or F bonded to H I Liquid water has incomplete hydrogen bonding and ice has complete hydrogen bonding and is less dense that water I Ionic bondtransfer of electrons from one atom to another atom and are attracted to each other through the creation of ions I Ionic compounds dissolve into water and fully dissociate by being surrounded by water Hydrophilicreadily dissolves in water molecules that contain poles or ions Hydrophobicdoes not readily dissolve in water molecules have no poles or ions Amphipathicmolecules that have both polar and nonpolar regions Hydrophobic effecthydrophobic molecules will take up the least amount of space in water 0 Polymerschains of monomers subunits similar to string of beads the sequence of the monomers is important Four Macromolecules 0 Proteins Made up of amino acids which are amine group carboxyl group a functional group that varies Amine group is basic while the carboxyl group is acidic All proteins that are used in the cell are water soluble Proteins are long chains of monomers folded up in a specific way When amino acids are put together water is lost and peptide bonds are created bond that holds amino acids together in protein chain 0 Nucleic acids Difference between DNA and RNA2 Carbon RNA hydroxyl group and 1 Carbon bases different between uracil RNA and thymine DNA Pyrimidine basesone ring Thymine Cytosine Uracil Purine basestwo fused rings Adenine and Guanine Thymine Uracil and Adenine are complementshydrogen bond with each other in DNA doublehelix Cytosine and Guanine are complements Hydrogen bonds holds DNA together Phosphate group is linked between 3 Carbon above and 5 Carbon below in sugar group Phosphodiester bond holds the phosphates and the sugars together 0 Carbohydrates Monosaccharideone sugar disaccharidetwo sugars oligosaccharidea few sugars polysaccharidemany sugars Linear vs cyclic glucosecyclic forms in cells while linear was the way it was first discovered Know structure Sugars are put together by glycosidic bond by removing water 0 Lipids Fatty acidpalmitic acid carboxyl group decides its interaction in water Steroidscholesterol hydroxyl group plays a part in the orientation in plasma membrane Phospholipidglycerol backbone attached to two fatty acids and polar heads kink comes from a double bond between two carbons as the geometry of the structure is altered polar head is made of a negative phosphate group and positive choline Triacylglycerolfats and oils glycerol plus three fatty acid tails An unsaturated fatty acid contains one or more double bond meaning it does not make maximum number of hydrogen Van der Waals forcesweak IMF s partial momentary positive negative forces that attract and increase with length and saturation kinks lower the forces because they move further away and lower melting point I Phospholipid bilayerhydrophilic heads are on the outside with the hydrophobic tails are on the inside form vesicles that have hollow centers MillerUrey experimentby heating water into a valve that contained NH3 CH4 and H2 they were able to create amino acids and glucose demonstrated how the earth first created life Clays could line things up and were thought to line up molecules Topic 3 Griffith s experiment 0 Injected mice with virulent capsule around cell that prevents WBC from killing it and nonvirulentmice with virulent died but the mice with nonvirulent lived Injected mice with killed virulent broken into bits and remains healthy but nonvirulent killed virulent killed the micenonvirulent cells took information from the dead virulent cells and created a capsule to survive and kill the mice Avery MacLeod and McCarthy s experiment 0 RNase Protease and DNase kill RNA protein and DNA were added to mice injected with dead virulent and nonvirulent cells DNase was the one were the mice didn t die meaning that DNA contained the information that allowed the change in the nonvirulent cellpeople at the time thought protein contained genetic information and ignored these findings DNAbase attached to deoxyribose sugar and attached on the other side to phosphate group O O 0 Sugar base nucleoside Sugar base 1 2 3 phosphate nucleotide or nucleoside mono di triphosphate Complementary base pairs AT and CG Opposite ribbons run in different directions one runs 3 to 5 and the other antiparallel 5 to 3 DNA is wrapped around protein called histone twice and then wraps itself around the next and one histone with wrapped DNA nucleosome and then together form a fiber chromatin Euchromatincan be used to open up DNA strand to work on genes used for expression transcription and can be copied in this form DNA replication is semiconservative process because the DNA template is conserved and only the one half of the RNA is reused Thymine has methane group CH3 while Uracil does not DNA transcription 0 RNA polymerase separates the strands of DNA that are to be copied template RNA begins at the 5 end and adds new bases onto the 3 end RNA matches complementary base pairs from DNA template o Nucleoside triphosphate is building block of RNA transcription RNA 9 mRNA 0 5 end cap is 7methylguanosine and attached with a 5 to 5 phosphate linkage o Polyadenylationmultiple adenines are added to the 3 end 0 2 kinds of segments are in the RNA exactly copied from DNA exon and intron exon has genetic material that is expressed in the protein while the intron contains information that is unnecessary o Introns are removed and released leaving only exons 0 Spliceosomeshelps slice the RNA by creating a loop and cutting out the introns 0 Alternate splicingsome exons can be removed with introns and create different strands of mRNA more than 80 of genes have alternate splicing
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