KIN 375: Exercise Physioloigy Study Guide 2
KIN 375: Exercise Physioloigy Study Guide 2 KIN 375-01
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by a_jones17 on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 375-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Allan H. Goldfarb in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Physiology of Sport / Phys Act in Writing at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
1. True or False: Innate immunity means that you are born with this ability to protect against infectious agents. 2. The cells in the body that help with foreign invaders are called _______________ A. red blood cells B. leukocytes C. stem cells D. platelets 3. True or False: Antibodies from both T and B cells can recognize and help remove antigens. 4. The three most important cells for assisting in the immune response that are part of the innate system are Natural Killer cells, Macrophages, and Neutrophils. 5. What is the relationship (shape of curve) with exercise intensity and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) Risk? Describe the curve. J Theory where moderate exercise decreases risk but higher intensity increases risk from normal. 6. True or False: Moderate aerobic exercise can help reduce the risk of URTI. 7. If one exercises too much or at too high and intensity this can compromise the immune system and is known as the open window theory. 8. True or False: The difference between the central and peripheral nervous system depends on the direction of the impulses toward and away from the target tissue. 9. What are EPSP’s and IPSP’s and explain how they both influence resting membrane potential. EPSP’s = Excitatory post-synaptic potentials; they slightly hypo-polarize (depolarize) the resting membrane potential toward threshold – move toward threshold. IPSP’s = Inhibitory post-synaptic potentials; they slightly hyperpolarize the resting membrane potential away from threshold – move away from threshold. 10. What is temporal summation? Give an example. The input of more frequent impulses from a single neuron to increase EPSP’s to reach an action potential. An example is a nerve firing more frequently to cause an action potential. 11. What is spatial summation? Give an example. T he input of stimuli from different neurons to result in many EPSP’s to reach an action potential. An example is having multiple nerves send EPSP’s to make a group of motor units within the muscle to fire. 12. Receptors that provide the CNS with information about position of body parts are _______ A. mechanoreceptors B. chemoreceptors C. proprioceptors D. kinoreceptors 13. The term which means conscious recognition of body parts position with one another is known as kinesthesia or kinesthetic sense. 14. List the three sensory receptors that are involved with the above question. A. Free nerve endings B. Golgi- type receptors C. Pacinian corpsules 15. Sensory receptors which are sensitive to metabolic chemicals are called chemoreceptors. 16. The name of the length-pressor sensor within the muscle is called muscle- spindle or intrafusal fiber. 17. What is reciprocal inhibition? Activation of an agonist muscle and inhibition of antagonist muscle on the same side of body. 18. Define a “motor unit”. A motor neuron and all of the fibers that it innervates. 19. What does the term “ipsilateral” mean? This is the term of neural influence on same side of the body. 20. When a muscle shortens it puts strain on a receptor known as golgi tendon organ which is not located within the muscle. 21. The area within the inner ear responsible for maintaining general equilibrium is the vestibular appatus. 22. The initial drive for performing a voluntary movement occurs in the _____ of the brain. A. Association cortex B. Cortical & subcortical areas C. Basal ganglia D. Cerebellum E. Thalamus 23. The area of the brain responsible for organization of complex movement, control of activating fast, ballistic movements is called the Cerebellum. 24. True or False: Research indicates that exercise can improve brain (cognitive) function, particularly in older individuals. 25. The part of the autonomic nervous system that slows heart rate is the parasympathetic division and it releases post-ganglionic neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). 26. What is spinal tuning? This is where the voluntary movement is translated more appropriately through the spine. 27. The structural unit of a muscle is the sarcomere. 28. The outer most layer of connective tissue that surrounds a muscle is known as the A. Perimysium B. Epimysium C. Endomysium D. Myelin sheath E. Sarcolemma 29. The two major protein filaments within a muscle are actin and myosin. 30. The chemical signal within the muscle that activates the interaction of the 2 protein filaments is Calcium. 31. True or False: Skeletal muscle contracts when its membrane potential is hyperpolarized. 32. What does the term “cross-bridge” mean? The interaction of myosin and actin binding sites. 33. Another classification (term) for a fast-twitch fiber with the least oxidative capacity in humans is: A. I fiber B. IIa fiber C. IIb fiber D. IIc fiber E. IIdx fiber 34. True or False: All muscle fibers from the same motor unit are typically located near each other. 35. True or False: All muscle fibers of a motor nerve have the same fiber type. 36. True or False: Generally, type I fibers exert less force than type II fibers. 37. Which fiber type generally has the greatest amount of mitochondria in humans? Be specific to classification. (Use one of the terms listed for question 33 above). Type I 38. Which fiber type generally fatigues the easiest with high intensity activity in humans? (Use one of the terms in question 33 above) Type IIdx 39. True or False: Endurance training can increase the oxidative capacity of only Type I muscle fibers. 40. A muscle contraction with no external shortening or movement is an isometric contraction. 41. A muscle contraction with the same external load with a range of motion is a(n) isotonic contraction. 42. As velocity of movement increases force will_____________. A. increase B. decrease C. not change 43. True or False: The greatest amount of force a muscle fiber normally can produce is at its normal resting length (Lo). 44. A muscle action where the muscle lengthens is called a(n) eccentric contraction. 45. The sliding-filament theory describes how the muscle proteins interact. 46. Activation of the enzyme myosin ATPase breaks down stored energy for muscle contraction. 47. T F The shorter the muscle length the greater the force of muscle contraction. 48. Which major protein is attached to the Z lines and is on either side of the Z lines? Actin 49. The two proteins located within the thin filament that help to regulate the interaction of the myofilaments are troponin and tropomyosin. 50. The area of the banding pattern of skeletal muscle where only the thick filament is located is called the H zone. 51. The area where only the thin filaments are located is the I band. 52. The structural unit within the muscle from z line to z line is called the sarcomere. 53. If the Golgi Tendon Organ is activated it will stimulate the alpha motor neuron to contract. 54. The receptor within the muscle that helps to sense tension, pressure and length change is called the muscle spindle or intrafusal fiber. 55. True or False: Muscle fatigue is a transient decline in force from a muscle with muscle damage. 56. True or False: Peak muscle force decreases as the speed of movement increases. 57. True or False: The fiber type can change from Type IIdx to Type IIa with endurance training. 58. The filling phase of the cardiac cycle is known as diastole. 59. The name of the valve between the left atria and left ventricle is called mitral or bicuspid. 60. The pacemaker of heart is known as the sinoatrial node or SA node. 61. What happens to the length of time of both parts of the cardiac cycle when one goes from a resting heart rate (around 70) to an exercise heart rate (around 150)? Which part changes more? Both shorten but diastole shortens more. 62. Compute the mean arterial pressure (MAP) of a person with the following: Diastolic pressure = 80, Systolic pressure 160. Show your work. 80 + 1/3 (160 – 80) → 80 + 1/3 (80) → 80 + 26.66 = 106.66 63. What is pulse pressure in the above question? (Show numbers). 80 64. True or False: With acute exercise pulse pressure decreases. 65. What is the relationship with HR and relative work intensity [VO at submaximal 2 workloads]? Positive linear 66. What happens to resting heart rate as a result of endurance training? Why? Decrease – greater parasympathetic input or vagal tone. 67. Endurance training will have what effect on resting stroke volume? Stroke volume will increase. 68. Resting heart rate is predominantly controlled by the vagus nerve. 69. What will happen to maximal cardiac output as a result of endurance training? Maximal cardiac output will increase. 70. True or False: Endurance training will increase resting cardiac output. 71. List the factors that influence arterial blood pressure. A. heart rate D. blood viscosity B. stroke volume E. blood volume C. peripheral resistance 72. List the formula for cardiac output. Which factor in the formula is primarily responsible for cardiac output increases with acute exercise (circle it)? Q = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume 73. List the three methods for increasing venous return. a. __Muscle pump___ b. ventilatory pump_ c. venoconstriction 74. When HR increases even before exercise this is known as what and is a result of what? Give the mechanism. Anticipatory increase due to removal of vagal tone or vagal input. 75. The primary factor that enables blood flow to move through the circulatory system is the factor Known as A. viscosity B. radius of the vessel C. length of a vessel D. pressure gradients e. magic 76. What factor primarily controls blood flow into a region? A. viscosity B. radius of the vessel C. length of a vessel D. arterial pressure 77. True or False: The greater the resistance the greater the blood flow. 78. What happens to hematocrit with acute exercise especially in hot humid conditions and Why? It will increase due to a loss of fluid with no loss of RBCs. 79. Absolute blood flow will increase during exercise to all of the following except A. heart B. lungs C. skeletal muscle D. kidney 80. True or False: A-V O difference in muscle decreases with higher exercise 2 intensity. 81. What is cardiac drift? Increase HR over time with steady state work. Due to temp and loss of fluid which decreases stroke volume; need to increase HR to maintain Q. 82. Double product is the product of what 2 factors? Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure 83. True or False: Enhanced blood flow to skeletal muscle is the only way to increase muscle VO . 2 84. The major metabolic substance that vasodilates blood vessels is NO or nitric oxide. 85. The T wave is the electrical repolarization of the ventricle. Bonus questions: 1) If the ST segment is elevated or depressed this may mean there is ischemia to the heart. 2) How does endurance training reduce the amount of myocardial damage from a heart attack? Increased antioxidant protection, improved function of ATP- sensitive potassium channels, and also collateral circulati
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