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ARTS2050 Midterm Study Guide

by: Morgan King

ARTS2050 Midterm Study Guide ARTS 2050

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Study Guide for the ARTS2050 Midterm
Cultural Diversity in American Art
Rebecca R. Brantley
Study Guide
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan King on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTS 2050 at University of Georgia taught by Rebecca R. Brantley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in American Art in Arts at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
ARTS 2050 STUDY GUIDE The test will include material from weeks 1 -7. Focus on the images, readings and concepts listed below. Keep in mind that this is a general guide; you should use information from all of your readings and class notes to best prepare for the test. Images Please be able to identify (artist, title and date) and discuss the following images. 1. Mr. and Mrs. Albert Thornton, Mobile, Alabama, 1956. GORDON PARKS. -Gordon Parks wanted to capture life for black people in the Jim Crow South. - stark expression by couple 2. At Segregated Drinking Fountain, Mobile, Alabama, 1956. GORDON PARKS. 3. Ondria Tanner and Her Grandmother Window -shopping, Mobile, Alabama. 1956. GORDON PARKS. - looking at clothes on white mannequins - looking through glass = outside looking in - child’s one finger touching the glass = her realizing the division between the two races. 4. Airline Terminal, Atlanta, Georgia. 1956. GORDON PARKS. - candid, mother is open (dominance, confidence), black woman is holding baby. All of their gazes are to different spots. 5. Outside Looking In, Mobile, Alabama, 1956. GORDON PARKS. 6. Untitled (Baltimore). April 2015. DEVIN ALLEN. - Devin Allen photographed April 2015 riots on police force - Black and white images – big decision. (One would think this black and white is a picture from the past…. But it is from the present) 7. Untitled (Flag). 2015. DEVIN ALLEN. - names of the black people who died at the hands of police force 8. The Greek Slave. 1846. HIRAM POWERS. - marble sculpture - first life sized female nude sculpture revealed to Americans - achieved wide-spread popularity - Powers prepared a pamphlet with the sculpture for viewers to understand the context - She is standing naked to be judged by slave buyers – It is not her choice - Inspired anti-slavery because of the chains - Woman is white, that’s why is famous 9. The Eternal Presence (An Homage to Alejandro García Caturla). 1944. WIFREDO LAM. - surreal, brown bodies - not naturalistic, its abstract - LAM is most famous artist from Cuba - Horse-headed female figures (3) suggests sense of transformation 10. Night of the Poor (Education Ministry Mural). 1923-28. DIEGO RIVERA. 11. Night of the Rich (Education Ministry Mural). 1923-28. DIEGO RIVERA. - both from the fresco mural Rivera painted at Education Ministry 12. Man as Controller of the Universe. 1933. DIEGO RIVERA. (MURAL at the Rockefeller center) - man = worker, surrounded by capita list and communist figures - capitalist figure looks like Zeus with a cross and an army behind him - communist figure = beheaded = end of the Nazis with people behind in mass - Lenin (Russian communist figure) opposes Rockefeller - Mural is taken down 13. Zapatistas. 1931. JOSE CLEMENTE OROZCO. - Zapatistas ( a member or supporter of a Mexican revolutionary force working for social and agrarian reforms) being led to their execution - Favors earth tones in paintings 14. Christ Destroying His Cross. 1932-34. JOSE CLEMENTE OROZCO - destruction of past, Jesus is seen as heroic - angular, jagged, saturated colors – suggests emotions o expressionism – creates mood and tone 15. Frida and Diego Rivera. 1931. FRIDA KAHLO. - painted in California (Frida’s first trip to somewhere out of Mexico) - Frida is A LOT smaller than Diego, feet way too tiny - He’s wearing suit, she is wearing Mexican dress 16. The Two Fridas. 1939. FRIDA KAHLO. - larger work, made the year of her divorce - right Frida (in Mexican style dress) holds a small portrait of baby Di ego - connected with veins form her heart to left Frida (in victorian dress) - she was isolated – she became her own friend 17. Self Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird. 1940. FRIDA KAHLO. - close-up of face, thorns around neck making her bleed - surrounded by a monkey and cat (both pets that Frida owned) 18. Body Tracks. 1974-1979. ANA MENDIETA. - work was a “direct result of being torn from her homeland (cuba)” - cuts own forearms, places on a wall, and drags arms down from above her head = sacrifice, crucifixion - feminist, landscape artist - female body no longer an object, but the subject 19. Untitled, no. 259, from the Silueta series . 1976. ANA MENDIETA. - flowers in a sand silhouette of herself - “I have flung myself into the very earth that prod uced me - Arms raised and legs together = wondering soul 20. Sun Mad. 1982. ESTER HERNÁNDEZ. - HERNANDEZ worked around pesticides - He wanted to unmask the truth around agribusiness - People are easily exploited by big companies - This is a overt political statements 21. Southwest Pieta. 1983. LUIS JIMENEZ. - Aztec mythical lovers (Popocatepetl and Ixtaccihuati, lovers who turned into volcano’s after each other’s death) - Sense of loss and grief - Lovers are in pyramidal structure - Part of the Chicano art movement (1960’s and onward) 22. El Chandelier. 1988. PEPÓN OSORIO (Maximalist). - made of found objects - Kitsch – considered to be in poor taste, but appreciated - Maximalist aesthetic - Green, red, and white stand out, vivid colors 23. Scene of the Crime (Whose Crime?). 1993; 2003. PEPÓN OSORIO. - magic realism – every day objects have strange connotations - “I want to create a space that is overpowering” 24. “Granite Weaving. 1988. JESÚS BAUTISTA MOROLES. - looks like: earthy, human beings early attempts to make art 25. Houston Police Officers Memorial, 1990. JESÚS BAUTISTA MOROLES. - looks like ancient Aztec structure - government sponsored, grant paid 26. One and the Same. 2005. ADRIAN ESPARZA. (grew up on US/Mexico border in El Paso, TX) - wall installation - a blanket hanging (serape), and the thread of it used to create a geometric, 3D looking pattern with nails - we (United States) give Mexican blanket little value… but the thread has value?? But it’s one and the same. - Deconstruct the idea of ‘value’ – tied to perspective o Mexican identity (blanket) is given little value in US 27. Los Jovenes (Youth). 1993. DELILAH MONTOYA. - teens decorated a room however they like and photographed in it - developed in an old fashioned way 28. Humane Borders Water Station. 2004. DELILAH MONTOYA. - USA/Mexico border (political/social/controversial site) - Evidence of people, but none shown - Man’s engagement with the earth - This is a native American reservation with little to none natural water sources, so water barrels are put out Readings: Be able to identify and discuss key concepts from the following course readings. Also, be able to associate concepts with the appropriate images. 1. Lee, N.P. [2011] Definitions & terms used in this course. An excerpt from Engaging the pink elephant in the room: Investigating race & racism through art education. Unpublished doctorial dissertation. University of Georgia. a. Be familiar with all terms and concepts listed in “Definitions & terms used in this course” - multiculturalism: philosophical concept, values cultural differences, challenges all forms of discrimination - racial identity: persons positive or negative psychological response towards his/her own racial group - Cultural identity: the aspect of personal identity that is shaped by real or imagined associations with a specific national, cultural, ethnic or racial group - Propriospect: the totality of the private, subjective view of the world and its contents that each human develops out of personal experience - Race: a social construct in which a group sees itself; the color of one’s skin - Ethnicity: social groups with a shared history, sense of identity, geography and cultural roots; despite racial difference - Racism: prejudice, discrimination, oppression and/or privilege given based on the belief that genetic or inherited differences produce the inherent superiority or inferiority of one race over another - Stereotype: shared idea about the generalized attributes of others with respect to perceived physical or cultural characteristics. May seem positive, but ALWAYS negative because individuals are judged according to exaggerated norms of their group instead of personal merit - Racial Attitude: one’s core beliefs and associations about race or particular racial groups - Implicit Attitude: Mental associations that happen without awareness, without control, unconscious associations - Explicit Attitudes: attitudes commonly expressed publicly - Racial Essentialism: philosophical view that there are a set of fixed attributes/properties that any one particular racial group posses. Race is seen as an unchanging essence of who we are - Racial Hierarchy: places groups of people in an ordered system of stratification based on the belief that some racial groups are superior/dominant while others are inferior/subordinate - Critical Examination: serious, careful and exacting analysis and evaluation. Involves weighing the arguments for or against something, assessing all evidence, and formulating informed opinions based on this process 2. Omi, M & Winant, H. (2010). Racial formations. In Race, class, and gender in the United States [pp. 13- 22]. Worth Publishers. - Race WAS biological (18 -19 centuries), and used to explain why some people were ‘free’ and others were enslaved. - Race as a social concept: racial categories and the meanings of race are given concrete expression by the specific social relations and historical context in which they are embedded. - Racial formation: process by which social, economic, and political forces determine the content and importance of racial categori es, and by which they are in turn shaped by racial meanings. The presence of a system of racial meanings and stereotypes, of racial ideology, seems to be a prominent feature of US culture. - We tend to view race as something fixed and immutable, something rooted in nature. Thus we mask the historical construction of racial categories. - REALLY, we should understand race as an unstable and ‘decentered’ complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle. 3. Miller, J.B. Domination and Subordination. In Race, class, and gender in the United States, [pp.108-114]. Worth Publishers. - Temporary inequality: parent/children, teacher/student. Relationships are based in service. Goal: end the relationship of inequality, foster the movement from unequal to equal. We have not found a very good way of doing this. - Permanent inequality: some people or groups of people are defined as unequal by means of ‘ascription’ (your birth defines you). - Dominants: the activities most highly valued in any culture tend to be enclosed within the domain of the dominant group. Has the greatest influence in determining a culture’s overall outlook – it philosophy, morality, social theory, even science. THUS, dominant group legitimizes the unequal relationship (between dominant and subordinate) and incorporates it into societies guiding concepts. They want to avoid open conflict, don’t want the ‘norm’ and their power challenged. - Subordinates: has to concentrate on basic survival. Direct, honest reaction to the destructive treatment of the dominants is avoided. Subordinates often know more about the dominants than they know themselves, and more than the dominants know them. Subs internalize dominant beliefs. As subordiates move towards freer expression and action, they will expose the inequality and throw into question the basis for its existence. 4. hooks, b. (1990) “marginality as a site of difference ,” in Out there: Marginalization and contemporary culture. Russell Ferguson, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha, Cornel West [Eds]. [pp. 341-344]. Cambridge: MIT Press Retrieved online August 13, 2015 fro m: ] - “To be in the margin is to be a part of the whole but outside the main body.” – it offers the possibility of radical perspectives from which to see and create, to imagine alternatives, new worlds. - A space of refusal to the dominant suppressor is locat ed at the margins. - margins can be site of both repression/deprivation AND resistance, but we are more silent in talking about the margins as a site of resistance - “this is an intervention” – the margin isa site of creativity and power, where we recover ourselves, where we move in solidarity to erase the category colonized/colonizer. Marginality is a state of resistance, enter it. 5. Anderson, T. L., & Milbrant, M. (2004). What is art criticism and why do we do it? In Art for life: Authentic instruction in art (pp. 99-106). Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill. -Also, be aware of “Retrieval” vs. “Revision” methods of art criticism (class notes) Retrieval method: critic assumes there is an intended, original meaning; ‘retrieve’ the artist’s meaning. Revision method: each person has a different interpretation, it might be impossible out the artist’s intention - Because art reflects human values an understanding, we engage in art criticism to understand our own existence. - Style of art carries meaning – it communicates about the artist’s being - Consider the context in which art was made - visual works = cultural ARTifacts, personal artifacts. -purpose of art criticism is to understand and appreciate art as visual culture in order to understand and appreciate people -ourselves and others - look at art in context to tell us about the human condition at that time - 4 basic questions art critics ask: What is this? What is it for? What does it mean? What is it worth? - Analytic model: Reaction, Description, Interpretation , Evaluation - Formal description: analyze composition and its emotional effects - Contextual description: artist’s life and intentions - Interpretation is our best guess at what the work means - Evaluation: conclusion of the value of the work 6. Williams, P. J. (2004). Preface. In White: Whiteness and race in contemporary art (pp. 17-20). Baltimore, MD: Center for Art and Visual Culture University of Maryland. - Blackness is and isn’t a color. It’s political – it changes. Sometimes its what the law says it is, what others say, or what you say. - Imagination is much more powerful than our rational minds. Sometimes the truth is hard to graph because of the ideals instilled in us by our parents, schools, the media - racial categories don’t exist in the rational world, but have great power over us - whiteness is the invisible standard th a. Also, be aware of notions and categories of race from the 18 century (from class notes) i. Charles White - categorized people based on race, status, ect - creates hierarchy – white and rich at the top - wrote about beauty as if it was an observable, scientific phenomenon - thought white = morality, beauty ii. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach - Monogeny: one human race, but different groups - 5 categories for race: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ma layan, Ethiopian, American - colors: White (thought of as oldest, most ‘handsome’), olive, copper/bronzy, tawny, black - Climate is the most important factor of differences between groups - Taught aristocrats and wealthy people - Uses beauty as a scientific descriptor, objective quality - Used skulls to see the physical attractiveness of different people o Georgian woman’s skull = most beautiful skull § Skull from the Caucasus Mountain Region § Circassia = old country where the ‘most beautiful’ people lived = Circassian people = Caucasian people - He was the source for the term “Caucasian”? iii. Polygeny and monogeny - Polygeny: motion that God created multiples groups of people, instead of JUST Adam and Eve. (more than one species of human being ) - Monogeny: one human race, but different groups iv. Caucasian (origins, connotations) - Johann Friedrich Blumenbach used skulls to see the physical attractiveness of different people o Georgian woman’s skull = most beautiful skull § Skull from the Caucasus Mountain Region § Circassia = old country where the ‘most beautiful’ people lived = Circassian people = Caucasian people 7. Lucie-Smith, E. (2004). Introduction. In Latin American art of the 20th century (pp. 7-20). New York, NY: Thames & Hudson Inc. - Modernism - European Modernism seen in Latin countries as ‘liberating’, anti-authoritarian movement. Latin countries embraced and rejected Modernism. Modernism NOT created in Latin America. - Beginnings of Modernism in Latin America = 1920’s - landmark events that involved close links between visual art and literature – tended to direct the attention of artists toward social and political problems which otherwise may not have seemed to concern them. - Influences on Latin American Modernism: Constructivism, Expressionism, and conservative/classical styles which flourished in Europe between wars - Modernism freed Latin American artists from the need to use specific, instantly recognizable subject matter. - artists feel free to use any material in any fashion which appeals to them - Modern primitivism = appeal of primitive is its ‘return to native origins’ - influence of Cubism – Diego Rivera had a one-time Cubist experience in Paris, but left it after he settled permanently in Mexico in 1921 - Surrealism – Andre Breton (founder of European Surre alist movement) visited Mexico in 1938 and declared that Mexico was a ‘naturally surrealist’ country. In 1940, Mexico City was the site of a major Surrealist exhibition. - Mexican Muralism – got its start when Diego Rivera moved back to Mexico in 1921. - public paintings presented as an aspect of indigenous culture - public art is being made to activate the search for national and cultural identity and convey political ideology - had parallels to European paintings - political ideology – Marxist, socialist, communist - historical context – Latin American political structures fail to support a sense of national identity – audiences turn to literature and art for identity - deep respect for artists/writers, people see them as embodiments of the national consciousness 8. Garber, E. (2011). Mexico next right: Considering representations of Mexico, Mexican and Chicanas/os in Visual Culture. In B. Young (Ed.), Art, culture and ethnicity (2nd ed., pp. 1-10). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. - Mexican tourist art: conveys an idea, a stereotype, of what Mexico is, who Mexican-Americans are (in the imagination of North Americans) - Mexico portrayed as ‘infernal paradise’ – a paradoxical place of extreme beauty, riches, and exoticism, but also of myst ery, violence, and danger - Studying Immigration Themed Films: teach people about… - people often migrate across borders to escape economic or political conditions in their native countries - how conditions played out depends if movie is produced in Mexic o or US. Mexico = migrants arrive in false promised land, journeys end in tragedy or a return to mexico, US = hero fights immigrant smuggler, U S-Mexico border must be secured


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