Biology Chapters 2-4 Study Guide
Biology Chapters 2-4 Study Guide BIO 101N
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Taylor on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101N at Central Michigan University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Biology Exam 2 Study Guide Atoms: - Everything you see that is around you is made up of atoms. -An atom is a bit of matter that cannot be broken up any further without losing its essential properties. Atoms are made up of the: Nucleus: protons (+ charge) and neutrons (no charge or neutral) Protons and neutrons make up the atomic weight of an atom Electrons are negatively charged Elements: - An element is a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any other substance. - There are 25 elements found in the human body - The four major elements are Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen - The electrons of an atom of a particular element determines how (and if) the atom will bond with other atoms. Atomic Bonds: - Atoms that can make bonds together are called compounds (or molecules) - Ionic bonds involve an atom donating or accepting elections from other atoms (NaCl) - Covalent bonds are sharing of electrons between atoms. C-C-C : Carbon atoms held together by single covalent bonds C=C=C : Carbon atoms held together by double covalent bonds - High energy bonds release energy when the bonds are broken. - Polar Covalent Bonds result from unequal sharing of electrons between atoms; electrons spend more time associated with one atom than the other… this results from electron configuration in the outer shell of two atoms. - Polar molecules form when there is unequal sharing of electrons; slight negative charge in one atom and slight positive in the other. Biology Exam 2 Study Guide pH Scale: Cell Membranes & Organelles: Movement: - Passive transport mechanism: diffusion and osmosis; moves substances along or with concentration - Active transport: usesATP energy to move substances against concentration gradient. Membranes serve as limiting barrier for the cell.Anything that goes in or out of the cell must pass through the cell membrane. Cell membranes have a certain degree of permeability: cell membranes are semi-permeable - only certain things can pass through them. Cell Structure Prokaryotic cells: always unicellular, limited organization, no membrane bound organelle structures, asexual reproduction - bacteria, blue-green algae. Eukaryotic cells: may be either unicellular or multi-cellular, well defined membrane bound organelle structure (nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum), significant division of labor and compartmentalization within the cell, may reproduce asexually or sexually. Photosynthesis German biologist Theodor Engelmann saw that bacteria tended to cluster in areas with higher oxygen Photosynthesis is the process used by plants to convert light energy from the sun and turn it into chemical energy that can be used for energy transformation. Biology Exam 2 Study Guide Biological Oxidation: Releases energy stored in glucose, metabolic enzyme controlled release of energy. The total amount of energy released with complete oxidation of glucose is 686,000 calories/mole. Energy in forms:ATP & Body heat Aerobic - requires use of oxygen to completely release energy in glucose. Anaerobic - takes place in absence of oxygen: results in an incomplete oxidation of glucose energy Anaerobic respiration: - Fermentation, produces ethyl alcohol, lactic acid Electron Transport System: - Takes place in the mitochondria, converts hydrogen carrier molecules toATP; requires oxygen to complete the process.
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