Midterm Review Part One.
Midterm Review Part One. 3365
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janey Lyon on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3365 at University of Utah taught by Mariko Lin Frame in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Global Sustainability in Environmental Science at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Mid-term Review part one. • Know the stance of free market environmentalists, ecological economists, and Marxist ecologists on the following issues: a) Technology as a solution to environmental issues Human ingenuity and technological advances will solve issues we face with resources and environmental issues. Private property will ensure responsibility over resources. NOTASOLUTION OR OPTION. Technological advances can undercut the real issues at stake, and as long as capitalism is running the means for growth of technology, we will not be able to solve these issues. b) The market as the solution to environmental issues Market prices and profit will keep us moving forward. Decentralized control will create more room for human drive for profit to bring about resolutions within the market. Not with a capitalist market where only growth and GDP matter. There needs to be a system where sustainability can be accounted for and resources can be more properly distributed. NEVER. Marx is VERY anti-capitalist. The capitalist market does nothing but create a dualistic society where human labor is sellable and nature is a commodity. Our market will only make environmental issues worse. c) The market as the problem of environmental issues None of this is a problem. Need for water is becoming less and less. We are not running out of food either. The environment has improved actually. Population growth will just bring more clever minds to solve world environmental issues. In capitalism, the economy grows bigger than the ecology of the Earth can handle. The Earth is looked at as a subset of the bigger economy, leading to a “full world.” We need to look at the economy as a subset of a bigger whole, being the Earth to have an empty world where resources are used more wisely and sustainability is a point of focus.Also, growth should not just be a part of development, sustainability and natural capital should also be considered. Yes, very much so. When a profitable market are the only means to an end, the economy can expand forever and ever. Economies of scale cause the bigger producers to be able to sell cheap goods and under cut the competition. We are all selfishly competing, creating dangerous class structures that harm people and the environment. d) The government’s role in solving environmental issues Less governmental regulation is better. The government should only impose property rights so that property owners can take good, disciplined care of their land. Decentralized control will bring about better results than bureaucratic involvement. The government allows capitalism to have endless growth and destruction of resources. This needs to be recognized and curbed. We cannot survive or thrive in a full world. The industrial age was supposed to help us and now we are completely reliant upon fossil fuels and we are working more hours than ever. The government needs to make some changes in policy to address these issues. If the government could ever move away from a capitalist economy, then it would be greatly the governments concern to begin solving these environmental issues. Equality among humans and labor distribution is a huge one. Relieving the dualistic society is also important so that the bourgeoisie cannot use up all the resources leaving the laborers with nothing. Capitalism messes with the way we as americans view the world. It will be very hard to solve these issues with a capitalist mind set. • Know how globalization relates to trade and foreign investment: globalization is the integration of world markets through trade and foreign investment. Globalization is defined by trade that began in the colonial era when european countries sought out new lands and restructured their local economies to put slaves or laborers to work making cash crops to be exported. This created a globalized political economy of governance. Foreign investment is a kind of modern colonialism where a northern country can buy great amounts of land in southern countries to exploit for profit with out regulation. Globalization of knowledge should also be addressed in terms of culture, information, technology, the spread of democracy, the World Bank and the IMF. and what policies make trade and foreign investment more ‘liberalized.’: Free o market policies make trade and foreign investment seem ‘liberalized’because there are no regulations or governmental pressures. Tariffs and governmental protection are removed so that these places are more vulnerable. o Have an understanding of how free trade and foreign investment impact the environment: Free trade is very harmful to the countries of the global south that have been colonized solely to extract resources. These countries cannot control their own markets or economies because they are paying back years and years of debt due to trying to develop and industrialize. We can make a lot more stuff through specialization and trade. This means endless production and consumption of goods creating not only waste but also degrading land where resources are extracted. (watch youtube video on comparative advantage for review). Foreign investment is extremely harmful to land and indigenous people because a different country’s firm has bough the land and has the freedom to exploit that land for profit within the free market. • Know Bhagwati’s argument for why free trade is a good thing for the environment o Bagwhati gives a global North perspective on why free trade is good. First off, growth is good because then the government can raise taxes that can in turn be used to protect the environment. Rich countries have so many environmental groups that are successful in sorts. We shouldn’t fear the race to the bottom because different countries will start making different environmental standards for their own cultures. People can vote on their ethics with their dollar and environmentalists should stop imposing beliefs on governmental policies and let the market make decisions. Environmentalists and governments should never put ethics above the right of people. • Know Daly’s rejoinder, that free trade is problematic for the environment o We should always favor domestic production over foreign imports. International trade should never put a country’s environment at risk. Instead of just getting excited about free trade, we should focus on what kind of regulations and and goals are appropriate for globalization. Pro free traders will argue that after we grow from trade, we can clean up the environment- but free traders tend to seek profit with out regard to environmental and social consequences. WE SHOULD CALL FREE TRADE “DEREGULATED INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE.”
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