SOCY 305 Study Guide for Exam I
SOCY 305 Study Guide for Exam I SOCY 305 001
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SOCY 305 001
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This 38 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 305 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jennifer M. Augustine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of South Carolina.
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SOCY 305 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM I What is a Family? Why Study the Family? understand how they are formed, patterned, and affect individual lives culture, economic, political, demographic (changes in population - gender, age, immigration), and history changes Social Phenomena Power and Agency --> difference in gender dynamics, view myself as mother now vs. how it was constructed a long time ago Social Meaning and Identity Sequencing and Life Course (school --> work --> kids) (not everyone has same outcome) Economic Mobility and Stratification --> our families teach us right from wrong, but also launch us into social structure (makes sense for reproduction of same social structure) We define families by its structure: People that comprise it "Nuclear Family" Multigenerational Households According to Census Family is 2 or more people living together and related by blood, marriage, or adoption Two elements: co-residence and relation amongst family members based on criteria above Family is a social institution that shapes society --> organizes us and fulfills important functions Structural Functionalism - society is comprised of different systems to maintain the human body They all must be performed to survive education --> prepares us religion --> morals Are families universal? Are they in all societies? Do they have universal functions? Murdoch's 1945 book, Social Structure Analyzed over 250 different societies Universal feature --> nuclear structure Residence Economic cooperation Reproduction (raising kids) Sexual relations Socialization Why might it be problematic? It doesn't allow for changes in meaning of family across time and different societies Limits family to certain time Ideologically --> its exclusionary and captures the ideal, but casts deviant families that might do some in different ways, but not universally. Excludes relationships that might not meet all criteria Does not reflect universal of family Social Constructionism (Last night's reading) Residence --> boarding school, deployed partner, traveling salesman Reproduction --> many choosing not to have kids Sexual Relations --> do not have to be in a committed relationship Socialization --> no one better than family unit to teach socialization, but it does occur outside family unit Social Constructionism (not the reading) Opposing theoretical perspective to structural functionalism Based on idea that people create meaning through interactions Thus, family is constituted by meaning of interpretation between people Interpretative meaning; if people view it as "family" then it represents family Family Meet Criteria: Connected by blood, marriage, or adoption Or sexually expressive relationship with social roles that create an institution A Brief History of the U.S. Family Our understanding of trends among today's family and the forces driving such trends much be connected to an understanding of the changing social, economic, and cultural conditions out of which these trends emerged (ex. delayed marriage, intensive motherhood) Early America: Colonial Era (17th-18th century) 14% Native Americans 16% Blacks Remaining were compromised by white colonists and immigrants Economic Foundations "Root of social changes in family" White Colonial Family (father is figurehead --> patriarchal) Family is economic unit of production Economy hinged on what families could produce Gendered division of labor Men and women worked together at home Children worked Agriculture based Self-employed Marriage --> economic relationship No modern childhood African American Family (mother is figurehead --> matriarchal) Uprooted from family traditions Legal marriage prohibited Families often separated due to slavery Less patriarchal and more matriarchal Fictive kin --> people not related to, but considered part of your family The Industrial Era (19th-20th century) New technology brought about --> factory system Railway system --> distribute goods Increased cost of goods Modern day baking and continued investment Men worked outside home (employees) Worked for wages, employed Separation of family and work Family no longer an economic unit Families became economically mobile Families got smaller and more compact Rise of "nuclear family" (mother, father, children) Women worked at home Community schooling for children Breadwinner family Demographic Transition (late 1800s to early 1900s) Population boom due to: 1. Longer mortality rates/technology 2. Lower infant mortality medical sanitation Fertility (birth) rates go down and thus families get smaller Cost of raising kids increases Marriage changed to a compassionate marriage (a partnership/economic cooperation where the husband specialized in labor and the wife in work) Men paid more Women better at doing household chores Living longer with that person Social Occurrences/Change The Great Depression of 1930s Millions unemployed for at least 3 years Families --> homeless Delayed marriage Postponed having kids Challenged male breadwinner role World War II Men went off to war Women took over men's factory jobs After War Men returned from war Women retreated back home Economy was booming 1950s Family Marriage rates increased Age at marriage decreased Divorce decreased Baby boom Breadwinner/homemaker models increased Education divide between men and women increased (gender inequality) Suburbanization 1960s and 1970s Greater equality in family life Feminist Movement Female workers, pursuing education, gender equality at home, equal share of division of labor at home Civil Rights Movement Blacks pursue right to same educational opportunities Major Trends (Service Economy) Rise in service economy and decline of manufacturing (middle class) as well as wages decreased Residential segregation and more subtle forms of discrimination (particularly black families) No fault divorce legalized Rise in single parenthood Second Demographic Transition Rising age at first marriage Delayed fertility Reduced fertility Higher nonmarital fertility and nonmarriage, especially among certain race/ethnic and socioeconomic groups Spike in divorce in 1970s Greater family inequality New unions (cohabitation, living together) Decoupling of sex and childbearing from martial union Family in Decline Family is changing from the 1950s nuclear family Mom stayed at home Dad went to work Mom and Dad were married This was occurring within all socioeconomic groups (middle class and poor) End of line family dissolution Occurring at most basic unit Domestic groups are weakening in carrying out their functions" Economic Socialize (morality) Reproduction Provide care Has also lost its: Social power Authority over members (parents don't have control over who you marry) Child centeredness we reconceived what is best for our children; women can go to work; we don't have to have kids) Fundamental challenges to forms, ideals, and role expectations of the family unit Don Quayle's comments against Murphy Brown What is a Family? Popenoe's definition: 2 folks where one is dependent on the other with a small group of kin (one adult and one dependent person at least) Fewer people are marrying By 1970, 70% of households were headed by married couples By 2000, only 53% Marriage isn't as important Retreat from marriage/delayed marriage Women are getting married at older ages to late twenties (this also applies for men) More single parent families due to: Divorce (began to be divorce mainly instead of death in 1974) Nonmarital childbearing No fault divorce was legal in 1970s Lower fertility rates (fewer children being born) Drop in family size 1950s --> fertility rates at highest Taking care of kids is an investment of our time and money --> we'd rather invest in ourselves Less childcentered Increase in nonmarital fertility Nowadays, almost half of all births are outside of marriage 5. Alternative unions, a.k.a. cohabitation (living together in a romantic nonmarital union) Gender roles are less clear Its on the rise Not a stable union type Weaker ties Less stable and more likely to dissolve Marriage doesn't have a strong hold on a romantic union Norms are different (no expectation for kids) More People are living alone People are choosing not to marry and remain single Decline in breadwinner model and women are going to work Women with children under age 5 are working Married women Causes (decline in family): Ideological change - we marry for happiness instead of economic support) Economic change - certain things are more acceptable today Attitude change - change in our ideals/views of say gay marriage, cohabitation, single mothers having kids; transmitted intergenerationally Economics changed after the 1950s, we shifted from manufacturing economy to a service economy (world of work, educational opportunity to women). Women's wages increased while men's decreased. Women were pleased and men were unhappy; weakens foundation of marriage. Socioeconomic --> income and education; where you fall within socioeconomic hierarchy Why Should We Be Concerned? Potential repercussions for the well-being of kids' emotional/physical health, cognitively developing, financially healthy: Education Psychological Social Outcomes (reproduction of family structures across generations) Antisocial behavior, criminal behavior, teen pregnancy Crime Increase in individualism (less on family) Safety nets (no programs or resources for people who have fallen on hard times) Well-being of adults Sign that families are changing and growing more diverse Are families declining or just changing and growing more diverse (a sign of social progress with individuality) Critical Perspective on Family and Family Change: The Role of Race Race: African American Family Key features that characterize black families in U.S. history: Marriage Fertility patterns Kinship patterns Increase in nonmarital fertility, single parent households among black families The problem --> poverty Moynihan Report: around Civil Rights Movement, Moynihan was concerned about equality, being single with kids --> poor, socialization (we need a strong foundation or else kids will be socialized in a way that leads to: Social connectedness Isolation Delinquency Education Crime Cognitive development "Tangle of pathology" --> taken a life of their own separate from what raised them Why do we see these patterns? -History --> legacy of slavery thesis: Legacy of non-marriage Legacy of matriarchal families Black women's mobility outplaced men -Culture of Poverty -> there is a culture within a poor community where childbearing norms are weak -Economic Perspectives (structural) Marriageable men hypothesis Similar education levels as you Stability --> jobs --> money Mental health Attitude Self-efficacy Trustworthiness Likelihood of abusing drugs -Black men and women who marry have similar levels of education -For black women, the benefits of marrying (money, education) black males is weaker -Sex Imbalance Interracial Marriage/Assortative Mating Intermarriage rate for black men measured by 2008 census --> 22% Comparatively, it was 9% for black women Incarceration About 16-18% of black men have served time in prison vs. 2% of white men; this gap has increased but always existed Higher among lower SES groups -"Super Organization" perspective Too much emphasis on family structure Kin structure more like black families than white families --> widespread unit, beyond nuclear family to include neighbors, friends, "fictive kin" Creates structure of support and trust Refutes disorganized perspective Too much emphasis on black-white differences in family structure Instead emphasizes resiliency of black families Evidence: rich kin networks - were a functional response to constraints placed on black families Changes in Family Based on Social Class What is a Social Class? 4 classes Classifies people Involves education, resources (financial and social) How is Socioeconomic Status Measured? Education Income Occupational status About 1/3 of U.S. population has a college degree 40% of women have a college degree Distribution of families with different family structure by education Family by Social Class: High education --> unmarried single moms Middle education --> more common in the low Low education --> education group Seeing more of a difference today between education levels What's Happening in Families Today by Social Class? Divergent Destinies: Point in history (1950s-1960s) where children's success started to be tied to social class Different social classes, different opportunities Gap is widening Marriage Rates: Marriage by education decreases in marriage Retreat from marriage High school/less education is decreasing fastest Share of never married goes up fastest for people with little education Non-marital childbearing: People with less education are driving this trend Family income by women's education Higher education, income increases at faster rate Growing gap between family income between high and low levels of education Assortative Mating Describing partnering people with like attributions (race, religion, etc.) Couples are growing more educationally similar Why Do These Trends Matter for Families? Education plays a huge role and connects to all the trends Trends matter for resources Trends that cut across race/ethnic lines: Feminist Movement - helps women to be more mobile Birth Control - control fertility but marriage behavior consequence Labor Market Conditions - educated women benefitted increased wages Changes in welfare-system - de-sensitized women with low education to not get married or educated or have a good job Why Should We Care? What does it mean for our future? Micro-level view: Class differences in family structure/organization/shape the fabric of family life Divorce Rates Higher education getting divorced faster Age at first birth by education Lower education people get married earlier, have kids younger Higher education people marry later, have kids later Employment Working at higher rates Rates increase at different rates (quicker for women with education) Father Involvement Greater levels of father involvement increases at faster rate with education Critical Perspectives on Family and Family Changes: The Role of Gender 4 Major historical movements that changed women's lives and gender relations in family: First Wave Feminism Expansion of labor market and its shifting foundation Education requirements increased in work force and pull factor of women into labor market Advent of Birth Control Women could control fertility, pursue education, and get jobs (can delay getting married) Second Wave Feminism Move for equality into workplace and in homefront Equality of opportunity 2 Major Demographic Changes 1. Dramatic rise in women's employment 2. Dramatic rise in women's education Particularly amongst married women and women with children 1970s-198s --> married women move into labor force (large group) Education Crossover in 1990s where women are pursuing a higher education Socioculture Factors Changed Women's Lives on a More Individual Level Sense of economic independence --> empowered women (sense of self-efficacy and plan for your future) New gender consciousness Gives you skills (communication) Changes the way you interact with people What Does this Mean for Family? Shifting foundations of marriage Who marries When they marry Why they marry Rise in divorce; changing pattern of who divorces Delays and reductions in fertility Rise in cohabitation/alternative union Implications for How Women Subjectively Experience Family Life Way people experience their families (micro-level) Perceptions of your family life Reshaped the way men and women experienced their marital relationships How legitimate breadwinner model was for some time James Bernard (1972) => The Future of Marriage "2 marriages" His marriage Her marriage Different perceptions of how much domestic work each partner did Men are happier in their marriages than women are Men experience less depression and are psychologically healthier Men also experience a decrease in the risk of mortality Men were receiving different benefits in the relationship compared to women The Stalled Revolution Linked to Feminism Revolution => change in women's lives (working, higher education) What stalled? => gender roles in home Effect of Mismatch in Gender Ideologies: Unhappiness Tension Baggage Inequality in psychological root to their marriage Taking Care of Children In the Workforce Mother => gets penalty (children are her first priority) Father => gets bonus (makes him look extra committed to his job and has a sense of duty) Stay at Home Dad => assumptions that he is lazy and unemployed Makes it hard for there to be a shift in gender responsibilities within the household "The Leisure Gap" Men have more leisure than women Men are doing less work around the house Mismatch in amount of leisure time Women continue to do more work around the house than men Arlie Hochschild The problem is reflected in the concept of" "The second shift" Household duties Why does it occur? Gender role expectations mismatch Impact on families? Effects people's equality of life and experience of their marriage: Women depressed Men happy/healthy Di Leonardo Reading (1987) "Kin keeping" => type of family maintenance (sending out holiday cards, making phone calls, family dinners, celebrating holidays, basic family tie maintenance) Something that women do because they are nurturing and family centered (considered as work) It takes time, mental energy, work Women are responsible Reflects one domain of unpaid work relegated to females Unrecognized form of work, extends outside of household, but still has to do with the family Devalued Effects women all over You can outsource a lot of domestic roles, but you can't for this Why is this Important? Highlights tension between social changes and lack of change in family systems that have implications for men and women's family life, women's pursuit of equality and changes in family structure (i.e. divorce) more broadly Critical Perspectives on Family: Ethnicity 2 Themes of Literature Cultural practices associated with ethnic backgrounds organize dimensions of the family Such as the importance of traditions, value systems Those practices and belief systems often contrast with norms of American family life Contrast can be positive and negative Asian-American family Hispanic-American family Asian advantages => family life norms emphasize hard work, family involvement, and extremely high standards "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother" (2011) by Amy Chua She talked about her Chinese heritage and the way it influenced her parenting choices: kids couldn't watch television, have sleepover, play computer games, and could only make As Reason why her children are so successful American Family Life Qualities Open/communication Affection Anti-authoritarianism (no physical punishment) => democratic relations Individual autonomy (space) Sentimental (celebrate birthdays and milestones) Supportive/sensitivity (talk about feelings) Openness Forgiving Emphasis on psychological well-being “Leave it to Beaver” (tv show) Idealized suburban family Openness Forgiving Supportive Sensitive More democracy Doesn’t represent the “real” family, it’s the ideal type of family (normative image/cultural ideal) Shapes our own interpretations of our own family life Confucianism Set of rules about how families behave towards one another Respecting/caring for elders Hierarchal relations Responsibility Obedience Duty Self-control over emotional expressiveness Show little emotion/affection Emphasis on education Reading => Pyke Interviews —> kids felt that emotional support was lacking and they talked with their parents mostly about school (offering instrumental support, such as finances and housing, rather than emotional support) Familism => collective needs of family come before individual needs of family -Positive aspects of Asian-American families: Elderly live with their families and are cared for In American families, elderly don’t live with their families because they are considered a burden Hispanic Family Life Family life —> cultural values and norms are both positive and negative implications for Hispanic-American families as well Idea/importance of familism is much greater in Hispanic families Average have increased fertility rates than other races because of idea of familism Mexican-American Health Paradox => life expectancy based on ethnicity, gender Hispanic women live longer than white and black females and males Hispanic males live longer than black females and males as well as white males Makes sense because of emphasis on familism, negotiating conflict => less stress and more emotional support Immigrant kids —> 1st generation kids (behavioral problems) —> 2nd generation (more behavioral problems) 2nd generation kids more accumulated to American family lifestyle instead of familism Other Key Themes: Importance of: Socioeconomic circumstances Nativity (born in the US) and generation adaptation and accumulation Legal status Family Structure and Formation: Marriage We've seen lower rates of marriage and higher rates of other commitments Biggest shift in non-family households Retreating from marriage and remaining single Why do we see this trend? People are retreating from marriage Delay from marriage formation (getting married at older ages) Non-marriage and divorce Delay from child-bearing People are pursuing education (higher education) and eventually get a job Rise in women's education and participation in labor force Women are having children at older ages Fewer having children at younger ages Women are well into their 30s when this occurs Why else might we see delays? Delay getting married so you can try out different fits (live with them first) Personal development (feel emotionally ready) Need financial stability before getting married (having a wedding) Why aren't YOU married? Ages 18-24 => 33% said they are too young/not ready to settle down Ages 25-34 =? 34% said they were not financially stable yet Ages 35+ => 41% said they haven't found what they are looking for Why else? Change in marriage market itself => 2 theories: 1. Oppenheimer Decline in men's wages relative to women's Increased reservation wage for women Increased Reservation Wage for job search --> $50,000 salary instead of your typical $45,000 --> takes longer to find that job Extended marital search to attain higher quality match 2. Beeker Women's economic independence Women no longer specialize in domestic work Thus, gains to marriage are less Specialization and trading model Demographic Change 1. Delay in forming marriages 2. Non-marriage 3. Divorce 4. Alternative union (cohabitation) 5. Why do we see these delay? Deinstitutionalization of Marriage Cherlin (reading) Weakening of social norms (roles we play, acceptable behavior) Norms of marriage Between a man and a woman Traditional gender roles (breadwinner) Children within marriage (If no kids, assume there are fertility issues or they are selfish) Level of authority/power allocated to family members Signs of decrease in Marriage Cohabitation Same-sex marriage Rise of non-marital fertility Changing gender roles (weakening of breadwinner model) (women increase participation in labor market) (men increase participation in domestic roles) Signal Change in Meaning of Marriage 6. 1850-1960: Era of Mandatory Marriage 7. I. Marriage as an Institution 8. Marriage was functional 9. Economic cooperation 10. Childbearing and childrearing 11. Controlling sexual behavior 12. Reduced nonmarital fertility 13. Had to be married for sex 14. Men were "wild animals" and had lots of sex 15. II. Marriage as a Companionship 16. Love entered into relationship and essential component of marriage 17. Required that people still play roles (breadwinner roles) 18. Derive satisfaction of their marriage based on how well they performed their roles (being good wife/mother) 19. 1960-present today 20. III. Individualized Marriage 21. Seeking an optimal match 22. Someone you want to be around, share your goals, your "soulmate" 23. Fulfill/compliment you 24. Individualized level of characteristics 25. No longer a companionship 26. Intimacy (not roles, but qualitative aspects of relationship 27. Develop your persona 28. IV. "The Pure Relationship" 29. Based purely on intimacy 30. No gender roles 31. Pure relationships that bond people together without institutionalized factors (focused more on intimacy and the individual) If marriage is becoming obsolete, why are people still getting married? => 90% of people will marry at some point What does Cherlin say? Is it functional? Is there any evolutionary basis? We need marriage to maintain a system of child-bearing Is it a system of exchange? If people still marry, the women are going to mainly be unemployed; however, that is not true as of today Is it a rational decision? Enforceable trust What does this mean? Is this enough to explain why people still marry? => Marriage is no longer a system of norms, but means something else (seen as an accomplishment, a sign of status) We don't marry because of evolutionary basis, but rather enforceable trust => making a public commitment (embarrassment/shame/stigma if you divorce => personal failure) Less of a public declaration (cohabitation) and you don't feel as bad if you break up Marriage symbolized start of life, but NOW it signifies the capstone of life Sign of status/personal accomplishment Marriage as Status Marker of prestige Something someone builds up to The apex of their life, rather than the start A time to show "you've made it" Meaning that Marriage has Changed Wedding (parents used to pay for the wedding, family event, transfer of relationships) Nowadays, weddings are expensive ($20,000) Wedding => symbolic way of marking our status (bigger the wedding, bigger the status) (highly personalized) People from higher socioeconomic portions of the population will marry more (marriage rates declining fastest with least educated people and declining at slowest rate with people that have a bachelors degree) Takes a certain level of resources to get to this place where you can marry and show people that you've made it People delaying marriage until they can get to a place where they want to have a certain level of status (financially stable) What is the Future of Marriage? 3 Possibilities: 32. Reinstitutionalization of Marriage 33. Return to its original form 34. Marriage probably not going to return to this state 35. Continuation of the Current Situation 36. Marrying for its symbolic value 37. Fading away of marriage 38. More cohabitation -Symbolic value of marriage grows stronger (more elusive and valuable) -Marriage most likely not going to fade away and rather be a continuation of the current situation => #2 Marriage Societal benefit Love-based marriage contributes to its destabilization Takes a lot of work and investment Marriage and Well-Being "Does Marriage Matter?" (Linda Waite 1995) Presidential address Declines in marriage and increase in nonmarriage are important because they provide benefits for society and individuals Retreat from marriage can deprive individual of certain benefits Benefits of Marriage: Lower mortality rates Better health behaviors Wealth and assets Income/$$ Child well-being Sexual frequency/well-being/satisfaction Labor force participation/returns to work Health Behaviors => Risky health behaviors (alcohol, drugs, smoking) => Positive health behaviors (exercise, good nutrition) Marriage increases engage in positive health behaviors and decrease in negative ones Feel sense of responsibility to minimize your sense of risks Monitoring not only your healthy behavior, but also your spouses Larger benefit to men because they are more risky Marriage imposes structure on your life Reduced Mortality Married men and women have fewer/lower risks of dying (more than those divorced or never married) Men die sooner than women due to increased stress (males work more) Age gap in mortality between females and males close because women are working more Single people --> no social support, no emotional support Marriage provides you with a network of support Married women have increased probability of survival (widowed are next) Married men have increased probability (widowed men don't have as high of a percentage of mortality that women do) --> Men derive more emotional support from marriage than women (broken-heart syndrome) Partnered Sex Married people have increased sex than unmarried people Cohabiters report highest frequency of sex per month Single people have lower frequency of sex per month Satisfaction of Sex Married couples are most satisfied, then cohabiters are next, and singles are least satisfied with their sex lives --> have a readily available partner Assets and Wealth Enormous gap between married and "other" (widowed, divorced, and single) Married couples have so much more money Economies of scale (two people can live together more cheaply than one) Cost go down and married people save their money because they're more future- oriented (1. Save for retirement, a house) In a more traditional way, 2. inheritance flows through marital bonds 3. specialization: tradeoff that allows people to maximize their wealth Does Marriage Matter? Benefits trickle down to children On average, there is more money that trickles down to kids, less conflict/stress in married homes (more parental warmth and involvement), being in a physical healthy environment Increases stability Divorce => residential move, moving is stressful, affects' kids development Child's Outcomes => man/woman parent (best grades) => never married woman parent (increased percentage of child getting behind in school Repeating grades: 6% chance with a mom and dad 21% chance with a step-parent 20% chance with only a mother Similar Outcomes for Children Delinquency Drop out Drug/alcohol use Risky sexual behavior Labor Market Outcomes Marriage premium men (no benefit for women) Men work more hours Wage boost (men with kids work harder and are more employable --> work longer hours) Overview of Mechanisms Long term contract --> skills/specialization Safety net (co-insurance) Economies of scale Connects people to other groups Counter Argument 39. Social Selection 40. People with specific characteristics select into marriage versus non-marriage 41. Benefits of marriage -for adults and kids - are not casual but spuriousness 42. College is conferring benefits, but students already have the smarts and hard working drive 43. Divorce causes child's depression or people who more likely to divorce have more personal issues and poor interpersonal skills, select into divorce 44. "Casual" phenomenon isn't true, it was already there 45. Not all marriages are good marriages 46. Ex) Child outcomes following divorce from high conflict marriage 47. Not all people benefit equally 48. Ex) By gender, social class Marriage as a "Greedy" Institution (Gestel and Sarkisian) It is sucking up/demands your time Separates you from social connections/interactions Ex) People aren't calling their parents, less likely to provide practical help to parent, socialize with neighbors and friends less Marriage is time consuming (always working on your relationship, deep intimate bond leaves less time to invest in other social relationships) We've evolved from a more public marriage to a more private marriage => Honeymoon (friends and family don't go with you) it's a metamorphosis where you emerge as a couple into this private bond Level of social capital Family Structure and Formation: Divorce 3 Eras of Divorce: (Andrew Cherlin) 1. Era of Divorce – Restricted Until middle 19 century Divorces were usually granted under certain criteria (adultery, desertion, nonsupport, mental cruelty) 2. Era of Tolerance Middle 19 century to 1970 Divorce became accessible to women as will Prove your partner was emotionally abusive: Adultery, desertion, nonsupport, mental cruelty (Era of Divorce Tolerance: rise in companionate marriage partners inspired to come up with rationale even if didn't meet them in society) 3. Era of Unrestricted Divorce "No-Fault Divorce" (no longer necessary you meet criteria for the divorces to be legalized) Either party could do it First enacted in California Last state to adopt "No-Fault Divorce" => NY (2010) Movement Towards Unrestricted Divorce, but shift into more restrictive marriage --> Covenant Marriage: forfeiting right to a "no-fault" marriage (Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana) Divorce Today About 42-46% of all marriages end in divorce As number of marriages increase, divorce rates increase 1. Demographic Factors Associate with Divorce Age (younger you marry, increased likelihood of divorce) Education (lower educated, increased divorce rates) Race/ethnic differences (background) Interracial/Interethnic couples have increase in divorce Men's unemployment --> big increase in divorce Non-marital fertility (increase in divorce) Duration (risk of divorce highest during first 7 years) Interfaith Marriages (negotiate between 2 religious communities => conflict) Poverty (income increased, risk of divorce decreased) Prior marriage Risk Factors of Divorce 2. Premarital Cohabitation => increase risk of divorce Inertia takes hold in relationships Self-selection --> people with certain characteristics select into different social statuses 3. Women's Employment Women's economic independence More conflict in families where women work, BUT Women's wages also stabilize families Date suggests employment associated with divorce only in unhappy marriages Women were working and had financial means to get a divorce if they were unhappy Interpersonal Risk Factors Domestic violence Frequent conflict Infidelity Weak decrease in commitment Decreased level of trust Number of relationship problems Broad Scale Explanation for Increase in Divorce Changes in women's employment "No-Fault" Marriage Individualism (marriage is part of your life journey, provide you with individual satisfaction and accomplishment) Majority of people are more accepting of divorce Norms around social structure are loosening Women's work Feminist movement/gender consciousness Gave women increase in power/agency More demand to even out levels of labor in the house These risk factors remain pretty consistent predictors of divorce => "the emerging story" … divorce rates decline for the most educated (second level of education), but remain high for the non educated group (high school graduates only) What else is causing divorce? Money, employment Increase reservation wage for marriage (higher education, less conflict) Reversal of liberal attacks Increase earning women --> more selective (better matches, less conflict) Less uncertainty in marriage (changing expected utility of divorce) Less normative, more sanctioned (more valued behavior) Educational Crossover 4 year college degree people are more liberal than ones who haven't gone to college These are now women Consequences of Divorce for Kids Research tells us: Academic outcomes (drop out, lower grades) Alcohol use and delinquency More adjustment problems and depression Increase risk of divorce as adults Clinical and adult conflicts More emotional detachment from parents Divorce and Child's Well-Being Cause negative consequences: Conflict Residential move Less interaction with non-resident parent (mainly dad --> less father interaction) Financial hit (usually women hurt more financially) Generally referred to as the stress-adjustment period) Theoretical Perspectives 1. Divorce associated with period of crisis Shock Life changes dramatically Kids who experience this divorce, and period of crisis, but they bounce back easier 2. Chronic Strain 3. Multiple Transition Perspective If you divorce, your likelihood of living with another person Risk for multiple transitions => lower outcomes for kids Good Divorces for Kids: Selective Problem (twin studies and fixed effects and lagged outcomes) Consequences for adults Health problems (depression and anxiety) Turned most Americans greedy Experience of failed marriage Cohabitation Arrangement when two people aren't married but are romantically involved New family arrangement Not a norm for our parents generation Norms against pre-marital/sexual relationships Changed due to birth control --> Women didn't have to worry about getting pregnant Sexual revolution --> Enlightenment/restrictions were looser Feminist movement --> Women given sexual agency Increased secularization (moving away from religious tradition) Why People Cohabit? See if you are compatible with that person You have options (don't have to be single nor married) Not as much of a commitment (easier to exit) Less stigma Theories 1 – cohabitation => trial marriage 2 – cohabitation => step to marriage 3 – cohabitation => alternative to marriage 4 – cohabitation => alternative to being single Theory 1 An opportunity to assess their stability and compatibility with their partner Expect that people would have increased divorce rates Higher risk of marriage Theory 2 Engagement period Waiting to get financially secure, finish education Theory 3 Norms around marriage --> weakening Benefits of marriage are easily accessible while cohabiting People don't see necessity of marrying 40% of all nonmarital births are from cohabiters On average, 1/6 of all cohabiters last less than 3 years On average, 1/10 of all cohabiters last less than 5 years Theory 4 You can be single or you can cohabit Benefits of living with somebody Share expenses Closer proximity with person you are with (sexual relationship) Offers more freedom, operates on principal of equality --> not permanent Why do we see this trend? People want benefits of being in a relationship, but offers more freedom/flexibility to have your own pursuits Delays in marriage Violation of social norms to get married young Feedback loop --> people more nervous about marriages not working out, so they cohabit People perceive economic barriers --> People wait until they achieve economic stability Where does cohabitation fit into the contemporary U.S. family system? => we don't know It carries a more diverse meaning whereas in other countries, it's an institution Incomplete Institution Not governed by formal laws Operate on equality amongst partners Equality promotes stability, however promote instability among marital couples Less homogamy (similarities between partners, similar traits) --> Less in cohabitation than in marital unions Might date someone (older, different religious views), but won't marry them 2 Reasons Why People are Cohabiting before Marriage 49. Economic 50. Relationship Factors Economic-Related Themes: 51. Financial stability (economic threshold) (having enough money) 52. Wanted money for a wedding (church wedding) 53. Having package deal (achieving a set of financial goals) (i.e. buying a house, getting out of debt, finishing school) 54. Man's capacity to be an economic provider (supported by quantitative research) (still expectation that men are the financial breadwinners) 55. Money = conflict (people expressed desire for money to have a wedding, car, pay off debt, and be stress-free Reading People aren't marrying because the expectations are so high Cohabiting allows us the feel of a marriage without the permanence and gives us more freedom Other Important Issues: It's connection to divorce It's effects on kids: 40% kids live in a cohabiting family Fewer economic resources (less pooling of resources) (more money, marriage) (less money, cohabiting) Less parental cooperation and more conflict Importance of gender equality and diversity Cohabiters more liberal Diversion of labor --> more equal compared to marrieds Less shared income Nonmarital Fertility (Childbirth Outside of Marriage) Rates of nonmarital fertility highest among blacks Share of nonmarital fertility highest among whites Data by income => mainly poor women have nonmarital births => nonmarital fertility families are poor Why Decrease in Nonmarital Fertility and Marriage? Different access to methods of contraception Alternative ways to form a family without getting married (cohabitation) Family is in decline and norms that govern our behaviors might be weakening Might be issues with contraception and the pregnancies might be unintended/mistake/accident Cognitive Dissonance => mental gap between what you want and what you do => unplanned pregnancy, but not unwanted Reading (Edin and Kefalas => 2005) 2 parts (What other assumptions did the reading challenge?) 56. Why Poor Women Do Not Marry or Delay Marriage Poor women can't contracept (can't afford, don't know how) Want to work the welfare system (want to get their government checks) Women do it to keep their man (baby will make him stay Women gain status in poor neighborhoods by having kids 57. Why They Have Children Given Their Current Circumstances Why Put Motherhood Before Marriage? Kids are expensive to take care of/up bring You want to invest in them Most expected to marry, but the delay was caused by: Money (on part of both man and woman) Money bought women power (have agency, make decisions, not be subservient to husbands) Low levels of trust (fear of infidelity) Cheating not tolerated within marriage Lack of Trust: Infidelity Drug and alcohol use Instability Inability to pay bills or keep a job Low trust levels => delay in marriage Women hoping to address problems listed above. Believed that all the good men were already taken. We date/marry people who inhabit same place as us. Extended engagement to get to know the person Fear marriage would activate more traditional gender roles (men feel like they own their women in a marital union) Weak foundations of marriage Motherhood Having children provides meaning It matured/tamed them ("saved" them) Gave them a second chance at mobility (hope that theirchildren would be more successful) Provided/filled a void (motivated them) Dress kids in name brand clothes --> sign of respectability (well-dressed and clean child) Increase women's self-esteem (saw themselves differently) Bond between parent and child Value of Motherhood Identity Low income women don't have as much access to different social roles (like middle class women do) Multigenerational Household Horizontal relationship - husband/wife, brother/sister Vertical relationship - parent/child "Living with the grandparents are back in style" TODAY => 20% of 65+ people live in multigenerational households 1990 => 16% of 65% people live in multigenerational households Multigenerational Family Include: 3 generation family (grandparent, adult, kid) "skipped generation" (grandparent, grandchild) NO adult parent Parents and adult children (25+) My generation is increasingly moving back in with parents after college Multigenerational households make up 5.4% of all U.S. households 30% increase over the past decade Multigenerational Household => more common among minorities => less common among white families Asian (83%) and Hispanic (63%) multigenerational family => on member is an immigrant (foreign born) --> Blacks (31%) --> Whites (10%) Parent-maintained Households => 31% Grandparent-maintained Households => 67% Majority of U.S. multigenerational households are headed by a grandparent Why is this increasing? Cost of living is on the rise (particularly housing) (more expensive and difficult to establish yourself financially nowadays than it was for your parents) Women are working more (child care is more expensive and harder to find reliable/good caregivers) (half of all grandparents are caring for their children) Increasingly likely to return home with parents after college: Don't have a job (fewer economic opportunity) Educational credentials increased Continued pursuit of education Student loans => DEBT Haven't established your own family yet (no spouse, kids) Boomerang Generation 1 in 5 kids ages 20-30 are living with their parents, less than 10% were living with their parents one generation ago Bengston (2011) Reading Importance of multi-generational bonds/networks/relationships is growing stronger => latent networks that we can activate in times of need Response to prevailing theories on the family 1. It is in decline It is diversifying He proposes a third that is a response to each of these frameworks Families' needs are changing that cannot be fulfilled by the inner/core family How so? 1. Multigenerational ties fulfill functions of nuclear family 2. Family functions are diversifying in unrecognized ways 58. Living longer – life expectancy 59. Co-survivorship (grandparents are more healthy than in the past) 60. Healthiness 61. Increase in divorce and single parents (without second parent in household, they look to other family members for support) 62. Increase in family complexity/diversity 63. Kin ties we didn't have before => "step-kin" 64. Change in age structure from pyramid to rectangle (family size getting smaller) 65. Increased longevity 66. Decreased fertility 67. Smaller nuclear family Provision of support even when not co-residing latent network of kin available in times of need Why Trends Important? Challenge conceptualization of family and idea about how families function Implications for family members Grandparents effects on grandchildren Effects on family dynamics between grnerations
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