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by: Victoria Notetaker

ANT 2410 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Ant 2410

Victoria Notetaker
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these notes have every concept and detail important for the exam #2, hope it helps!
Cultural Anthropology
Valentina Martinez
Study Guide
Anthropology, ANT 2410, Exam 2, Foraging, Language
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Ant 2410 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Valentina Martinez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Florida Atlantic University.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
COMPLETE STUDY GUIDE Chapter 5 Language and Communication NON HUMAN PRIMATE COMMUNICATION -Call Systems: Instead of the language communications humans have, other primates, like monkeys and apes, communicate with call systems, that vary on calls with different intensities and durations. These vocal systems consist on a limited number of sounds that can only be used with particular environmental stimuli. These are automatic and can’t be combined, in contrast with the language used by humans. “Cultural transmission (basic feature of language; transmission through learning) of a communication system by learning is a fundamental attribute of language.” Otherwise, chimps have shown to share a quality in the communication systems with humans: productivity. They can easily create new expressions that are comprehensible to other speakers of the same language using the “rules” of that one language. Apes have also demonstrated linguistic displacement, which refers to the ability to talk about thing that are not present, or, without an “environment stimulus”. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Besides language, there are several ways of communication with one another that we hardly are conscious about, like gestures, body movements, facial expression, that convey a lot of information. We can transmit information about ourselves at the same time we receive information from other people. The Learn Smart assignments discuss the kinetics referring to them as the study of communication through gestures, facials expressions, movements, etc. Linguistic pay a lot of attention to not only what is say, but also HOW it is said, and to features that convey meaning beside the language. We use gestures, such as a jab of the hand for emphasis, and also verbal and non-verbal ways to express our moods. Example: we vary our intonation and our pitch or loudness on our voices, we communicate by strategic pauses, and even by being silent. Body movements also communicate social differences. In Japan, for example, bowing is a regular part of social interaction, but different kinds of bows are used in different levels of social status of the people who are interacting. THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE When spoken language is studied scientifically, there are several areas of analysis, such as phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon.  Phonology refers to the study of speech sounds considering which one is significant and present in a given language.  Morphology is the study of forms, and how sound are combined to them (their meaningful parts).  Lexicon usually refers to the dictionary containing all the morphemes and their meanings.  Syntax is the arrangements and order of words in a sentence. SPEECH SOUNDS - Phoneme: a sound that contrasts and makes a difference in the meaning of something. These are found in a given language by comparing minimal pairs, words that differ in just one sound; they have totally different meanings, and they differ in just that one sound. Ex: bit/beat besides the fact that they sound really similar, there’s a specific use and pronunciation of both words that makes them differ from one another. Ex#2: pit/bit.  Different just on the first letter of the words, they sound alike, but that one sound is the only thing making clear they are totally different words with different meanings.  Phonetics vs. Phonemics: Phonetics is the study of speech sounds (what people actually say); on the other side, phonemics is the study of significant sound contrasts (phonemes) in a language. LANGUAGE, THOUGHT AND CULTURE Noam Chomsky  well-known linguistic, states that the human brain is “already set” with a limited set of rules or universal grammar for organizing language, so that all languages have a basic structure. The way humans can learn foreign languages supports Chomsky’s statement, proving that humans have similar abilities and thought processes. - Displacement: describing things and events that are not present. - Productivity: creating new expressions that are comprehensive to other speakers. - Cultural transmission: transmission through learning, basic to language. • Daughter languages: languages that descend from same parent language that have been changing separately for hundreds or even thousands of years. THE SAPIR-WHORF HYPOTHESIS Other linguistics and anthropologists differ from Chomsky’s statement; they take a different approach and instead of seeking the linguistic structures and processes, they focus on the belief that different languages produce different ways of thinking.  Focal vocabulary  specialized set of terms and distinctions particularly important to certain groups. Ex: the cattle vocabulary of a Texas rancher is much ampler than that on a salesperson in a department store in NYC.  Ethnosemantics the study of lexical (vocabulary) categories and contrasts. *Semantics: a language’s meaning system.*  Sociolinguistics Languages are not a uniform system, not everyone talks just like everyone else. Linguistics performance or “what people actually say” is the main concern of sociolinguistics; they investigate language in its social context. Ex: how do different speakers use different languages? According to the principle of linguistic relativity, all dialects have the same effectiveness as systems of communication, no language is easier or more complicated than others, and we  are just used to listen ours. Our tendency to look our language better than other is a social  more than a linguistic judgment.  Diglossia regular style shifts between “high” and “low” variants of same language  (dialect shifts).   BEV   the relatively uniform dialect spoken by the majority of black youth in most  parts of USA today. Complex linguistic system with its own rules, which linguists  have described. Gender speech contrasts: Men and women have differences in phonology, grammar, vocabulary, as well as in  body stances and movements that accompany speech.   R. Lakoff  use of certain types of words and expressions has been associated with  women’s traditional lesser power in our society. Stratification We use and evaluate speech in the context of extra linguistic forces: economic,  political and social.  Historical linguistics examines long­term variation of speech by studying  protolanguages and daughter languages.  Labov: pronunciation associated with prestige.  Speech habits help determine how other evaluate us.  Thus linguistic forms, which lack power in themselves, take on the power of the  group they symbolize. Chapter 6 ETHNICITY & RACE Ethnic group group whose members share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs  and norms because of their common background. Ethnicity identification with, and feeling part of an ethnic group and exclusion  from certain other groups because of this affiliation (based on cultural similarities and  differences).  ­ Status (for social scientists): positions people occupy in society. ­ Ascribed: little or no choice about occupying the status given. ­ Achieved: through choices, actions, efforts, talents or accomplishments, positive  or negative. ­ Races are not biologically distinct ­ Melanin – Natural sunscreen – produced by skin cells responsible for pigmentation Historically, scientists have approached the study of this biological diversity in two  different ways:  ­ Racial classification (now largely rejected): attempt to assign humans some kind of “categories” based on common ancestry. Biological race would be a  geographically isolated subdivision of a species in theory. Humans lack of  theses races because human populations have not been isolated enough from one another in order to develop such groups and subdivisions. ­ Explanatory approach (or a.k.a simply understanding differences) ­“Race is a cultural category rather than a biological reality”­ The social construction of race Races are ethnic groups assumed to have biological basis­ but race is socially  constructed. The races that we hear everyday are cultural or social. In the U.S. culture, racial identity is acquired at birth (as an ascribed status). ­ Rule of descent: assigns social identity on the basis of ancestry. ­ Hypodescent: automatically places children of mixed marriages in the group of  their minority parent. ­ This divides U.S. society in unequal groups in their access to wealth, power and  prestige. ­ U.S. culture does not draw very clear line between ethnicity and race ­ Average population believe in biologically based races (white, black, yellow,  red, Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloid, etc.) NOT US: RACE IN JAPAN  Commonly seen as just one race.  About 10% of population minorities’ intrinsic racism: belief that perceived racial  difference is sufficient reason to value one person less than another.   Burakumin  outcast group, considered as an inferior race.  BRAZIL   racial identity is more flexible, fluid, more of an achieved status.  Many racial labels.  Pays attention to phenotype (what you appear as).  System of racial classification is changing in the context of international identity,  politics and rights movements. Nation: society sharing a common language, religion, history, territory, kinship, etc. State: stratified society with formal central government. Nation­State: autonomous political entity; a country basically.  Most nation­states aren’t ethnically homogeneous (result of migration, conquest,  colonialism).  Nationalities: ethnic groups that have, once had or want their own country.  Colonialism: long­term foreign domination of a territory and its people.  Assimilation: when a minority adopts the patterns and norms of the host culture to  the point where it o longer exists as a separate cultural unit.  Plural society: society with economically interdependent ethnic groups.  Roots of ethnic conflicts  They can be political, economic, religious, linguistic, cultural, and racial.  Principally caused by sense of injustice due to resource distribution, economic or political  competition and reaction to discrimination prejudice.  Discrimination  policies and practices that harm a group and its members: ­ De facto: practiced but not legally sanctioned (police treatment of minorities). ­ De jure: part of the law (i.e. Segregation, apartheid).  Genocide deliberate elimination of a complete group (Ex: Jews in Nazi Germany) Forced assimilation dominant group forces an ethnic group to adopt the dominant culture. CHAPTER 7 MAKING A LIVING ­ Adaptive strategy: means of making a living; productive system or system of  economic production. ­  Cohen: Types of societies based on adaptive strategies,  Foraging  foraging economies relied on nature and natural resources to  make their living. Today foragers live in nation­states and they are not  isolated anymore; typically foraging groups are mobile, People who subsist  by hunting, gathering, and fishing often live in band­organized societies o Band: basic social unit among foragers; fewer than 100 people all  related by kinship or marriage; may split seasonally. o The San Tendency to stereotype foragers; Kent stresses variation among foragers  (some are sedentary). They are San speakers and include Basarwa, Dobe  Ju/’hoansi, Kutse. Band Leaders: first among equals.  The Inuit of the Artic • Good example of conflict resolution (settling disputes) in stateless societies • Foragers lacked formal law but had methods of social control for dispute  settlement • Main social unit: nuclear families • Men hunt and fish (primary subsistence activities) Big man: like a village head, except his authority is regional and may have  influence over more than one village; regional authority. Common to South Pacific.  Must be generous. Serves as temporary regional regulator who can mobilize  supporters.   Horticulture   cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of  production (land, labor, capital, and machinery). Horticulturists use simple  tools (hoes, digging sticks), their fields are not permanently cultivated, they  use “Slash­and­burn” cultivation and Shifting cultivation (shifts from plot to  plot); Horticulture can support large permanent villages.  Agriculture  requires more labor than horticulture does; uses land  intensively and continuously, uses domesticated animals; many  agriculturalists use animals as a means of production (transport, cultivating  machines, manure).  Pastoralism  herders whose activities focus on such domesticated animals  as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and yaks.  o Pastoral nomadism: members of pastoral society follow herd  throughout the year o Transhumance: part of group moves with herd; most stay in home  village    Industrialism  factory production. Potlatching: competitive feast on North pacific coast of North America. Reciprocity  Generalized: back and forth exchange. Balanced: giving and expecting receiving. CHAPTER 8 POLTICAL SYSTEMS • Substantial variation in power, authority, and legal systems. Power: ability to exercise one’s will over others; authority is formal,  socially approved use of power. 4 types of political organization: • Band: small kin­based group among foragers • Tribe: economy based on no­intensive food production (horticulturalists and pastoralists) • Chiefdom: intermediate form between tribe and state. They are kin­based.   Differential access to resources and permanent political structures. • State: formal governmental structure and socioeconomic stratification


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