BIO 201: EXAM 2 REVIEW
BIO 201: EXAM 2 REVIEW BIO 201
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by ASUNursing19 on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 201 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Penkrot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 529 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
1. Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM. 2. Insulin is taken up by endocytosis by endothelial cells lining capillaries, and then transported across the cell to the other side, where it is released. This transport is called TRANSCYTOSIS. 3. Eye color is caused by genes at multiple loci. This phenomenon is called POLYGENIC INHERITANCE. 4. A karyotype shows that 46 chromosomes sorted and isolated from a cell in METAPHASE. 5. EPITHELIAL TISSUES lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs. 6. AREOLAR tissue is highly vascular, whereas CARTILAGE is not. 7. What organelle is most active in causing programmed cell death? LYSOSOME. 8. Skeletal muscle is described as STRIATED AND VOLUNTARY. 9. This membrane lines passageways that open to the exterior environment. MUCOUS MEMBRANE (MUSCOSA). 10. Facilitated diffusion and active transport have in common that both ARE CASES OF CARRIER-MEDIATED TRANSPORT. 11. The stage at which chromosomes aggregate along the equator of a cell is METAPHASE. 12. GOBLET cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes. 13. Cytokinesis overlaps with which phase of mitosis? TELOPHASE. 14. Muscle cells contain numerous MITOCHONDRIA to serve their higher demand for ATP. 15. All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia. PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR. 16. Hemophilia is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. This means that A SON WHO HAS HEMOPHILLIA INHERITED THE ALLELE FROM HIS MOTHER. 17. ACGGTA is the DNA base sequence complementary to the strand TGCCAT. 18. G1, S, and 2 phases of the cell cycle are collectively called INTERPHASE. 19. If one allele is not phenotypically expressed in the presence of another, we say that it is a RECESSIVE allele. 20. THE CYTOSKELETON gives structural support, determines the shape of a cell, and directs the movement of substances through the cell. 21. DNA replication is called semiconservative because EACH DAUGHER DNA CONSISTS OF ONE NEW HELIX AND ONE OLD HELIX. 22. SMOOTH ER is not involved in protein synthesis. 23. DNA HELICASE opens up one segment of the DNA helix during replication, whereas DNA POLYMERASE adds complementary free nucleotides to the exposed DNA strand. 24. In the cell cycle, DNA polymerase is most active in 5 phase. 25. CHONDROBLASTS secrete rubbery matrix of cartilage, whereas FIBROBLASTS produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue. 26. White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of PHAGOCYTOSIS. 27. A thin, stained slice of tissue mounted on a microscope is called a HISTOLOGICAL SECTION. 28. Copying genetic information form DNA into RNA is called TRASCRIPTION, whereas using the information contained in mRNA to make a polypeptide is called TRANSLATION. 29. The ECTODERM gives rise to the NERVOUS SYSTEM AND EPIDERMIS. 30. These are all membranous organelles except RIBOSOMES. 31. Anticodons, codons, and base triplets correspond to tRNA, mRNA, and DNA, respectively. 32. This figure shows the DNA structure. What does “D” represent? HYDROGEN BONDS. 33. Among other functions, hepatocytes (liver cells) are specialized in detoxifying drugs or other chemicals. Hepatocytes have large amounts of SMOOTH ENDOPOLASMIC RETICULUM. 34. PEROXISOMES decompose fatty acids, and detoxify alcohol, free radicals, and drugs. 35. Which of these bring nonspecific material into a cell? PINOCYTOSIS. 36. These are all types of fibrous connective tissues except HYALINE CARTILAGE. 37. Transcription occurs in the NUCLEUS, but most translation occurs in the CYTOPLASM. 38. The basement membrane is found between EPITHELIUM AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE. 39. DNA is polymer of NUCLEOTIDES, which consists of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a NITROUGENOUS BASE. 40. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion. 41. Nervous tissue consists predominantly of two cell types, neurons and NEUROGLIA. 42. All these substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance except COLLAGEN. 43. The skin does not include THE HYPODERMIS. 44. What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)? YELLOW BONE MARROW. 45. The oil of your scalp is secreted by SEBACEOUS glands associated with the hair follicles. 46. A bone is covered externally with a sheath called PERIOSTEUM, whereas the internal surface is lined with ENDOSTEUM. 47. Secretions from MEROCRINE SWEAT glands contribute to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin. 48. Hypocalcemia can cause SPASMS. 49. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not LOWER BLOOD CALCIUM. 50. The APOCRINE GLANDS are a source of sex pheromones. 51. RESORPTION is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream. 52. The most immediate threat to the life of a patent with severe burns is FLUID LOSS. 53. THIRD-DEGREE burns involve the epidermis, all of the dermis, and often some deep tissue. 54. These cells stand guard against toxins, microbes and other pathogens. DENDRITIC (LANGERHANS) CELLS. 55. Arteriosclerosis is one example of ectopic ossification, which means ABNORMAL CALCIFICATION OF A TISSUE. 56. The skeleton does not STORE RED BLOOD CELLS. 57. OSTEOCLASTS have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas OSTEOCYTES have long, think, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes. 58. The last common but most deadly type of skin cancer is MELANOMA. 59. Ethnic differences in skin color are primarily caused by difference in QUANTITY OF MELANIN PRODUCED. 60. These are all types of cells found in the epidermis except FIBROBLASTS. 61. This image shows structures of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. COLLAGEN AND FIBROBLASTS are found in the layer of the skin represented as “2”. 62. Wolff’s law of bone explains the effect of MECHANICAL STRESS ON BONE REMODELING. 63. A hair cycle consists of three developmental stages in the following order: ANAGEN, CATAGEN, AND TELOGEN. 64. Blood vessels in the DERMAL PAPILLA provide a hair with its sole source of nutrition. 65. OSTEOBLASTS are bone-forming cells. 66. The fastest rate of mitosis happens in the STRATUM BASALE. 67. Bilirubin causes a skin discoloration called JAUNDICE. 68. CERUMEN is formed partly form the secretions of glands in the external ear canal. 69. Which two strata of the epidermis are most susceptible to cancer? SPINOSUM AND BASALE. 70. Intramembranous ossification produces the FLAT BONES OF THE SKULL. 71. When the OSTEOBLASTS become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called OSTEOCYTES. 72. Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a HAIR FOLLICLE. 73. The hair present only prenatally is called LANUGO, most which is replaced by VELLUS by the time of birth. 74. Calluses or corns are the result of accelerated multiplication of KERATINOCYTES. 75. The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called AN EPIPHYSIS. 76. The hypodermis usually has an abundance of this tissue. ADIPOSE TISSUE. 77. In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is HYALINE CARTILAGE, which is replaced by bone. 78. Variations in hair color arise from the relative amounts of EUMELANIN AND PHEOMELANIN. 79. Bone elongation is a result of CARTILAGE GROWTH. 80. Leather is mostly made of the RETICULAR layer of the dermis, which is very tough due to the high concentration of COLLAGEN fibers. 81. This layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead cells. STRATUM CORNEUM. 82. HYDROXYAPATIT AND OTHER MINERALS provide hardness to bones, whereas PROTEINS provide some degree of flexibility. 83. Skin covering the FINGERTIPS has sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous (oil) glands. 84. Spicules and trabeculae are found in SPONGY BONE. 85. The STRATUM LUCIDUM is absent from most epidermis. 86. The METAPHYSIS is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage. 87. Macrophages PHAGOCYTIZE AND DIGEST TISSUE DEBRIS in the healing of a skin wound. 88. These are all tissues that are a part of a long bone except TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM. 89. CALCITROL is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone. 90. Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix? HYDROXYAPATITE. 91. The replacement of damaged tissue with scare tissue is called FIBROSIS. 92. Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing APPOSITIONAL GROWTH. 93. Most of the skin is 1 to 2 mm thick. 94. Which of the following are associated with the sense of touch? TACTILE (MERKEL) CELLS. 95. Fingerprints left on things we touch are associated with DERMAL PAPILLAE. 96. The skin discoloration most likely to suggest physical abuse is HEMATOMA. 97. The reddish color of the skin of the lips are primarily due to this pigment. HEMOGLOBIN. 98. This skin color is most likely to result from anemia. PALLOR. 99. A MOLE is an elevated patch of melanized skin. 100. A pilus is A HAIR. 101. The contraction of the piloerector muscles (pilomotor muscle or arrector pili) in humans causes HAIRS TO STAND ON END WITH NO APPARENT FUNCTION. 102. Excessive hairiness is called HIRSUTISM. 103. The narrow zone of dead skin overhanging the proximal end of a nail is called EPONYCHIUM (CUTICLE). 104. Mitosis in the NAIL MATRIX accounts for growth of the nail. 105. The cutaneous glands concerned with cooling the body are MEROCRINE GLANDS. 106. Mammary glands are modified APOCRINE glands that develop within the female breast, whereas BREASTS are present in both sexes. 107. The “ABCD Rule” for recognizing early signs of malignant melanoma refers to the following characteristics of the lesion: ASYMMETRY, BORDER IRREGULARITY, COLOR, DIAMETER. 108. Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum BASALE, whereas melanoma arises from MELANOCYTES. 109. If a DNA molecule were known to be 22% thymine (T), what would the percentage of guanine (G) be? 28%. 110. A NUCLEOSOME is composed of a granular cluster of 8 proteins called HISTONE with DNA wound around them, plus a short segment of linker DNA. 111. All of the following are directly involved in translation except DNA. 112. After translation, a protein may undergo structural changes called POSTTRANSITIONAL modifications. 113. The gene coding for a polypeptide made of 51 amino acids would have a minimum number of 153 BASES. 114. DNA polymerase is most active in S PHASE. 115. All of the following participate in DNA replication except RIBOSOMES. 116. Cytokinesis overlaps with which phase of mitosis? TELOPHASE. 117. A mutation is A CHANGE IN DNA STRUCTURE THAT MIGHT BE BENEFICIAL, HARMFUL, OR NEUTRAL. 118. Which of these processes occurs during a cell’s first gap (G1) phase? THE CELL SYNTHESIZES PROTEINS AND GROWS. 119. Sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of a cell during ANAPHASE. 120. Chromatin shortens and thickens, coiling into compact rods during PROPHASE. 121. Which of the following omits some stage(s) of the cell cycle? PROPHASE, METAPHASE, ANAPHASE, TELOPHASE, CYTOKINESIS. 122. Germ cells have 23 unpaired chromosomes and are thus called HALPOID cells. 123. The allele for cleft chin is dominant to the allele for uncleft chin. A male and female who are both heterozygous for cleft chin have a child. What is the chance that this child will have an uncleft chin? 25%. 124. All of the body’s nonreproductive cells, called SOMATIC CELLS, usually have 23 PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES and are this called DIPLOID cells. 125. Osseous tissue is a CONNECTIVE tissue. 126. This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "1" represent? MARROW CAVITIY. 127. This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent? EPIPHYSEAL LINE. 128. This images shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "5" represent? ARTICULAR CARTILAGE. 129. This image shows the histology of osseous tissue. Label “2” represents LACUNAE, which are SITES OF RESIDENCE OF OSTEOCYTES. 130. Red bone marrow does not contain YELLOW BONE MARROW. 131. Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes? OSTEOCLASTS. 132. CENTRAL CANALS are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone. 133. A chondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the EPIPHYSEAL PLATE. 134. Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis. ZONE OF CELL PROLIFERATION. 135. A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are ELASTIC CARTILAGE AND EPIPHYSEAL PLATE. 136. Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition? THE FIRST FEW CRYSTALS TO FORM ATTRACT MORE CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE. 137. Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except AMINO ACIDS. 138. Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except DNA SYNTHESIS. 139. Which of these is not an effect of calcitrol? CARTILAGE GROWTH IN THE EPIPHYSEAL PLATE. 140. REMOVAL OF THE THYROID GLAND does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia. 141. Blood Ca 2+deficiency stimulates PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion, which leads to INCREASED OSTEOCLAST ACTIVITY. 142. If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect AN ELEVATED LEVEL OF OSETEOBLAST ACTIVITY. 143. A soft callus forms during THE HEALING OF A FRACTURE. 144. Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ESTROGEN, which would otherwise inhibit OSTEOCLAST ACTIVITY. 145. A fracture in which the bone is broken in three or more pieces is called a COMMINUTED fracture. 146. The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is a softness of the bones called RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. 147. Bone protrudes through the skin in a fracture called OPEN. 148. A pathologic fracture IS A BREAK IN A BONE THAT HAPPENS REPEATEDLY. 149. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture? HEMATOMA FORMATION > SOFT CALLUS FORMATION > HARD CALLUS FORMATION > BONE REMODELLING. 150. Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called SOFT CALLUS, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called HARD CALLUS. 151. OSTEOPOROSIS affects more people than any other bone disease. 152. Mesoderm gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood. TRUE. 153. Columnar cell lining the small intestine that show a brush border of microvilli in the apical surface. TRUE. 154. Nonkeratinized cells exfoliate form the surface of the skin. FALSE. 155. The clear gel that usually surrounds cells is called interstitial fluid. TRUE. 156. Fibrocartilage is found in intervertebral discs. TRUE. 157. Smooth and cardiac muscle are under involuntary control. TRUE. 158. Blood consists of cells and a ground substance made of formed elements. FALSE. 159. Plasma cells produce the ground substance that forms the matrix of connective tissues. FALSE. 160. Excitable cells respond to outside stimuli by means of changes in plasma membrane shape. FALSE. 161. The secretory product of a gland is produced by its parenchyma, not its stroma. TRUE. 162. Scar tissue helps hold an organ together but does not restore normal function. TRUE. 163. The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except FIBROUS. 164. The clear gel inside a cell is called CYTOSOL. 165. This image shows a LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 166. An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called SIMPLE COLUMNAR. 167. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. 168. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas STRATIFIED COLUMNAR epithelium is rare. 169. A brush border of microvilli belongs to SIMPLE COLUMNAR epithelium found in the SMALL INTESTINE. 170. TRANSITIONAL epithelium found in the bladder resembles STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelium, but the apical cells are rounded, not flattened. 171. NONKERATINIZED epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the VAGINA. 172. These features are common to all connective tissues except INTERSTITIAL FLUID IS SO SCARCE THAT IT IS NOT VISIBLE WITH A LIGHT MICROSCOPE. 173. These are features that fibrous connective tissues have in common except A CALCIFIED MATRIX. 174. The shape of a person’s external ear is given by ELASTIC CARTILAGE. 175. New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and others are hydrolyzed and released into circulation mostly from cells in ADIPOSE TISSUE. 176. Marfan syndrome is a hereditary defect in elastic fibers. People with this syndrome have HYPEREXTENSIBLE JOINTS. 177. Collagenous fibers are very abundant in TENDONS, LIGAMENT AND THE DEEPER PORITON OF THE SKIN. 178. Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both DENSE REGULAR AND DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUES. 179. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) help give the ground substance some of its qualities such as HOLDING WATER AND MAINTAINING ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. 180. BLOOD is found in the heart, and one of its functions is to TRANSPORT NUTRIENTS TO THE TISSUES. 181. AREOLAR TISSUE exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes. 182. MUSCULAR AND NERVOUS tissues respond quickly to outside stimuli by means of changes in membrane potential, thus they are called EXCITABLE tissues. 183. Astronauts in zero gravity are able to move food through their digestive tracts because SMOOTH MUSCLE PRODUCES WAVES OF CONTRACTIONS THAT PROPEL MATERIAL THROUGH THE DIGESTIVE TRACT. 184. A connective tissue fiber refers to a COMPLEX OF MACROMOLECULES, a nerve fiber refers to a PART OF A CELL, and a muscle fiber refers to an ENTIRE CELL. 185. In the intestine, TIGHT JUNCITONS ensure that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them. 186. ENDOCRINE GLANDS secrete HORMONES into THE BLOOD. 187. MUCOUS glands secrete mucin, which combines with water and form a thick and sticky product, whereas SEROUS glands produce a relatively watery fluid. 188. COMPOUND ACINAR GLANDS have branched ducts and secretory cells that form sacs at one end of the ducts. 189. This membrane line passageways that open to the exterior environment. MUCOUS MEMBRANE (MUCOSA). 190. This primary germ layer is the middle layer, called MESODERM, and gives rise to a gelatinous material called MESENCHYME, which gives rise to different types of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, and blood. 191. Most biologists see embryonic stem (ES) cells as a possible treatment for diseases that result from the loss of functional cells. This possibility is based on the fact that ES cells are TOTIPOTENT stem. 192. The pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the bronchi in smokers may transform into stratified squamous epithelium. This exemplifies METAPLASIA. 193. It is normal for breasts to shrink after lactation ceases. This is a consequence of APOPTOSIS in human breast cells. 194. MEROCRINE glands (such as tear glands) have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas HOLOCRINE glands (such as oil-producing glands) secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products. 195. The membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts consists of EPITHELIUM AND LAMINA PROPRIA. 196. Dendrites in a neuron send outgoing signals to other cells. FALSE.
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