Study Guide for Quiz 1
Study Guide for Quiz 1 SPHU 1020
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eleni McGee on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPHU 1020 at Tulane University taught by Dickey-Cropley, Lorelei in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 236 views. For similar materials see Cell, Individual & The Community in Public Health at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Eleni McGee STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 1 SPHU 1020 Dr Rajan Overview Health Determinants and Biology of Disease Public health the approach to medicine that is concerned with the health of the community or of a population Community people gathered together who are exposed to the same risk Ex Classroom country city etc Public health triad Host factors agents and environmental factors Risk factors any factor representing a greater risk of a health disorder or unwanted condition or event Low socioeconomic status obesity high blood pressure high cholesterol smoking are a few examples Health determinants exactly what it sounds like Things that determine your level of health There is no single most important one There are ve categories 1 Human biology and genetics a Risk indicators you already have them and can t change them age sex race geography genetics b Risk factors you don t already have them and you can change them obesity high blood pressure AIDS stress levels 2 Behavior and Lifestyle a Personal health practices and coping skills nutrition exercise communication alcoholdrugs weight control harm reduction etc BE ABLE TO NAME A FEW b Includes structural or physiological effects and pre disposition to pathological effects Note that risk indicators or markers unlike risk factors cannot be changed Risk factors are conditions or variables associated with a lower likelihood of positive outcomes and a higher likelihood of negative or socially undesirable outcomes Protective factors have the reverse effect they enhance the likelihood of positive outcomes and lessen the likelihood of negative consequences from exposure to risk Although an individual s genetic endowment is xed at birth its ultimate effects are not One s genetic endowment may lead directly to health problems expressed at birth or to later disease but increasingly genetic knowledge emphasizes the role of genetic predispositions or susceptibilities Whether or not they result in diseases or disorders depends critically on the environmental in uences and challenges experiences by the individual over his or her lifetime Genetic and environmental factors are therefore complementary and interacting in uences rather than competing ones as explanations for health differences among groups 3 Social a Societal norms socioeconomic status b NOTE different from behavior and lifestyle because behaviorlifestyle are more habits that you form your self rather than what other people your environment forms around you 4 Environmental a Natural and man made water air vehicles land lls climate etc 5 Health care a Sometimes classi ed under social b Refers to what health care communities have access to wealthy Narrow income spread Japan experienced improvement in overall health industry poor narrow income spread Liberia Broad income spread US India Host factors what makes us get the disease it carries the disease Agent cause of the disease etiological agents Noninfectious agents asbestos Infectious agents virus bacteria NOTE vectors are NOT agents Vectors just carry the disease but do not actually get it Etiological causal 3 major communicable diseases globally 1 HIVAIDS 2 TB 3 Malaria Pathogenesis describes mechanism involved in the development of disease in the body Describes what happens when the disease enters Mechanisms that result in outomes Note the natural history natural course of a disease differs depending on whether or not you treat that disease One example of when the natural history of the disease was drawn out is the Tuskegee experiments Black men in Alabama infected with syphillus and told that they were receiving treatment but they were not doctors were studying the natural history of the disease Disease States Signs vs Symptoms Signs something that a doctor can determine ex Heart murmur with a stethoscope Symptoms something that the patient experiences and is observable 0 Ex Fever pain lack of appetite camminess Lesions of disease something that is a physical manifestation and visible to naked eye gross lesions or through a microscope histological lesions Ex Tumors chickenpox Acute vs Chronic Diseases Acute occurs and resolves over a short period of time have distinct clinical features Most infectious diseases are acute Exceptions HIV hepatitis TB Chronic occurs and evolves over a long period of time and does not have as distinct clinical features most noninfectious diseases are chronic Exceptions poisoning can be acute Epidemiological terms to know Incidence of new cases of a disease in a time period Prevalence all cases of a disease new and old within a time period Note od diagnosed and still going on in that time period Morbidity of people who get the disease Mortality of people who die from the disease Side note case fatality rate is of people who die out of of people who contract disease Outbreak sudden increase in of cases in a speci c population usually shortlived smaller more easily contained Epidemic when an outbreak case is prolonged and kept within a certain country meningococcal meningitis Pandemicwhen an outbreak spreads over areas bigger than just one country ebola SARS in uenza Endemic when a disease is always present in a community at a low level malaria in Africa Concepts in Disease Biology and Global Health Health the state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of a disease or in rmity DALY Disabilityadjusted life year a time based measure that combined years of life lost due to premature mortality and years of life lost due to time lived in bad health states Assesses burden of disaease and determines costeffectiveness QALY quality adjusted life years corrects someones life expectancy based on levels of healthrealted quality predicted for them We have only eradicated one disease smallpox Why was it accomplished no animal reservoir easily recognizable good vaccine available good control strategy good political commitment good reporting and monitoring MAJOR NCDs non communicable diseases cardiovascuar diseases Diabetes chronic respiratory diseases cancer mental health Cell Structure and Organization Ce basic unit of life capable of metabolism replication and responding to environment Levels of organization 1 cells 2 Tissues a Groups of cells working together b Ex Muscle 3 Organs a Groups of tissues working together b Ex Heart 4 Organ systems a Groups of organs working together b Ex Cardiovascular skeletal nervous respiratory imbic systems Eukaryote membrane bound nucleus vs Prokaryote no nucleus Cell membranes regulate passage of substances into and out of cells 6 major functions of membrane proteins transport enzymatic activity signal transduction chemical detection Cellcell recognition Intercellularjoining Anchor to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix made of a phospholipid biayer with a hydrophilic polar head and hydrophobic nonpolar tai Animal cells have cholesterol in cell membranes Fluid allows proteins to move around within biayer P P FP NE Nucleotides adenine guanine cytosine thymine A set of three nucleotides is a codon Each codon codes for a speci c amino acid There are 20 amino acids and 64 possible codon combinations DNA Adenine binds to thymine Guanine binds to cytosine Held together by hydrogen bonds weak Chromosomes DNA arranged in linear form Normally in chromatin with histones balllike proteins RNA Has uracil instead of thymine THE CENTRAL DOGMA DNARNAPROTEN Transcriptiontranslation After translation a protein is folded this folding process is essential to the function of the protein Proteins can be structural be enzymes regulate be hormone receptors Each triplet codon codes for an amino acid Cell and Molecular Biology Replication Transcription and Translation Applied DNA replication DNA is duplicated before a cell divides repication bubbles form so that the process is more efficient DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides while DNA ligase joins the segments together EXACT copies are created Note introns are noncoding regions in DNA that are spliced out before translation Exons are coding regions 3 types of RNA mRNA copy of DNA that codes for the polypeptide made in translation rRNA ribosomal RNA tRNA transfer RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome during translation 50 64 types of tRNA for 64 anticodons for each mRNA codon Mutation when a code doesn t copy properly so the protein isn t properly functioning Examples sick cell anemia down syndrome cancer cystic brosis There can also be external causes of mutation ex Radiation sunlight Biology and Geonomics Biotechnology use of microorganisms cells or cell components to make a product MOLECULAR APPLICATIONS 1 Detecting and analyzing DNA RNA or protein a Biomarkers i Used to detect something in a person s uids blood urine Examples are metabolites proteins antibodies nucleic acids b Diagnosis detecting antibodies that are released in response to an antigen c Molecular epidemiology looking at different diseases and seeing how they are related How does region 1 relate to strains from region 2 2 Manipulating DNA Genetic Engineering a Recombinant DNA to produce insulin vaccines etc i Put DNA for desired protein into a living organism and watch living organism produce that protein b Gene therapy i Introducing a gene to a person when they are lacking the gene or have a defective gene DNA Probes very quick sensitive but very expensive probe specimen to look for a speci c sequence of DNA that you know is present in a certain virus this probe must be complementary to the gene that you are looking for and you must attach some signal ie uorescent light to detect it problems signal could be hard to nd DNA could be moving around PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction when you amplify a small fragment of DNA using primers so that you can analyze the DNA 3 steps 0 Denature at high temp use a speci c enzyme that will not be denatured along with the DNA at this temperature Taq polymerase o Anneal of primers at low temp Bonding with complementary primers 0 DNA synthesis at medium temp synthesize DNA amplifying it We are more con dent in PCR because so many copies are made After PCR we run the chain through gel electrophoresis and compare it to a DNA ladder to analyze it Advantages tolerates impure DNA very quick and sensitive Can analyze a few genes at a time Problems high risk of contamination Both PCR and DNA probes allow for early diagnosis Genetic Engineering using recombinant DNA combine DNA from two different organisms by using plasmids plasmids are circular extrachromosomal DNA that is present in bacteria and replicates independently It can jump from cell to cell introduce new gene into plasmids so that the plasmid with the new gene will allow the bacterium to start making the desired protein NOTE Vectors in genetic engineering carry the target DNA the new plasmid
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