His 251 Midterm Study Guide
His 251 Midterm Study Guide HIS 251
Popular in Global History 1500s to the Present
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 251 at La Salle University taught by Prof. Kamper in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Global History 1500s to the Present in History at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Midterm Study Guide for History 251 Key Terms: EUROPE Protestant Reformation o Legacy higher literacy and the beginning of mass education, emphasis on individual moral responsibility, and increase in conflicts and intolerance o Martin Luther and the German National Church Many German rulers were angry at tax funds used for goals they didn’t support eager to challenge Rome Martin Luther’s teachings 1517 indulgence sales; money raised was used to pay off debt rather than ecclesiastical purposes Excommunicated in 1521 by the pope for refusing to recant his views; declared an outlaw by Emperor Charles V Spread of message through the printing press and his writings and sermons Lutheran congregations sprung up o Calvinism John Calvin French lawyer Doctrine of predestination decided by God at birth whether you were going to Heaven or Hell; God has absolute sovereignty Rebellion against Rome Elect pastors power of congregation; great political and moral force Hugonaut Calvinist in France; Puritans in England; Presbyterians in Scotland Calvinists thought of entire community as equal members of the church on earth Lutheranism was confined to German speaking countries and Scandanavia and did not spread much after 1550 and Calvinism was an international faith and continued to spread Religious reasons o Church of England Political reasons Henry VIII needed a male successor but his wife Catherine failed to give him one; wanted to have the marriage annulled by the pope so he could marry someone else to give him an heir Pope refused annulment Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared himself only supreme head of the Church in England Married and divorced several times; secured a son King Edward VI Protestant views became dominant among English gov. group Mary, Henry VIII’s catholic daughter, restored Catholicism; Protestant conspirators were put to death Queen Elizabeth I Protestant Christian; promoted religious peace Compromise between Roman and Protestant doctrines Church of England; bishops, rituals, sacraments of Roman Church but its head was the English monarch who appointed bishops and archbishop of Canterbury Strict Puritans were not happy CounterReformation o Roman Church decided to pursue two major lines of counterattack against the Protestands: a thorough examination of doctrines and practices combined with an entirely novel emphasis on instruction of the young and education of all Christians in the precepts of their religion o Try to reform corrupt practices no selling of indulgences o Council of Trent 15451563 First attempt to examine church’s doctrines and goals Firmly separated Catholicism and Protestantism Founding of the Jesuit order to win or win back the minds and hearts of humanity for the Catholic Church through patient, careful instruction that would bring everyone the word of God and of the pope Index of forbidden books Church’s power to censor writings and supervise beliefs Train better priests (better education/seminaries) No doctrine changes Saints, good works, salvation Clerical celibacy, purgatory No wars to fight in, lose prestige, go bankrupt NinetyFive Theses o Luther raised objections to papal indulgences and to the whole doctrine of papal supremacy o Luther’s study of the Bible convinced him that only through the freely given grace of a merciful God might he, or any person, reach immortal salvation Catholic Church taught that humans must manifest their faith by doing good works and leading good lives earn a heavenly future Luther believed faith alone was the factor to reach the afterlife o Justification by faith Peace of Augsburg o 1555; concluded a 10 year civil war by dividing Germany into Catholic and Lutheran parcels, but made no allowances for the growing number of Calvinists or other Protestants Scandanavia Lutheran Austria, Hungary, Poland catholic with large minorities or Calvinists and Lutherans Spain and Italy Catholic Russia and southeastern Europe unaffected; hostile to Western Christianity or under Muslim rule Edict of Nantes o 1598; Henry made the first significant European attempt at religious toleration o gave the million or so French Calvinists (the Huguenots) the freedom to worship, hold office, and to fortify their towns o held for about a century during which France rose to become the premier power in Europe Thirty Years’ War 1618 o Arose from religious intolerance but became a struggle for territory and worldly power o France, Holland, Sweden, and the German Protestant states fought against the Holy Roman Emperor and Spain; most of fighting in Germany o Treaty of Westphalia brought peace is 1648; France and Sweden were the winners and Spain and the Austrian based Habsburgs were the losers Germany ceased to exist as a political concept and broke up into dozens then hundreds of small kingdoms and principalities First modern state treaty Decisive importance of the sovereign state, rather than the dynasty that ruled it or the religion its population professed; theological uniformity was replaced by secular control of territory and population as the supreme goal of the rival powers King Louis XIV 16431715 o Bourbon Dynasty; French government; Royal absolutism o 5 years old when he came to rule so gov. remained in Mazarin’s hands; brought up to believe that kingship was the highest calling on earth and that its powers were limited only by God o Incarnation of an absolute monarchy, believing in divine right in which he said that the monarchy’s powers flowed from God o “I am the state” o Chose middleclass officials; mercantilist economy, taxes (nobility exempt), rejected edict of Nantes (limited religious freedom); splendid isolation o Nullified independent powers of aristocrats forcing them to come to Versaille where they vied for his favor and he could keep them under a watchful eye o 4 conflicts with England, Holland, and most of the German states o War of the Spanish succession France tried to seize control of much weakened Spain and its empire, but was checked by a coalition led by England Bankrupted France; unpopular Treaty of Utrecht 1713; France placed 1 member of the Bourbon family on the Spanish throne but under the condition that France and Spain would never be joined together Spain’s concession of the rights to trade with possessions in the Caribbean to England Put England in position to become the world’s greatest imperial and industrial power o Strengths and weaknesses of French absolutism Model for what could be accomplished with a strong king and a wealthy country Palace of Versaille served to reinforce king’s prestige and power in a visible fashion Finance was a sore point; Louis and his successors spent a lot of money in their quest for military and civil glory Tax collections did not work well Government legally prevented from taxing the Church and nobility common subjects were forced to bare entire burden Peasants became aware of contrasts between taxes and middle class resented system potential for revolution Stuart dynasty and Oliver Cromwell (James th Charles I, Charles II, and James II) o Revolt against royal absolutism 17 century England o James I became king when Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 Great believer in absolutism and the divine right of kings and quickly alienated the English Parliament with his insistence that the Crown should have sole control over taxes and the budget Unpopular Merchants and municipal officials insisted on their rights to have final input on taxation and much else in national policy Brought up a Calvinist but agreed to adopt Anglicanism as King of England people believed he sympathized with Rome Died in 1625; succeeded by his son o Charles 1 16251649 Commons attempted to impose limits on his taxing powers, he refused to honor the ancient custom of calling a Parliament at least every third year Appointed an archbishop of Canterbury people believed he was a sympathizer with popery Ruled without Parliament in 1629 because it wouldn’t cooperate with him Marriage to French Catholic princess resentment; highhanded attitude toward Calvinist clergy Revolt in 1640 Charles needed money for an army against them but did not have Parliament there to impose new taxes Parliament passed a series of restrictive laws on the royal powers; increasingly radical Parliament insisted on direct control of military affairs and Charles raised an army or royalist supporters civil war in 1642; ended with Charles’ defeat Charles was tried for treason beheaded by the Cromwells o Oliver Cromwell Executive of the new English commonwealth (republic with no monarch) 5 years ruled and imposed stern Calvinist Protestantism as Lord Protector Unpopular; high taxes to put down rebellions against English rule in Catholic Ireland and Calvinist Scotland Maritime war with Holland in 1650s brought England far along the road to control the seven seas and gained former Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in North America Weak son attempted to fill his shoes parliament exiled Charles I’s son Restoration was completed with the return of King Charles II (ruled 16601685) o Charles II Restoration Made peace with the commons by establishing ministerial system Appointed several friends to carry out policy but these men had to answer to parliamentary questioning modern British cabinet, collective responsibility for policy and reliance on parliamentary votes of confidence to continue its authority in government Cared little about religion but when it was clear that his younger Catholic brother James would succeed him, suspicion arose o James II 16851688 Insulted Protestants in and out of Parliament No more Catholic children to succeed him English waited for his death but his second wife had a baby who was raised Catholic and would rule Glorious Revolution of 1688 all of England rebelled against James II; ended the Stuart male line on the English throne; James again went into French exile Revolution was political and constitutional, not military or economic Sovereignty shifted from monarch to his or her subjects England was then considered a constitutional state King or queen was partner of Parliament in matters of high policy, both domestic and foreign Bill of rights 1689 o Spelled out rights and powers of Parliament versus the crown o Law was to be made only by Parliament and could not be suspended by the king o Members of Parliament were immune from prosecution when acting in their official capacities o The king could not impose taxes or raise an army without prior approval by Parliament o Ensured independence of the judiciary from royal pressures, prohibited standing armies in peacetime, extended freedom of worship to nonAnglican Protestants, and stipulated that the throne should always be held by a Protestant William and Mary 16891702 William of Orange, the husband of James’s daughter, Mary, was invited to rule England jointly with his wife Mary’s younger sister, Anne, succeeded them o Died without surviving children o Duke of Hanover, relative of King James I became King George who introduced the Hanoverian Dynasty Age of Discovery (Motives) o God, gold, and glory o God Christianity o Gold mercantilism; the more gold a country had, the more powerful it was; finite amount of materials and wealth o Glory conquistadors; honor and land hungry CHINA Zheng He o Gigantic Chinese fleets set sail from China under his command o At the time, it was an unprecedented display of naval pwer o Purpose was to show the flag of the Yongle emperor to Southeast Asia and the rest of the most prosperous trading region in the world at the time, the Indian Ocean o Born in 1371 to a Muslim family in Western China Ming influence o Was captured and brought to the capital at Nanjing where he was castrated and made a eunuch to the Ming prince who later became the Yongle emperor Befriended Zheng He, made him his head eunuch o After Mongol invasions, emperor wanted to return the glories of China’s Tang and Song dynasties Reestablish Chinese presence and develop a more extensive trade network Entrusted Zheng He to build and lead fleet o Voyages were a great success; died on last voyage in India and the voyages ceased Confucians persuaded the emperor that the growing power and influence of the merchants needed to be curtailed Xenophobia suspicion of foreigners and foreign ways; long held Chinese notions of cultural superiority and the advantages of agrarian values over commercialism Tribute missions set up diplomatic and economic exchanges Believed all other cultures were inferior Accepted other cultures Increase trade Japanese pirates Destroyed all oceangoing vessels o Death of Yongle Emperor treasure ships were sunk and new laws were passed that made the possession of any ship with more than two masts a crime Confucianism o Rejected innovation; believed the growing power and influence of merchants needed to be stopped o Confucianism rose among the mandarins Ming dynasty o Conquest of the Mongols and their overthrow by the rebellion that began the Ming Dynasty; purely Chinese dynasty o Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang; son was Yongle o Gained its present heartlands reaching from Korea to Vietnam o Eastern half of great wall was rebuilt; armies were triumphant against their Mongol and Turkish nomad opponents o Sharp rise in population bubonic plague and Mongol slavery reduced population; dropped to about 60 million and rose to 150 million Needed large food supply new crops from the Americas were introduced; rice o Ruled for more than 200 years; provided the Chinese with stability and prosperity; creative advance in the sciences and basic technologies that allowed China to overshadow all rivals began to end o China was still convinced of its own superiority o Economy Buying, selling, and transporting goods; merchants remained low on social ladder Commercial contact with Europeans o Urbanization and technology Increase in number of urban dwellers Failed to make the leap from commercial revolution to an industrial revolution Chinese esteem for artists and scholars and the tendency of these people to place little emphasis on accumulation of material goods; engineers and inventors were not prominent; Confucian ethos did not admire capitalist entrepreneur or his activities; retention of the old o Political system All powerful but not divine emperor; ruled by mandate of Heaven through a highly ttrained bureaucracy derived substantially from talented men of all classes and backgrounds; Hongwu first ruler 15 provinces divided into counties Made occupations hereditary; classified population into 3 groups: peasants, soldiers, and workers Created palace eunuchs, men without families raised to be totally dedicated servants of the ruler; led to abuse; eunuchs were hated and feared by most Chinese Forbidden city quarter square mile of palaces, offices, and living quarters for higher officials Bureaucracy Confucian philosophy and ethics; many schools founded to prepare boys for government service exams; narrow curriculum o ForeignersMongols and nomadic peoples on the northern and northwestern frontiers were a constant menace; a lot of money was spent to maintain the Great wall; huge army kept ready ChineseJapanese relations concentrated on trade between Japanese daimyo and Chinese merchants Maritime Expeditions naval ventures 14051433; no attempt to plant colonies or setup a network of trading posts; didn’t leave a long term mark on Chinese consciousness of awareness of the achievements and interests on the world outside; advanced seamanships, ship design,a nd equipment Contacts with Westerners were limited to a few trading enterprises and occasionally missionaries Matteo Ricci Jesuit who established a Christian bridgehead in China Qing dynasty o Manzhou invaders o At the end of the Ming dynasty, a series of ineffective rulers allowed power to fall to corrupt rulers who made decisions based on bribes; peasant rebellions and Confucianism arose o Largest population under one government and the largest territory of any country in the world o Diarchy One Manzhou and one Chinese ruler Manzhou officials oversaw Chinese provincial governors and the army was divided between the two groups; Qing had superior status as the socalled Bannermen, who occupied key garrisons o Strong reformers brought order and respect to authorities o Kangxi 16621722 Emperor of China; Ruled East Qing Dynasty Improved the waterways for transportation Economic policy making both domestically and toward the Western merchants Opened 4 ports to European traders Grandson, Qienlong, was a great warrior and perceptive administrator Eradicated the persistent Mongol raiders on the western borders and brought Tibet under Chinese control View of Korea as voluntary satellites of China Manchu warlike nomads; power at expense of Ming Dynasty; curb power of local chiefs; centralize government; conquer foreign leaders Increased the army size Palace memorials, informants Absolutist government link welfare of country with power of leader o Culture and economy Philosophy, history, calligraphy, poetry, painting; porcelain “china”; paintings on scrolls Lost to the west its lead in science and technology o Progress and problems “rice bowl”, upsurge in internal trade, money circulated freely (coin and paper to trade for silk and porcelain) Population’s growth exceeded the ability of the agrarian economy to allow suitable productive work for it Not enough land for crops, did not have machine industry, trade with the outside world was narrowly focused Massive famines and endemic poverty JAPAN Three Unifiers (Japan) o Shogunate centralized feudalism established o Nobunaga feudal lord who fought his way to regional power Captured Kyoto and most of Honshu but was killed o Toyotomi Hideyoshi took over after Nobunaga’s death Had visions of Asian, if not worldwide supremacy with the aid of the first largescale use of firearms Invaded Korea as a first step toward the conquest of Ming China Died in a second attempt o Tokugawa Ieyasu ruled 16031616 Ceased the abortive invasion of the mainland By 1600, had beated down his several internal rivals Began the 250 year Tokugawa Shogunate a military regency “ate the pie that Nobunaga and Hideyoshi baked” Used selective violence against the daimyo to permit a special form of centralized governance Daimyo o Warrior nobles (1460s1570s) who engaged in a frenzy of the “strong eating the weak” o Roughly equivalent to the barons in Europe were expected to spend half their time at the court of the shogun where they were under the watchful eye of the shogun and his network of informers o Acted both as the shogun’s agents and as autonomous regents in their own domains o Key players in governance; constant potential threat to Tokugawa’s system o Source of military power on the local level could tear down the shogun if they united Shogun put the daimyo against each other in the countryside intervention and manipulation; competition for imperial favor o Wives and children of the more important daimyo families were required to live permanently at Edo, where they served as hostages for loyal behavior European contact with Japan o Portuguese (1543) brought firearms and the Christian Bible Japanese distrust of the Catholic faith and its hints of submission toward an alien culture Japan isolated itself until the 19 century o Society of Jesuits spread Christianity; founded to fight Protestantism; some daimyo converted o By 1600, about 300,000 Japanese converted from Buddhism o Movement for Japanese national unity led by Nobunaga Tokugawa shogun o True power in both military and a political sense remained with the shogun who headed the council of state composed of daimyo aristocrats o Controlled about ¼ of Japan as his own fiefdom o Buddhist to Confucian ideals o Disarmed the peasants which removed much of the source of the rebellions Only the professional warrior class, the samurai, and their daimyo employers had the right to own weapons o Began to withdrawal in the early 1600s into seclusion from outside influences o Evicted the Christian missionaries who had been in the country for half a century and put heavy pressure on the Christian Japanese to reconvert to Buddhism Christian peasants revolted persecution Underground churches and priests; but majority gave up their religion o Japan’s mercantile contacts with the Europeans and Chinese were almost entirely severed o Building of oceangoing ships was forbidden o No foreigners could go to Japan and no Japanese were allowed to reside abroad; those living abroad were forbidden to return o Isolation sakoku; lasted until the mid19 century Increase in internal production; internal peace; fine tastes o Peasant condition improved but there were still high taxes; this led to rebellions against the local daimyo o Cities grew rapidly Samurai o Military servants of the wealthy daimyo and their “enforcers” with the peasants; lost prestige in society o Nothing for them to do not allowed to become merchants or adopt another lifestyle o Edo government said to enjoy themselves beyond their means o This lead to bankruptcies and social disgrace o Replaced by newcomers; reverted to the peasant life Role of Japanese emperor o Resided in the imperial palace at Kyoto and occupied himself with ritual and ceremony as the current holder of the lineage of the Sun Goddess who had created Japan WESTERN AND SOUTHERN ASIA Ottoman empire o Mongols smashed the Persian center of Islam in the 1250s o Arrival to Asian Minor; Most powerful state in the Islamic world Turkification of the caliphate nomadic Turkish tribes began migrating from their homelands to central Asia Turkish troops staffed the armies; gained direct access to Asia Minor; established sultanate and continued their jihad against the Christian enemies to the east Increased importance of the dervish or Sufi orders in Islam o Began around 1250 when Turkish Chieftain, Osman, and his followers entered Asia Minor; given a fiefdom to wage jihad against the Byzantines Became independent and his son, Orhan continued his policy of expansion conquest of the Byzantine Empire, reorganized state along feudal lines, parceled out estates, various nationalities and religious groups created (degree of selfregulation and protected rights under the sultan) o Began as a ghazi state frontier warriors; waged holy war Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 15201566) o Added Hungary, Romania, southern Poland, and southern Russia to the sultan’s domain (Istanbul, capital of the Ottoman Empire) o North Africa and Middle East Islamic states accepted his rule o Ottoman military power was unmatched o Extended control over all of North Africa o Came close to rivaling ancient Rome in lands conquered by winning complete control over the entire Mediterranean Sea region o Defeated Safavid Shi’ite state in Iran o Crucial arrangements for pilgrimages to Mecca; remodeled Muhammad’s tomb o Withdrew from daytoday governing and let the Grand Viziers assume power o Treaty of Karlowitz forced the Ottoman sultan to cede territory to his European opponents Sunni Islam o Believed the caliph (successor to the prophet) could be anyone qualified by nobility of purpose and abilities; majority Shi’ite Islam o Reject all of Muhammad’s successors who were not related directly to him by blood or marriage; minority Safavid empire in Persia o Organized around a Turkish Sufi association o Founder Safi adDin who claimed to be a descendant of Muhammad o Converted to Shi’ite Islam (different from Ottoman orders) o Major threat to the Ottomans evolved a militant theology that advocated the supremacy of Shi’ism through the force of arms Waged wars on their Sunni competitors to the west o Ismail captured much of Persia and Iraq and made himself king; made Shi’ism the official cult of the Safavid state Mughal empire in India o Mughal corruption of the name Mongol to whom the Turks were distantly related o Muslims from central Asia raided and attempted to invade northern India but had been repulsed by the Hindus o Disunity among Hindu opponents, Mongols, Turks, Persians, and Afghanis fought for control of the India o Babur conquered much of territory ruled by Delhi sultans; established the Mughal Muslim Indian Dynasty o Cast system o Grandson and successor was Akbar the Great o Sikhs religion formed fought the last Mughal rulers o Taj Mahal tomb of the wife of emperor Shah Jahan; PersianIndian architecture o System of religious schools Madrasa o New Urdu language o Welcomed European travelers o Agrarian system disturbed by change from Muslim to Hindu authority Akbar the Great (ruled 15561605) o Fulfilled usual demands made on a warriorking to crush his enemies and enlarge his kingdom o Mughal Empire came to control most of the subcontinent Reorganized the central government, developed an efficient multinational bureaucracy to run it, and introduced many innovative reforms to society o Religious and social toleration Formally a Muslim ruling a Muslimdominated empire but allowed all faiths including Christianity to flourish and compete for converts Most of his subjects were Hindus heal breach b/w them and Muslims; Married a Hindu princess; repealed poll tax on nonMuslims A LARGER WORLD OPENS Mercantilism o Chief goals of economic policy Favorable balance of trade (with the value of a country’s exports exceeding the cost of its imports) Increasing the size of a country’s gold and silver reserves o Government carefully supervised every aspect of commerce and investment o England, France, Holland, Spain; most successful in northern Europe where commercial capitalism was already well established Trading and joint stock companies invested in commerce and manufacturing Spain became poor king financed wars of religion o Colonial policy only goods and services that originated in the home country could be legally exported to the colonies and the colonies’ exports must go to the home country for use there or reexport. Markets for home country products and low prices for raw materials for homecountry importers o Led to contraband trade routes to Spanish America, demands for free trade in regions with capitalism, and political independence in North and South America o Mercantilism aimed first of all at securing a favorable balance of foreign trade Columbian exchange the coming of the Europeans to the New World and the changes in resources, habits, and values of both the Amerindians and the whites o Horses, pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, iron, firearms, sailing ships, capitalism, germs (smallpox, measles, influenza), pests o Corn and potatoes to Europe, Africa, and Asia Potatoes were the main reason European farms were able to feed the increase in population o Tobacco, Chinese tea, Arab coffee, chocolate, silver, rice o Spain resisted technological innovation and industrialization Spanish gold and silver went into the pockets of foreign suppliers rather than domestic investments or business o Merchants benefited from inflation o Amerindian irrigation techniques introduced Vasco da Gama o Sailed acrosse the Indian Ocean to the west coast of India; trying to follow new route around southern tip of Africa; made landfall in Brazil and claimed it for Portugal o Material technology bows and arrows, spears, copper (wore on legs, arms and in hair), tin (daggers), iron (sheathes) o African slave trade opens Prince Henry the Navigator (13941460) o Led a series of exploratory voyages for Portugal down the west coast of Africa and out into the ocean as far as the Azores in a search of African gold and pepper o Set up strong fortified stations called factories o Means canon armed ships built for naval battle o Brought slaves back to Portugal in 1441; built trading posts in 1448 o Strong desire to spread faith and fight Muslims in NW Africa (sought allies) o No religious aims o Gained new geographical knowledge; improved map making o Promoted trade, increased power o Supported by merchants Christopher Columbus o Discovered the Americas Magellan o Starting from Spain in 1519, his ships were the first to circumnavigate the world world was round o Spaniards motives for exploration were mixed between a desire to convert nonChristians to the Catholic Church and thus gain a strong advantage against the Protestants and the desire for wealth and social respectability o Buillion indian gold and silver; made Spain the most powerful European state in the 16 and 17 centuries THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Scientific Revolution o Advances in natural science o Medieval and Renaissance science based more on authority than evidence and overreliance on philosophers like Aristotle Discoveries of the New World bring authorities into question o Rapid advance in mathematics; new instruments developed o New way of examining phenomena o Link between science and technology Scientific Method o Careful observation and systematic experimentation based on that observation o Interpretation of the results of the experiments relied on mathematical measurement o Achieve new and verified knowledge Descartes (15961650) o One of the founders of the mathematical style of investigation o Separated the material from the nonmaterial universe Material world could be comprehended by mathematical formulas that existed entirely apart from the human mind o Knowledge could provide explanations of observed phenomena o Formulate broad generalizations of a quantitative nature and employ them to explain specific events or processes Deductive reasoning general law to specific example o Cartesian method o “I think, therefore I am” Francis Bacon (15611626) o Insisted that most ideas and principles that explain nature had not yet been discovered or developed o Looked for a better, more understood world o World was to be created through the persistent and careful observation of phenomena without any preconceived laws or general explanations Inductive reasoning specific to general o Empirical method gathering data and then forming generalizations; empirical evidence obtained by observation through the 5 senses, which is then worked up into hypotheses that may be subjected to experiment o Promoted science while Galileo did science Copernicus (14731543) o Criticized the Geocentric theory of the universe Universe revolves around the Earth Believed by the Catholic Church o Heliocentric theory of the universe Universe revolves around the sun Supported by Galileo Rome and the Protestants condemned it as contrary to both scripture and common sense Galileo (15641642) o Used his improvement of the telescope to rewrite the rules of cosmology o Supported Copernicus’s sun centered universe o Physics laws of motion, gravity
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