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Midterm 3 Exam Study Guide

by: Jacquelyn Corpus

Midterm 3 Exam Study Guide Psy 202

Marketplace > Oregon State University > Psychlogy > Psy 202 > Midterm 3 Exam Study Guide
Jacquelyn Corpus
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Make sure to get a head start on study for Midterm 3 with this study guide!
General Psychology
Patti Watkins
Study Guide
psy 202
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacquelyn Corpus on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 202 at Oregon State University taught by Patti Watkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 205 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Oregon State University.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Midterm 3 Exam Review Chapter 13: Social Psychology Social Psychology: Scientific stud of who other people influence our thoughts, behaviors and feelings Social Behavior: Interacting with People Social psychology is the study of the causes and consequences of sociality - only four species are ultra-social Survival amount limit or scare resources Aggression Aggression: behavior whose purpose is to harm another Frustration-Aggression hypothesis: a principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted Negative affect: may also cause aggression Behavior that is intended to harm another being - Instrumental aggression: when aggression is a means to achieve some goal - Hostile aggression: when aggression stems from feelings of anger Gender (being male) is the best predictor of aggression - Socialization and testosterone may be causes - Status and/or dominance may be threatened Aggression varies by geographic location Culture affects standards of aggressive acts Aggression as Learned Behavior Social influences on aggression - Albert Bandura - Social learning theory - Bobo Doll experiment - Experiments strongly suggest that watching TV violence leads to aggressive behavior - Tough Guise (Jackson Katz) - men learn to behave aggressively due to cultural norms Groups and Favoritism Group: a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others Prejudice: a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership Discrimination: a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership Groups and Decision Making Decision making in a group can be hindered Deindividuation: when immersion ion a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values Diffusion of responsibility: the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the sam way Bystander Effect: greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency the less likely any one of them is to help Inclusion in a group promotes well-being and a feeling of belonging Altruism Altruism: behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself - Reciprocal altruism: behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future Reproduction: The Quest for Immortality Sexual partners are selected and women tend to be choosier Sex is a greater investment for women due to risk of pregnancy Culture propagates bias in reputation - Men are “players” - Women are “sluts” Small changes in courtship ritual can cause men to be choosier - Men become choosier searching for long-term partner Attraction Attraction feeling of preference) to another is caused by situational, physical and psychological factors Proximity breeds fondness Mere exposure effect: the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure Arousal can be misinterpreted as attraction Physical attractiveness is the major factor in attraction (and elicits all kinds of preferential treatment) - Body shape, symmetry, and age are all common factors - Height and weight matter but vary by culture and time - These factors are also predictors of good genes and good parenting We prefer mates who are psychologically (attitudes and beliefs) similar to us for a variety of reasons Relationships We form relationships to care for helpless offspring (more work than on caretaker can normally provide) Marriage in many cultures is the norm, and love is one of the major reasons why - Roughly one in two marriages end in divorce in our country There are two basic kinds of love: - Passionate love: an experience involving feeling of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction - Companionate love: an experience involving affection, trust and concern fora partner’s well- being Social exchange: hypothesis that people remain in relationship only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits - Comparison level: the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship - Equity: a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of the two partners are roughly equal - Sunken-cost theories predict that following great investment individuals will settle for less than optimal cost-benefit ratios - People end new marriages more often than older ones Social Influence: Controlling People Social Influence: the ability to control another person’s behavior Three basic motivations which make people susceptible to social influence: - Hedonic motive: experience pleasure, avoid pain - Pleasure seeking is the most basic motive of all motives - Reward and punishment can influence behavior, but can also backfire - Rewarded behavior may decrease; Punished behavior may increase - Approval motive: gain acceptance, avoid rejection - People want to be liked and accepted - Power of peer pressure - Adherence to societal beauty norms another example of social control for approval motives - Accuracy motive: believe what’s right - Attitudes tell us what we should do and beliefs tell us how to do it - Attitude: an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event - Belief: an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event - Informational Influence: occurs when another person’s behavior provides information about act is good or right - Informational social influence - Conformity because one views others as a source of knowledge about what one is supposed to do Normative Influence Norm: a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture Normative influence: occurs when another person’s behavior provides information about what is appropriate Norm of reciprocity: the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them Door-in-the-face technique: a strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior (Ask for a big favor, then a smaller one) Conformity and Obedience Conformity: the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it Normative pressure can have a strong effect Obedience: the tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do - Stanley Milgram’s (1933-1984) Obedience study Normative pressure can have a strong effect Persuasion and Consistency Persuasion: a person’s attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication form another person - Systematic persuasion: the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason - Heuristic persuasion: the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion - Strength of the argument and whether and individual analyzes the evidence or uses heuristic matters People evaluate the accuracy of new beliefs by assessing their constancy with old beliefs Foot-in-the-door technique: a technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request Cognitive dissonance: an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs - Change to alleviate anxiety - Inconsistencies can be justified - Feeling of discomfort caused by information that is different from a person’s conception of himself as a reasonable and sensible person Social Cognition: Understanding People The medical prefrontal cortex is activated when we think about other people’s attributes Social cognition: the processes by which people come to understand others We make inferences about others based on the categories to which they belong and the things they do and say Stereotyping: Drawing Inferences from Categories Stereotyping: the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong Stereotypes can be inaccurate (aquired through hearsay or observations) - We overestimate rare events Stereotypes can be overused - We underestimate within-category variability Stereotypes can be self-perpetuating - Perpetual confirmation: when observers perceive what they expect to perceive - Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see - Subtyping: the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them Stereotyping can be automatic (occur unconsciously) Attribution: Drawing Inferences fromActions Attribution: an inference about the cause of a person’s behavior Why did an event happen? - Situational attributions attribute the external situation as cause - Other people - The environment - Luck, fate, God’s will - Dispositional attributions attribute someone’s internal disposition as cause - Personality, intelligence The covariation model claims we rely on consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus Correspondence bias: the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person’s behavior was caused by the situation (fundamental attribution error) - Situational causes may be invisible - Situational causes may be more complex Actor-observer effect: the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others Chapter 14: Stress and Health Health psychology: the subfield of psychology concerned with the ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and maintenance of health Stress and Health Stressors: specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person’s well-being - Antecedent situations Stress: the physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors - Anger - Anxiety - Depression The degree of life change is a significant indicator of the person’s future illness Chronic stressors: sources of stress that occur continuously or repeatedly - Effects can accumulate and be long-lasting - Chronic stressors have been shown to be linked to environments through environmental psychology Culture and Community In a study, preadolescents who had immigrated from Cuba and other Hispanic cultures were surveyed for discrimination Those who reported discrimination also reported higher levels or worrying, anxiety, and bodily stress Further research shows discrimination to be the cause Perceived Control over Stressful Events Stressors challenge you to do something about it —lack of control over the situation can add to the stress Studies show that perceived control over stressful events can be related to more effective coping 
 Physical Stress Reactions Fight-or-flight response: an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action General adaptation syndrome (GAS): a three-stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered —GAS is non-specific and does not vary across stressors developed by Hans Selye (1907-1982) - Alarm phase: mobilize resources - Resistance phase: cope with stressor - Exhaustion phase: reserves depleted Stress Effects on the Immune Response Immune system: a complex response system that protects the body from bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances Lymphocytes: white blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of how the immune system responds to psychological variables (stressors) Stressors can cause glucorticoids (hormones) to flood the brain and wear down the immune system Decreased immune system response may be related to social status, studies show 
 Stress and Cardiovascular Health The heart and circulatory system are sensitive to stress - The main cause of coronary heart disease is atherosclerosis Research links intensity, drive, anger and hostility to increased rates of heart disease - TypeAbehavior patter: the tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings Stress Disorders Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a disorder characterized by chronic physical arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind - 8% ofAmericans suffer from PTSD - Hippocampus may be smaller in PTSD sufferers Burnout: a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation - Helping professionals exposed to emotional turmoil regularly more prone to burnout Somatic Symptom Disorders Psychosomatic illness: an interaction between mind and body that can produce illness Somatic symptom disorders: the set of psychological disorders in which the person displays physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition - Somatic symptom disorder - Pin, GI symptoms - Conversion disorder - Neurologic symptoms - Paralysis, seizures, blindness - Illness anxiety disorder - Hypochondriasis Recognizing Illness and Seeking Treatment Awareness and occurrence of physical symptoms can be influenced by psychological factors Denial of illness can also come at great cost (if delay too long to seek treatment) On Being Patient Sick role: a socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness - Exemptions and obligations People may feign sickness to obtain what they want, called malingering Keys to effective medical care include physician empathy and ability motivate the patient to adhere to the prescribed regiment of care - Adherence deteriorates if treatment is frequent, inconvenient, or painful, or if the number of treatments increase Stress Interpretation The interpretation of a stimulus as stressful or not is called primary appraisal Determining whether the stressor is something you can handle/have control over or not is called secondary appraisal The body responds differently to a threat (negative appraisal) than a challenge (positive appraisal) CognitiveAppraisals Cognitive appraisals that lead to stress… - Cognitive Distortions - Irrational Beliefs - Stinking Thinking - Negative Self Talk - Automatic Thoughts Stress Management Options Change thoughts (Mind Management) - Cognitive restructuring, Reframing - Asignificant part of stress management is control of the m ind - Repressive coping: avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint - Rational coping: involves facing the stressor and working to overcome it —involves three steps:Acceptance, exposure, and understanding - Refraining: finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat - Stress inoculation training (SIT): a therapy that helps people to cope wit stressful situations by developing positive ways to think about the situation Change physical reactions (Body Management) - Meditation: the practice of intentional contemplation - Relaxation therapy: a technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body —developed by Edmund Jacobson (1880-1983) - Relaxation response: a condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate and blood pressure - Biofeedback: the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about bodily function and possibly gain control over that function - Aerobic exercise promotes stress relief and psychological well-being - May increase serotonin and endorphins - Keeps body fit and healthy Change situations (Situation Management) - Change situation - Change behavior - Communication skills training - Anger management - Conflict resolution skills - Social skills training - Situation management involves changing your life situation to reduce stress - Social support: aid gained through interacting with others - Offer help in times of stress - Being in relationships correlates with mental health - Women are more likely to seek support under stress - Humor can help us cope with stress and reduce time needed to calm down The Psychology of Health: Feeling Good Health-relevant personality traits and health behavior personal health Optimism (seeing the sunny side of ever situation) is heater than pessimism (expecting things to go wrong) - Aperson’s level of optimism or pessimism tends to be stable over time Hardy individuals who are thick-skinned (committed, in control, accept challenges) tend to handle stress better and are healthier Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Identifying Psychological Disorders Mental disorder: persistent disturbance or dysfunction of behavior, thoughts or emotions that causes significant distress or disturbance 1 in 4 people experience a mental disorder int their lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) Medical model: the conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases that, like physical diseases, have biological an environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures Drawbacks: ignore or minimize sociocultural factors that contribute to disorders —result in stigmatization Causation of Disorders and the Dangers of Labeling Stigma may occur when labeling people with psychological disorders - Roughly 70% of sufferers do not seek treatment - May lead to low self-esteem - May lead to discrimination - Organizations that combat stigma of mental illness - NationalAlliance for Mental Illness - Active Minds Biopsychosocial model: - Biological: genes, brain chemistry, brain structure/function - Psychological: behaviors, thoughts, emotional responses - Social: interpersonal circumstances, cultural influences, societal inequities Diathesis-stress model: suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress Anxiety Disorders and GAD Anxiety disorder: the class of mental disordering which anxiety is the predominant feature - Anxiety can be adaptive or maladaptive when it is disproportionate to real threats and challenges Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance - Roughly 5% of NorthAmericans - Occurs more in women - E.g. “worry warts,” relatively low level of anxiety, persists across situations, worries about realistic everyday events Phobic Disorders Phobic disorders: disorders characterized by marked, persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations - Specific phobia: a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual’s ability to function - Social phobia: a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed Preparedness theory: the idea that people re instinctively predisposed toward certain fears — proposed by Martin Seligman - Evolution, heritability , and temperament argue for biological predispositions Phobias can also be classically conditioned —LittleAlbert-John Watson Specific Phobias Characterized by intense fear of particular objects or situations - Insects - Animals - The dark - Lightening - Heights - Flying - Needles, blood, doctors, dentists Marked by an intense and immediate fear, even panic, when confronted with every particular situations or objects Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety Disorder) Pronounced fear of humiliation in the presence of others Marked by severe self-consciousness about appearance or behavior or both - Public speaking anxiety - Dating anxiety - Performance anxiety (e.g sports, sex) - Social physique anxiety - Test anxiety Panic Disorder Panic disorder: a disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute too feeling of stark terror —panic attacks - Approximately 22% of the U.S. population reports having at least one panic attack Agoraphobia: an extreme fear of venturing into public places —correlates with panic disorder Panic Disorder with or withoutAgoraphobia Panic attacks: sudden, short period of extreme anxiety involving physiological and psychological symptoms and intense fear - Characterized by 4 or more of the following symptoms - Sweating - Accelerated heart rate - Trembling or shaking - Feeling of Choking - Shortness of breath - Chest pain - Nausea or abdominal distress - Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded - Feelings of unreality - Fear of losing control - Fear of dying - Numbness or tingling sensations - Chills or hot flushes Agoraphobia: Intense fear of being in places from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be able should a panic attack occur —escape or avoidance of these places Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive, thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual’s functioning - Roughly 1.3% of the population suffers - Moderate heritability Obsessions - Recurrent, persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are intrusive, inappropriate and distressing - Unwanted but uncontrollable - Not simply excessive worry about real-life problems - Contamination - Doubt - Need for Order - Impulses towardAggression - Sexual imagery Compulsions - Ritualistic, repetitive motor behaviors or mental acts intended to escape/avoid anxiety provoking-thoughts - Washing, counting, checking, repeating words or phrases, ordering Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Triggered by exposure to a catastrophic or horrifying event that poses serous harm or threat - SexualAssault/Violent attack - War Trauma - Natural Disaster (e.g. earthquake, flood) - Severe accident (e.g. car crash, house fire) Re-experiencing trauma Avoiding thoughts, feelings, and activities associated with the trauma Increased arousal, irritability, difficulty sleeping, or exaggerated startle response Depressive Disorders 
 Depressive disorders: mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature - Women experience depression at twice the rate of men Major depressive disorder: a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances - Characterized by pervasive low mood, lack of motivation, low energy and feelings of worthlessness and guilt the last for at least 2 consecutive weeks - Changes in sleep, appetite, weight - Suicidal ideation and behavior - Dysthymia: form of depression that is milder that major depressive disorder Dysthymia: a disorder that involves the same symptoms as in depression only less severe, but the symptoms last longer, pressing for at least 2 years Mood Disorders and Depressive Disorders Seasonal affective disorder: depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern Post partum depression: depression that occurs after the birth of a child Biological and Psychological Factors Heritability estimates for major depression range from 33% to 45% Depression may involve norepinephrine and serotonin and.or diminished activity in the left prefrontal cortex and increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex Aaron Beck noted dysfunctional attitudes (irrational thoguhts, cognitive distortions) and negative mood states in depressed individuals - Helplessness theory: the idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (my fault), stable (always be my fault), an global (everything is my fault) - Depressed individuals tend to have depressive biases in thinking and memory Depression and Its Causes Combination of brain chemistry and life circumstance - Diathesis-stress model - Serotonin gene - Stressful events Suicide Risk and Prevention Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the U.S. 3rd among high school and collage students 50% who commit suicide do so during a depressive episode Suicide Demographic characteristics - In U.S. women make more attempts, men complete suicide more often - Age - Increasing among teens - 6% of college undergraduates contemplate - Older, white men are at greatest risk Risk Factors - Depression - Hopelessness - Recent loss - Major illness - Lack of social support - Suicidal ideation - Talking about ending one’s life - Giving away possessions - Past suicide attempts - Knowing someone who has committed suicide - Available means - Substance use/abuse Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder: an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression) - Approximately 1.3% of people suffer - Rapid cycling bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder has the highest heritability (polygenic) amor the psychological disorders Biological causes (specific neurotransmitters) are difficult to substantiate Stressful life experiences often precede episodes Characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, a cycling between very low, and very high moods - Manic Episodes (Euphoric Mood) - Distractibility - Indiscretion (lack of impulse control) - Grandiosity - Flight of ideas - Activity increases - Sleep (need for) decreases - Talkativeness Schizophrenia: Losing the Grasp on Reality Schizophrenia: a disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes, a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion, and disturbances in thought, motivation and behavior Occurs in about 1% Delusion: a patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality 
 Hallucination: a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation Disorganized speech: a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic Grossly disorganized behavior: behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances - Catatonic behavior: a marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity Negative symptoms: emotional an social withdrawal, apathy, poverty of speech, and other indications of that absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion Major Symptoms - Positive - Hallucinations - Auditory (hearing voices) - Delusional thinking - False beliefs (often grandiose) - Disorganized thought and speech - Negative - Non-responsiveness - Emotional flatness - Immobility - Catatonia - Problems with speech - Inability to complete tasks - Cognitive - Problems working with memory - Attention - Verbal and visual learning and memory - Reasoning and problem solving - Speed of processing - Disordered speech - E.g. Word salad - Christmas teeth! Radiant brains! Biological and Psychological Factors Concordance rate increase greatly with biological relatedness Dopamine hypothesis: the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity Neuroimaging has revealed enlarged ventricles and progressive tissue loss in many cases of schizophrenia Disturbed family environment may affect development an recovery of schizophrenia Personality Disorders: Going to Extremes Personality disorder: disorder characterized by deeply ingrained inflexible patterns of thinking feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning - Organized into 3 clusters: odd/eccentric, dramatic/erratic, and anxious/inhibited - 14.8% of the population has a personality disorder - Common feature is failure to take others’perspectives Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial personality disorder (APD): a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood - 3.6% of the population suffers —males outnumber females 3:1 - Individuals typically have a history of conduct disorder and may commit crimes Sociopathology and psychopathology describe people withAPD Newer theories suggest internal (biological) causes - Less sensitive to fear the brain


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