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OSU / Engineering / PSY 202 / What are the causes of hostile aggression?

What are the causes of hostile aggression?

What are the causes of hostile aggression?

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School: Oregon State University
Department: Engineering
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Patti watkins
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: psy 202
Cost: 50
Name: Midterm 3 Exam Study Guide
Description: Make sure to get a head start on study for Midterm 3 with this study guide!
Uploaded: 03/01/2016
15 Pages 56 Views 2 Unlocks
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Midterm 3 Exam Review  


What are the causes of hostile aggression?



Chapter 13: Social Psychology  

Social Psychology: Scientific stud of who other people influence our thoughts, behaviors and  feelings  

Social Behavior: Interacting with People  

Social psychology is the study of the causes and consequences of sociality  - only four species are ultra-social  

Survival amount limit or scare resources  

Aggression  

Aggression: behavior whose purpose is to harm another  

Frustration-Aggression hypothesis: a principle stating that animals aggress only when their  goals are thwarted  

Negative affect: may also cause aggression  

Behavior that is intended to harm another being  


Is there a difference between prejudice and discrimination?



- Instrumental aggression: when aggression is a means to achieve some goal  - Hostile aggression: when aggression stems from feelings of anger  If you want to learn more check out Which assets are excluded from capital assets?

Gender (being male) is the best predictor of aggression  

- Socialization and testosterone may be causes  

- Status and/or dominance may be threatened  

Aggression varies by geographic location  

Culture affects standards of aggressive acts  

Aggression as Learned Behavior  

Social influences on aggression  

- Albert Bandura  

- Social learning theory  

- Bobo Doll experiment  


What are three basic motivations that make people susceptible to social influence?



- Experiments strongly suggest that watching TV violence leads to aggressive behavior  - Tough Guise (Jackson Katz)  

- men learn to behave aggressively due to cultural norms  

Groups and Favoritism  

Group: a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from  others  

Prejudice: a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership  Discrimination: a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group  membership  We also discuss several other topics like Do people in the firms i am visiting dress and interact formally or informally?
We also discuss several other topics like Why are higher prices necessary to get bigger quantities supplied?

Groups and Decision Making

Decision making in a group can be hindered  

Deindividuation: when immersion ion a group causes people to become less aware of their  individual values  

Diffusion of responsibility: the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for  their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the sam way  Bystander Effect: greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency the less likely any  one of them is to help  

Inclusion in a group promotes well-being and a feeling of belonging  We also discuss several other topics like How was diversity in the empire a strength and a weakness?

Altruism  

Altruism: behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself  

- Reciprocal altruism: behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits  will be returned in the future  

Reproduction: The Quest for Immortality  

Sexual partners are selected and women tend to be choosier  

Sex is a greater investment for women due to risk of pregnancy  

Culture propagates bias in reputation  

- Men are “players”  

- Women are “sluts”  Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call the physical connections between adjacent tissue cells?

Small changes in courtship ritual can cause men to be choosier  

- Men become choosier searching for long-term partner  

Attraction  

Attraction feeling of preference) to another is caused by situational, physical and psychological  factors  

Proximity breeds fondness  

Mere exposure effect: the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure  Arousal can be misinterpreted as attraction  If you want to learn more check out What is considered the third holiest muslim city?

Physical attractiveness is the major factor in attraction (and elicits all kinds of preferential  treatment)  

- Body shape, symmetry, and age are all common factors  

- Height and weight matter but vary by culture and time  

- These factors are also predictors of good genes and good parenting  

We prefer mates who are psychologically (attitudes and beliefs) similar to us for a variety of  reasons  

Relationships  

We form relationships to care for helpless offspring (more work than on caretaker can normally  provide)  

Marriage in many cultures is the norm, and love is one of the major reasons why  - Roughly one in two marriages end in divorce in our country  

There are two basic kinds of love:

- Passionate love: an experience involving feeling of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual  attraction  

- Companionate love: an experience involving affection, trust and concern fora partner’s well being  

Social exchange: hypothesis that people remain in relationship only as long as they perceive a  favorable ratio of costs to benefits  

- Comparison level: the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in  another relationship  

- Equity: a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of the two partners are roughly equal  - Sunken-cost theories predict that following great investment individuals will settle for less  than optimal cost-benefit ratios  

- People end new marriages more often than older ones  

Social Influence: Controlling People  

Social Influence: the ability to control another person’s behavior  

Three basic motivations which make people susceptible to social influence:  - Hedonic motive: experience pleasure, avoid pain  

- Pleasure seeking is the most basic motive of all motives  

- Reward and punishment can influence behavior, but can also backfire  

- Rewarded behavior may decrease; Punished behavior may increase  

- Approval motive: gain acceptance, avoid rejection  

- People want to be liked and accepted  

- Power of peer pressure  

- Adherence to societal beauty norms another example of social control for approval  motives  

- Accuracy motive: believe what’s right  

- Attitudes tell us what we should do and beliefs tell us how to do it  

- Attitude: an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event  - Belief: an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event  

- Informational Influence: occurs when another person’s behavior provides information  about act is good or right  

- Informational social influence  

- Conformity because one views others as a source of knowledge about what one is  supposed to do  

Normative Influence  

Norm: a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture  Normative influence: occurs when another person’s behavior provides information about what  is appropriate  

Norm of reciprocity: the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited  them  

Door-in-the-face technique: a strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior  (Ask for a big favor, then a smaller one)

Conformity and Obedience  

Conformity: the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it  Normative pressure can have a strong effect  

Obedience: the tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do  

- Stanley Milgram’s (1933-1984) Obedience study  

Normative pressure can have a strong effect  

Persuasion and Consistency  

Persuasion: a person’s attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication form another  person  

- Systematic persuasion: the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to  reason  

- Heuristic persuasion: the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to  habit or emotion  

- Strength of the argument and whether and individual analyzes the evidence or uses heuristic  matters  

People evaluate the accuracy of new beliefs by assessing their constancy with old beliefs  Foot-in-the-door technique: a technique that involves a small request followed by a larger  request  

Cognitive dissonance: an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the  inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs  

- Change to alleviate anxiety  

- Inconsistencies can be justified  

- Feeling of discomfort caused by information that is different from a person’s conception of  himself as a reasonable and sensible person  

Social Cognition: Understanding People  

The medical prefrontal cortex is activated when we think about other people’s attributes  Social cognition: the processes by which people come to understand others  We make inferences about others based on the categories to which they belong and the things  they do and say  

Stereotyping: Drawing Inferences from Categories  

Stereotyping: the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their  knowledge of the categories to which others belong  

Stereotypes can be inaccurate (aquired through hearsay or observations)  - We overestimate rare events  

Stereotypes can be overused  

- We underestimate within-category variability  

Stereotypes can be self-perpetuating  

- Perpetual confirmation: when observers perceive what they expect to perceive  - Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see

- Subtyping: the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify  their stereotypes rather than abandon them  

Stereotyping can be automatic (occur unconsciously)  

Attribution: Drawing Inferences from Actions  

Attribution: an inference about the cause of a person’s behavior  

Why did an event happen?  

- Situational attributions attribute the external situation as cause  

- Other people  

- The environment  

- Luck, fate, God’s will  

- Dispositional attributions attribute someone’s internal disposition as cause  - Personality, intelligence  

The covariation model claims we rely on consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus  Correspondence bias: the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person’s  behavior was caused by the situation (fundamental attribution error)  

- Situational causes may be invisible  

- Situational causes may be more complex  

Actor-observer effect: the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while  making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others  

Chapter 14: Stress and Health  

Health psychology: the subfield of psychology concerned with the ways psychological factors  influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and maintenance of health  

Stress and Health  

Stressors: specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the  person’s well-being  

- Antecedent situations  

Stress: the physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors  - Anger  

- Anxiety  

- Depression  

The degree of life change is a significant indicator of the person’s future illness  Chronic stressors: sources of stress that occur continuously or repeatedly  - Effects can accumulate and be long-lasting  

- Chronic stressors have been shown to be linked to environments through environmental  psychology  

Culture and Community  

In a study, preadolescents who had immigrated from Cuba and other Hispanic cultures were  surveyed for discrimination

Those who reported discrimination also reported higher levels or worrying, anxiety, and bodily  stress  

Further research shows discrimination to be the cause  

Perceived Control over Stressful Events  

Stressors challenge you to do something about it —lack of control over the situation can add to  the stress  

Studies show that perceived control over stressful events can be related to more effective coping  

Physical Stress Reactions  

Fight-or-flight response: an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that  increases readiness for action  

General adaptation syndrome (GAS): a three-stage physiological response that appears  regardless of the stressor that is encountered —GAS is non-specific and does not vary across  stressors developed by Hans Selye (1907-1982)  

- Alarm phase: mobilize resources  

- Resistance phase: cope with stressor  

- Exhaustion phase: reserves depleted  

Stress Effects on the Immune Response  

Immune system: a complex response system that protects the body from bacteria, viruses, and  other foreign substances  

Lymphocytes: white blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection  Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of how the immune system responds to psychological  variables (stressors)  

Stressors can cause glucorticoids (hormones) to flood the brain and wear down the immune  system  

Decreased immune system response may be related to social status, studies show  

Stress and Cardiovascular Health  

The heart and circulatory system are sensitive to stress  

- The main cause of coronary heart disease is atherosclerosis  

Research links intensity, drive, anger and hostility to increased rates of heart disease  - Type A behavior patter: the tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of  time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings  

Stress Disorders  

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a disorder characterized by chronic physical arousal,  recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the  traumatic event to mind  

- 8% of Americans suffer from PTSD

- Hippocampus may be smaller in PTSD sufferers  

Burnout: a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term  involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance  and motivation  

- Helping professionals exposed to emotional turmoil regularly more prone to burnout  

Somatic Symptom Disorders  

Psychosomatic illness: an interaction between mind and body that can produce illness  Somatic symptom disorders: the set of psychological disorders in which the person displays  physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition  

- Somatic symptom disorder  

- Pin, GI symptoms  

- Conversion disorder  

- Neurologic symptoms  

- Paralysis, seizures, blindness  

- Illness anxiety disorder  

- Hypochondriasis  

Recognizing Illness and Seeking Treatment  

Awareness and occurrence of physical symptoms can be influenced by psychological factors  Denial of illness can also come at great cost (if delay too long to seek treatment)  On Being Patient  

Sick role: a socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness  - Exemptions and obligations  

People may feign sickness to obtain what they want, called malingering  Keys to effective medical care include physician empathy and ability motivate the patient to  adhere to the prescribed regiment of care  

- Adherence deteriorates if treatment is frequent, inconvenient, or painful, or if the number of  treatments increase  

Stress Interpretation  

The interpretation of a stimulus as stressful or not is called primary appraisal  Determining whether the stressor is something you can handle/have control over or not is called  secondary appraisal  

The body responds differently to a threat (negative appraisal) than a challenge (positive  appraisal)  

Cognitive Appraisals  

Cognitive appraisals that lead to stress…  

- Cognitive Distortions  

- Irrational Beliefs  

- Stinking Thinking  

- Negative Self Talk

- Automatic Thoughts  

Stress Management Options  

Change thoughts (Mind Management)  

- Cognitive restructuring, Reframing  

- A significant part of stress management is control of the m ind  

- Repressive coping: avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and  maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint  

- Rational coping: involves facing the stressor and working to overcome it —involves three  steps: Acceptance, exposure, and understanding  

- Refraining: finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat  - Stress inoculation training (SIT): a therapy that helps people to cope wit stressful situations  by developing positive ways to think about the situation  

Change physical reactions (Body Management)  

- Meditation: the practice of intentional contemplation  

- Relaxation therapy: a technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the  body —developed by Edmund Jacobson (1880-1983)  

- Relaxation response: a condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate,  breathing rate and blood pressure  

- Biofeedback: the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about bodily  function and possibly gain control over that function  

- Aerobic exercise promotes stress relief and psychological well-being  

- May increase serotonin and endorphins  

- Keeps body fit and healthy  

Change situations (Situation Management)  

- Change situation  

- Change behavior  

- Communication skills training  

- Anger management  

- Conflict resolution skills  

- Social skills training  

- Situation management involves changing your life situation to reduce stress  - Social support: aid gained through interacting with others  

- Offer help in times of stress  

- Being in relationships correlates with mental health  

- Women are more likely to seek support under stress  

- Humor can help us cope with stress and reduce time needed to calm down  

The Psychology of Health: Feeling Good  

Health-relevant personality traits and health behavior personal health  

Optimism (seeing the sunny side of ever situation) is heater than pessimism (expecting things to  go wrong)  

- A person’s level of optimism or pessimism tends to be stable over time

Hardy individuals who are thick-skinned (committed, in control, accept challenges) tend to  handle stress better and are healthier  

Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders  

Identifying Psychological Disorders  

Mental disorder: persistent disturbance or dysfunction of behavior, thoughts or emotions that  causes significant distress or disturbance  

1 in 4 people experience a mental disorder int their lifetime  

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5)  

Medical model: the conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases that, like physical  diseases, have biological an environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures  Drawbacks: ignore or minimize sociocultural factors that contribute to disorders —result in  stigmatization  

Causation of Disorders and the Dangers of Labeling  

Stigma may occur when labeling people with psychological disorders  

- Roughly 70% of sufferers do not seek treatment  

- May lead to low self-esteem  

- May lead to discrimination  

- Organizations that combat stigma of mental illness  

- National Alliance for Mental Illness  

- Active Minds  

Biopsychosocial model:  

- Biological: genes, brain chemistry, brain structure/function  

- Psychological: behaviors, thoughts, emotional responses  

- Social: interpersonal circumstances, cultural influences, societal inequities  Diathesis-stress model: suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that  remains unexpressed until triggered by stress

Anxiety Disorders and GAD  

Anxiety disorder: the class of mental disordering which anxiety is the predominant feature  - Anxiety can be adaptive or maladaptive when it is disproportionate to real threats and  challenges  

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry  accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration  problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance  

- Roughly 5% of North Americans  

- Occurs more in women  

- E.g. “worry warts,” relatively low level of anxiety, persists across situations, worries about  realistic everyday events

Phobic Disorders  

Phobic disorders: disorders characterized by marked, persistent and excessive fear and  avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations  

- Specific phobia: a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation  that markedly interferes with an individual’s ability to function  

- Social phobia: a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or  embarrassed  

Preparedness theory: the idea that people re instinctively predisposed toward certain fears — proposed by Martin Seligman  

- Evolution, heritability , and temperament argue for biological predispositions  Phobias can also be classically conditioned —Little Albert-John Watson  

Specific Phobias  

Characterized by intense fear of particular objects or situations  

- Insects  

- Animals  

- The dark  

- Lightening  

- Heights  

- Flying  

- Needles, blood, doctors, dentists  

Marked by an intense and immediate fear, even panic, when confronted with every particular  situations or objects  

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)  

Pronounced fear of humiliation in the presence of others  

Marked by severe self-consciousness about appearance or behavior or both  - Public speaking anxiety  

- Dating anxiety  

- Performance anxiety (e.g sports, sex)  

- Social physique anxiety  

- Test anxiety  

Panic Disorder  

Panic disorder: a disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and  physiological symptoms that contribute too feeling of stark terror —panic attacks  - Approximately 22% of the U.S. population reports having at least one panic attack  Agoraphobia: an extreme fear of venturing into public places —correlates with panic disorder  

Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia  

Panic attacks: sudden, short period of extreme anxiety involving physiological and  psychological symptoms and intense fear  

- Characterized by 4 or more of the following symptoms

- Sweating  

- Accelerated heart rate  

- Trembling or shaking  

- Feeling of Choking  

- Shortness of breath  

- Chest pain  

- Nausea or abdominal distress  

- Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded  

- Feelings of unreality  

- Fear of losing control  

- Fear of dying  

- Numbness or tingling sensations  

- Chills or hot flushes  

Agoraphobia: Intense fear of being in places from which escape might be difficult or in which  help might not be able should a panic attack occur —escape or avoidance of these places  

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive, thoughts  (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere  significantly with an individual’s functioning  

- Roughly 1.3% of the population suffers  

- Moderate heritability  

Obsessions  

- Recurrent, persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are intrusive, inappropriate and  distressing  

- Unwanted but uncontrollable  

- Not simply excessive worry about real-life problems  

- Contamination  

- Doubt  

- Need for Order  

- Impulses toward Aggression  

- Sexual imagery  

Compulsions  

- Ritualistic, repetitive motor behaviors or mental acts intended to escape/avoid anxiety  provoking-thoughts  

- Washing, counting, checking, repeating words or phrases, ordering  

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  

Triggered by exposure to a catastrophic or horrifying event that poses serous harm or threat  - Sexual Assault/Violent attack  

- War Trauma  

- Natural Disaster (e.g. earthquake, flood)  

- Severe accident (e.g. car crash, house fire)

Re-experiencing trauma  

Avoiding thoughts, feelings, and activities associated with the trauma  

Increased arousal, irritability, difficulty sleeping, or exaggerated startle response  Depressive Disorders  

Depressive disorders: mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant  feature  

- Women experience depression at twice the rate of men  

Major depressive disorder: a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts 2  weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy,  and sleep and appetite disturbances  

- Characterized by pervasive low mood, lack of motivation, low energy and feelings of  worthlessness and guilt the last for at least 2 consecutive weeks  

- Changes in sleep, appetite, weight  

- Suicidal ideation and behavior  

- Dysthymia: form of depression that is milder that major depressive disorder  Dysthymia: a disorder that involves the same symptoms as in depression only less severe, but  the symptoms last longer, pressing for at least 2 years  

Mood Disorders and Depressive Disorders  

Seasonal affective disorder: depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a  seasonal pattern  

Post partum depression: depression that occurs after the birth of a child  

Biological and Psychological Factors  

Heritability estimates for major depression range from 33% to 45%  

Depression may involve norepinephrine and serotonin and.or diminished activity in the left  prefrontal cortex and increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex  

Aaron Beck noted dysfunctional attitudes (irrational thoguhts, cognitive distortions) and negative  mood states in depressed individuals  

- Helplessness theory: the idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically  attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (my fault), stable (always be my  fault), an global (everything is my fault)  

- Depressed individuals tend to have depressive biases in thinking and memory  

Depression and Its Causes  

Combination of brain chemistry and life circumstance  

- Diathesis-stress model  

- Serotonin gene  

- Stressful events  

Suicide Risk and Prevention  

Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the U.S.  

3rd among high school and collage students

50% who commit suicide do so during a depressive episode  

Suicide  

Demographic characteristics  

- In U.S. women make more attempts, men complete suicide more often  - Age  

- Increasing among teens  

- 6% of college undergraduates contemplate  

- Older, white men are at greatest risk  

Risk Factors  

- Depression  

- Hopelessness  

- Recent loss  

- Major illness  

- Lack of social support  

- Suicidal ideation  

- Talking about ending one’s life  

- Giving away possessions  

- Past suicide attempts  

- Knowing someone who has committed suicide  

- Available means  

- Substance use/abuse  

Bipolar Disorder  

Bipolar disorder: an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal  persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)  

- Approximately 1.3% of people suffer  

- Rapid cycling bipolar disorder  

Bipolar disorder has the highest heritability (polygenic) amor the psychological disorders  Biological causes (specific neurotransmitters) are difficult to substantiate  Stressful life experiences often precede episodes  

Characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, a cycling between very low, and very high  moods  

- Manic Episodes (Euphoric Mood)  

- Distractibility  

- Indiscretion (lack of impulse control)  

- Grandiosity  

- Flight of ideas  

- Activity increases  

- Sleep (need for) decreases  

- Talkativeness

Schizophrenia: Losing the Grasp on Reality  

Schizophrenia: a disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological  processes, a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion, and disturbances in  thought, motivation and behavior  

Occurs in about 1%  

Delusion: a patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite  of its irrationality  

Hallucination: a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the  absence of external stimulation  

Disorganized speech: a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly  and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic  

Grossly disorganized behavior: behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in  attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances  

- Catatonic behavior: a marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity  and overactivity  

Negative symptoms: emotional an social withdrawal, apathy, poverty of speech, and other  indications of that absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion  Major Symptoms  

- Positive  

- Hallucinations  

- Auditory (hearing voices)  

- Delusional thinking  

- False beliefs (often grandiose)  

- Disorganized thought and speech  

- Negative  

- Non-responsiveness  

- Emotional flatness  

- Immobility  

- Catatonia  

- Problems with speech  

- Inability to complete tasks  

- Cognitive  

- Problems working with memory  

- Attention  

- Verbal and visual learning and memory  

- Reasoning and problem solving  

- Speed of processing  

- Disordered speech  

- E.g. Word salad - Christmas teeth! Radiant brains!

Biological and Psychological Factors  

Concordance rate increase greatly with biological relatedness  

Dopamine hypothesis: the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity  Neuroimaging has revealed enlarged ventricles and progressive tissue loss in many cases of  schizophrenia  

Disturbed family environment may affect development an recovery of schizophrenia  

Personality Disorders: Going to Extremes  

Personality disorder: disorder characterized by deeply ingrained inflexible patterns of thinking  feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning  - Organized into 3 clusters: odd/eccentric, dramatic/erratic, and anxious/inhibited  - 14.8% of the population has a personality disorder  

- Common feature is failure to take others’ perspectives  

Antisocial Personality Disorder  

Antisocial personality disorder (APD): a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the  rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood  - 3.6% of the population suffers —males outnumber females 3:1  

- Individuals typically have a history of conduct disorder and may commit crimes  Sociopathology and psychopathology describe people with APD  

Newer theories suggest internal (biological) causes  

- Less sensitive to fear the brain

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