Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide History 225
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Sundberg on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 225 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Steven Reich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 302 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
These questions come from Dr. Reich’s Canvas page. 1 What impact did the Market Revolution have American social, economic, political, and familial relations? To what extent did the Market Revolution contradict or confirm the republican ideals of the American Revolution? (Foner, Chapter 9) It created an interdependence between the North and South, the North needed the cotton produced by the South to manufacture goods in their factories White Americans felt that immigrant workers “took jobs away” from them Families were effected by multiple aspects of the Market Revolution o Mill Girls: women finally breaking into the work force, viewed as hookers, went against “virtuous” ideals o Men moved West to find more land Economically, goods could be produced more efficiently and for less cost o Factories could mass produce goods o Society no longer relied on craftsmen o Introduction of wage-labor o Loans were given out to commercial farmers who moved West to produce agricultural goods for the market Could now profit off of what they farmed, no longer had to produce just enough for their family to survive Many states had done away with granting charters for land and introduced “general incorporation laws”—companies could now purchase charters of land for a specific fee (p. 337) o Many Americans did not trust these charters o Felt that they were a “form of government granted special privilege” (p. 337) o Local judges held factory owners blameless for property damage 2 How did the social position of women change from the mid- eighteenth century to the Market Revolution? Did the American Revolution improve the social status of women? How did the Market Revolution change the social status of women? How did women respond to these changes? (Foner, Chapter 9) The social position of women changed from the idea of the “republican motherhood” to the “cult of domesticity” (p. 349) o The idea of virtue was redefined (it used to be associated with male political success) and associated closer with women—beauty, frailty, dependence on men, and sexual innocence became the new “virtue” Market Rev.: Although the expected submissive behavior of women took away their job to raise successful republican children, women exercised more power over the family and it’s property because of the amount of travel husbands had to do for work Many women embraced the opportunity to become involved with the family’s economic wellbeing o Many joined the workforce o We saw a decline in childbirth during this era because women decided to have fewer children 3 How did Jacksonian America differ—socially, politically, economically—from America under the first four presidential administrations? (Foner, Chapter 10) People became much more politically involved during this time Politics revolved around issues of the market revolution and increasing tensions between the national and sectional loyalties Democrats vs. Whigs (Jacksonian) Federalists vs. Republicans (First 4 admins) Money had become a disputed topic between politicians— currency, tariffs, and banks Democrats felt that individual morality was a private matter, while Whigs rejected the idea that government must not interfere in private life 4 Some historians have argued that the American Revolution was not about establishing home rule but was about who would rule at home. Do you agree? Why? What documents confirm this thesis? Which contradict it? What was the role of class and class conflict in the Revolution and the struggle over the post-revolutionary settlement? Do those events confirm or contradict this thesis? Documents to Look At: Document 28 Crevecouer “What is an American” Thomas Paine “Common Sense” GML p. 194 5 How did the United States Constitution reflect the internal social and political struggles of the early United States? What specific provisions in the Constitution speak to these issues? (Foner, Chapter 7) The meetings to frame the Constitution reflected the struggles to the early U.S. because it outlined the rights and freedoms that the Founding Fathers believed all Americans deserved Two political principles—division of powers and system of checks and balances Relationship between state government and federal government The institution of slavery was heavily debated at the Constitutional Convention Slavery clauses were compromises Congress was assigned power over tariffs, interstate commerce, coining, bankruptcy rules, and property rights o Made a national economic market possible Later the Bill of Rights better reflected the struggles of the early U.S. o Sought to not impose on liberties o Balanced political power o Prevented abuse of authority o Gun rights o Freedom of Speech o Freedom of Press o Freedom of Religion 6 What was the Federalist vision of America? What was the Jeffersonian, or republican vision? How did the two differ? On what, if anything, did the two visions agree? (Foner, Chapter 8) Federalists o Favored close ties with Britain o Elitist outlook o Fixed hierarchy and public office of wealthy men o Freedom rested on deference to authority (p. 288) o Fear of anarchy Republicans o Were sympathetic to France o Supported by farmers o Supported French Revolution o Felt that democratic participation was essential to freedom 7 Slavery and freedom expanded simultaneously in both British North America and the United States. How did Americans— both black and white—confront and respond to this seemingly irreconcilable contradiction? Saw rise of Northern abolitionists Freed, educated slaves began to spread the abolition movement Slavery in the South grew to continue producing agrarian goods Some Southerners believed it was their right to own African-Americans Some Southerners believed it was a “necessary evil”
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