Exam 1 Study Guide GWS/HIST 292
Exam 1 Study Guide GWS/HIST 292 GWS 292
Popular in History and Theories of Feminism
Popular in Women and Gender studies
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by vscobee2 on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GWS 292 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Norma Moruzzi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see History and Theories of Feminism in Women and Gender studies at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Exam 1 Study Guide “ Grand Domestic Revolution” and “Socialism in Model Villages” Hayden 153 th Early 19 century Rural setting Agricultural “communitarian” experiments (individual families and often religious communal families) o The religious groups were often made up of Shakers Completely celibate Known for incredible design – innovative domestic and farm space Material Feminists: o Less focus on legal issues but more on practical aspects o Concerned with space (domestic/home space) o “Material” because issues about what’s actually happening on the ground – reality vs. what’s on paper “Feminism in Model Households” Hayden 5463 th Mid19 century, small towns Catharine Beecher Heavily influenced by Christian beliefs Believed in women’s selfsacrifice and isolation Wanted to increase their power by allowing them full domestic control in the home Derived power from motherly/wifely duties, but didn’t want them to be passive Wanted gender to be more important than class Defined women as the “home minister” and “skilled professional” Designed the ideal domestic environment with lots of domestic technology and the kitchen at the center of the home to make wives’ jobs easier and give them more power Also designed a Model Christian Neighborhood Wanted women to be educated in ways that would make them better wives/mothers “Public Kitchens, Social Settlements, and the Cooperative Ideal” Hayden 150179 th Late 19 century, urban setting “Make the home more homelike” – Addams’ goal Public Kitchens: o Low prices, technologically advanced, sanitary, served nutritious/tasty food o Headed by a small group of highly educated women o Mainly served workingclass and immigrant families o Main goals were to combat the overworking of women, the excessive use of fuel, and malnutrition o Relied on the money/support of philanthropists o Also gave cooking lessons there Social Settlements: o Jane Addams’ Hull House in Chicago’s 19 Ward in 1889 o Initially catered to working women’s needs (housing, food, childcare) o Influenced urban sociology and social legislation o 1 public playground in Chicago o Combined residential and social spaces o Had a public kitchen that wasn’t very successful, but continued to use it to cook their food o Created the Jane Club: cooperative housing for working women Helped them organize for unions and strikes Didn’t have to fear eviction if they organized Managed by the residents and cheap o Ellen Richards’ Household Aid Company: Cooperative residence like the Jane Club but for domestic workers Not financially successful like the Jane Club (maybe because it was not run by the residents but by social workers and home economists) o Hull House also offered cooperative living for professional women “Domestic Evolution or Domestic Revolution?” Hayden 182205 Late 19 century, small towns and urban setting, middle class Charlotte Perkins Gilman Views were between those of Beecher (great aunt) and Addams Focused on housework and domestic work reform Identified as a sociologist, not a feminist because these issues affected both sexes Fiction writer who wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper” – semiautobiographical Critical of social institution of marriage Framed issues as wider societal problems Interested in community experiments like apartment hotels o Private units with central dining hall (community laundry and cleaning too) o Focused on nutritious meals o Modern example: Retirement homes Focused on professionalizing women’s work so that they can work outside the home and not have to worry about the double day (being overextended) Doesn’t just want to outsource domestic work, but make them professions that are respected and wellpaid/trained “Charlotte Perkins Gilman” Schneir 230246 Women are completely economically/socially dependent on husbands The ideal of the time is that women don’t have to work and can be supported by husbands Compares women to horses because unlike servants, they don’t get paid and aren’t allowed to quit (divorce is uncommon and shameful) Marriage is not a partnership because the two are not equal o Wives are not entitled to half the profits/power o Men don’t lose anything if wives die, but women lose everything without their husbands (financially/materially/status) Domestic work not valued as it should be o Women who do the most work get the least amount of money (lower/working class) and women with the most money do the least amount of work (upper class) Focuses on food: o Women not properly trained how to cook and don’t know about nutrition o Concerned with food as a social relation “The way to a man’s heart is through his stomach” Wives don’t cook out of knowledge, but out of the need to please their husbands – they likely prefer unhealthy food, so that is what wives cook Cooking what the husband wants also benefits the wife – this is her job, she is economically dependent on him and his approval There are no incentives to cook for health “Community Kitchens and Cooked Food Services” Hayden 206227 Community Kitchens: o In small towns o Selfmanaged, but sometimes hired domestic professionals o Cooperative o Lessened housework for women – share the work and save effort o Same as Beecher’s kitchen models o Increases sociability o Save money by buying in bulk o Avg. lasted 4 ½ years o Many fell in popularity and closed Droughts led to rising food prices, so families tried to save money by cooking at home instead At home they don’t have to pay for hired help Labor returned to women – again spending more time/effort on housework (double day) Other working women lost out on community kitchen work Delivery Services: o More run as businesses than community kitchens o Usually run by women o Subscription service on a regular basis o Good quality and nutritious food o Extracted labor from individual households “Madame Kollontai and Mrs. Consumer” and “Feminist Politics and Domestic Life” Hayden 280305 During Red Scare – WWI People saw any kind of immigrant/labor/women’s organization as communist and community/living/domestic experiments as similar to those in the USSR Criticized organizing women workers and women demanding maternity benefits for mothers and children Society scared because of the Russian Revolution o Common people overthrew the monarchy (czar) Unions considered threats o Ex. Pullman strike in Chicago
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