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Exam 1 Study Guide GWS/HIST 292

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Exam 1 Study Guide GWS/HIST 292 GWS 292


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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on our next exam (lectures, Hayden readings, and Schneir reading).
History and Theories of Feminism
Norma Moruzzi
Study Guide
Gender and Women's Studies, history, GWS, hist, Study Guide, exam
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by vscobee2 on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GWS 292 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Norma Moruzzi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see History and Theories of Feminism in Women and Gender studies at University of Illinois at Chicago.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
Exam 1 Study Guide “ Grand Domestic Revolution” and “Socialism in Model Villages” Hayden 1­53 th  Early 19  century  Rural setting  Agricultural “communitarian” experiments (individual families and often religious  communal families) o The religious groups were often made up of Shakers  Completely celibate  Known for incredible design – innovative domestic and farm space  Material Feminists: o Less focus on legal issues but more on practical aspects o Concerned with space (domestic/home space) o “Material” because issues about what’s actually happening on the ground – reality vs. what’s on paper “Feminism in Model Households” Hayden 54­63 th  Mid­19  century, small towns  Catharine Beecher  Heavily influenced by Christian beliefs  Believed in women’s self­sacrifice and isolation  Wanted to increase their power by allowing them full domestic control in the home  Derived power from motherly/wifely duties, but didn’t want them to be passive  Wanted gender to be more important than class  Defined women as the “home minister” and “skilled professional”  Designed the ideal domestic environment with lots of domestic technology and the  kitchen at the center of the home to make wives’ jobs easier and give them more power  Also designed a Model Christian Neighborhood  Wanted women to be educated in ways that would make them better wives/mothers “Public Kitchens, Social Settlements, and the Cooperative Ideal” Hayden 150­179 th  Late 19  century, urban setting  “Make the home more homelike” – Addams’ goal  Public Kitchens: o Low prices, technologically advanced, sanitary, served nutritious/tasty food o Headed by a small group of highly educated women o Mainly served working­class and immigrant families o Main goals were to combat the overworking of women, the excessive use of fuel,  and malnutrition o Relied on the money/support of philanthropists o Also gave cooking lessons there  Social Settlements: o Jane Addams’ Hull House in Chicago’s 19  Ward in 1889 o Initially catered to working women’s needs (housing, food, childcare) o Influenced urban sociology and social legislation o 1  public playground in Chicago o Combined residential and social spaces o Had a public kitchen that wasn’t very successful, but continued to use it to cook  their food o Created the Jane Club: cooperative housing for working women  Helped them organize for unions and strikes  Didn’t have to fear eviction if they organized  Managed by the residents and cheap o Ellen Richards’ Household Aid Company:  Cooperative residence like the Jane Club but for domestic workers  Not financially successful like the Jane Club (maybe because it was not  run by the residents but by social workers and home economists) o Hull House also offered cooperative living for professional women “Domestic Evolution or Domestic Revolution?” Hayden 182­205  Late 19  century, small towns and urban setting, middle class  Charlotte Perkins Gilman  Views were between those of Beecher (great aunt) and Addams  Focused on housework and domestic work reform  Identified as a sociologist, not a feminist because these issues affected both sexes  Fiction writer who wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper” – semi­autobiographical  Critical of social institution of marriage  Framed issues as wider societal problems  Interested in community experiments like apartment hotels o Private units with central dining hall (community laundry and cleaning too) o Focused on nutritious meals o Modern example: Retirement homes  Focused on professionalizing women’s work so that they can work outside the home  and not have to worry about the double day (being overextended)  Doesn’t just want to outsource domestic work, but make them professions that are  respected and well­paid/trained “Charlotte Perkins Gilman” Schneir 230­246  Women are completely economically/socially dependent on husbands  The ideal of the time is that women don’t have to work and can be supported by husbands  Compares women to horses because unlike servants, they don’t get paid and aren’t  allowed to quit (divorce is uncommon and shameful)  Marriage is not a partnership because the two are not equal o Wives are not entitled to half the profits/power o Men don’t lose anything if wives die, but women lose everything without their  husbands (financially/materially/status)  Domestic work not valued as it should be o Women who do the most work get the least amount of money (lower/working  class) and women with the most money do the least amount of work (upper class)  Focuses on food: o Women not properly trained how to cook and don’t know about nutrition o Concerned with food as a social relation  “The way to a man’s heart is through his stomach”  Wives don’t cook out of knowledge, but out of the need to please their  husbands – they likely prefer unhealthy food, so that is what wives cook  Cooking what the husband wants also benefits the wife – this is her job,  she is economically dependent on him and his approval  There are no incentives to cook for health “Community Kitchens and Cooked Food Services” Hayden 206­227  Community Kitchens: o In small towns o Self­managed, but sometimes hired domestic professionals o Cooperative o Lessened housework for women – share the work and save effort o Same as Beecher’s kitchen models o Increases sociability o Save money by buying in bulk o Avg. lasted 4 ½ years o Many fell in popularity and closed  Droughts led to rising food prices, so families tried to save money by  cooking at home instead  At home they don’t have to pay for hired help  Labor returned to women – again spending more time/effort on housework (double day)  Other working women lost out on community kitchen work  Delivery Services: o More run as businesses than community kitchens o Usually run by women o Subscription service on a regular basis o Good quality and nutritious food o Extracted labor from individual households “Madame Kollontai and Mrs. Consumer” and “Feminist Politics and Domestic Life” Hayden  280­305  During Red Scare – WWI  People saw any kind of immigrant/labor/women’s organization as communist and  community/living/domestic experiments as similar to those in the USSR  Criticized organizing women workers and women demanding maternity benefits for  mothers and children  Society scared because of the Russian Revolution o Common people overthrew the monarchy (czar)  Unions considered threats o Ex. Pullman strike in Chicago


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