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PENN / Communications / COMM 130 / What is a modern book?

What is a modern book?

What is a modern book?

Description

School: University of Pennsylvania
Department: Communications
Course: Mass Media and Society
Professor: Joseph turow
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: History of Print Media (ch. 7-9 selected sections)
Description: Heavy lecture notes on the History of print media given by the TA's last Thursday.
Uploaded: 03/01/2016
3 Pages 41 Views 2 Unlocks
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History of Print Mass Media 03/01/2016


What is a modern book?



Books

Three Important Themes:

1. The modern book did not arrive in a flash as a result of one inventor’s grand  change; the book-making technology evolved rather than appeared suddenly ∙ 1440 CE —Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press

o moveable type

o allowed books to be printed quicker and made cheaper  

o 1450-18th century =>1 billion books printed

2. The book as a medium of communication developed as a result of social and  legal responses to the technology during different periods

∙ Gutenberg first printed the Bible because it was by far the most important book of his era

∙ Led leaders in different parts of Europe to proclaim laws laying out the  subjects that were appropriate for books


When did gutenberg print the first bible?



o Ex: British Crown and printing press of 17th century—licensing from  the monarchy

o Vernacular bible vs. Latin bible => tension between Catholic church (originality) and Christian Europeans that didn’t speak Latin

o Copyright Act of 1709

∙ Crucial social development in the 19th century — spread of literacy 3. The book as a medium of communication existed long before the existence of  the book industry

∙ Book printing became a large, profitable industry in mid 19th century due  to:

o Jacksonian Democracy (1829-1837)

 Appealed to the “common man”

 Expanded voting rights


What does technological change mean?



 Mass literacy emerged alongside mass politics

o Technological change

 Expansion of infrastructure

 More access

o Entrepreneurial capitalism

 Emergence of book printers, bookstores, and publisher open  If you want to learn more check out What makes proteins unique?

in 19th century

 Less government control; no licensing necessary

 US did not recognize foreign copyrights until 1891; legalized  foreign piracy

 Small family-owned presses went out of business because  

they could not compete

Newspapers: printed products created on a regular basis and released in  multiple copies

1. The newspaper did not arrive in a flash as a result of one inventor’s grand  change

∙ Critical changes in the paper’s look came about with the development of  methods for creating headlines across the page, ways to reproduce  images and way to include color If you want to learn more check out Substitution effect is what?

∙ Increased ability to reach the masses through new technology o Steam-powered press (1814)

o Rotary press (1830s-50s)

o Computerized printing technologies

∙ Telegraph, telephone, and computer helped bring the news from outside  the offices

2. The newspaper as a medium of communication developed as a result of social  and legal responses to the technology during different periods

∙ The rise of the belief in an adversarial press: a press that has the ability to argue with the government

∙ 1830s: The Penny Press

o combined mass market appeal with industrial production on a large  scale to achieve economies of scale (the larger, the cheaper and  more efficient) and reach large audiences at a MUCH lower price o relied on advertising revenue

o helped popularize news for more parts of society

o was the product of historical circumstances

∙ Institutional factors: the Post Office Act of 1972—emphasized the  importance of news in American society

∙ Technological factors: speed of delivery (railroads and electric  telegraphs) and speed of production

∙ Political factors: adversarial press (see above) and partisan press  (papers financed and controlled by political agendas or parties)

∙ Cultural factors: newly literate populations, growing working class, more people with daily access, shift towards pop culture and scandal We also discuss several other topics like What motivates behavior?

∙ Economic factors: cheap paper, productive capacity of machinery,  postal subsidies, geography (east was covered in forest), transportation 3. The newspaper as a medium of communication existed long before the  existence of the book industry

∙ 1870s-1990s: number of papers increase dramatically

∙ 1880s-1900s: ads become more important for financial support and the  rise of yellow (colorful) journalism

∙ Early 20th century

o Journalism more “professionalized”

o Norms of objectivity

o Reading the paper is a civic duty

o Newspapers distancing themselves from spectacular entertainment  and dubious sponsors

o Rise of newspaper chains (Scripps, Hearst)

Magazines

The magazine did not arrive in a flash as a result of one inventor’s grand  change

∙ 1700s: first published regularly in England

∙ 1741: first magazines appear in the US

∙ MANY changes throughout the 19th century regarding the aesthetics  and magazine’s look with respect to the covers and internal layout ∙ 20th century saw more ads than ever If you want to learn more check out What is meant by totipotent cell?

The magazine as a medium of communication developed as a result of social  and legal responses to the technology during different periods

∙ 1825 there were less than 100 magazines being published in the  US; this increased dramatically over the next 50 years due to: o the spread of literacy

o steam-powered presses

o postal loopholes and laws

The magazine as a medium of communication existed long before the  existence of the book industry

∙ Explosive growth of magazines after the Civil War and into the 19th century as well as marketing

∙ Birth of women’s magazines: “Godey’s Lady’s Book” (1830): VERY  influential and played a large role in fashion norms; perpetuated the  WHITE WEDDING DRESS

∙ 1970s was the birth of more tailored magazines: BRANDING of new  industrial products Don't forget about the age old question of How to hijack cells and how to produce new viruses?
Don't forget about the age old question of How do you use limits?

o Muncey’s Fundamental Shift for the Industry

1. Lower cost of magazine -> attract large audience

2. Get advertisers

3. Charge more for ads you would otherwise make from  

subscriptions

4. Reaching target audiences will keep the cycle going

∙ TV as a huge challenge to magazines

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