NR 130 CSU Final Exam Study Guide
NR 130 CSU Final Exam Study Guide NR 130
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chris on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NR 130 at Colorado State University taught by Ursula Quillmann; Robert Louis Buford in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 279 views.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
NR 130 Global Systems Final Exam Study onlinequizlet.com/_1u7hdf 1. active volcano 13.atmosphere -the mixture of gases that surrounds Earth -in the context of the planet it is very thin layer, but it protects life from the damaging solar radiation, is the reservoir for oxygen and carbon dioxide -it is the outer boundary of the Earth system 14.autotroph organisms that can get energy directly from sunlight 15.basic function of tomake the production of organic matter energy possible 16. is one that has erupted since the last ice age, withinccumulation the build up of a substance in the tissues of an organism historic times 17.bioavailability a measure of the ease with which a 2. adaption the process of change in response toan environmental pressure substance can be answered and used by organisms 3. aerosol a tiny liquid droplet or tiny solid particle sosmall it remains suspended in the air 18.bioconcentration the consumption of a substance by an 4. organism faster than it can excrete the air ... substance 5. air masses -enormous volumes of air driven by the pressure- 19.biodiversity the overall variety of life forms gradient force and the Coriolis force -responsible for our wind and weather systems 20.biogeochemical a natural cycle describing the cycle movements and interactions through the 6. alluvial fan Earth's spheres of the chemicals essential tolife 21.biological the transformation of energy intomatter production by biological processes 22.biomagnification accumulation of a substance by organisms in higher trophic levels.Also called food-chain concentration 23.biomass usually used tomean the amount of a fan shaped body of alluvium at the base of an upland area living material, both as live and dead material, as in the leaves (live) and stem 7. alpine biomes terrestrial biomes in which altitude exerts a major wood (dead) of trees influence 24.biome a kind of ecosystem.the rain forest is an 8. angiosperms a plant whose seeds are surrounded by fruit example of a biome 9. Antarctic the dense, cold water that forms off Antarctica a25.biosphere -includes all of Earth's organisms and Bottom Water result of the freezing of sea ice matter that had not yet decomposed -the biosphere greatly affects every 10.anthroposphere -the human sphere -comprises people, their interests, and their impacts on other of Earth's systems the Earth system 26.black smoker hot-spring of super-heated water on the -the part of the natural system that has been modified seafloor. 11.aphotic zone oceanic zone below the photic zone where little t27.boreal forest the terrestrial biome that lies tothe south light is able topenetrate (taiga) of the tundra in the North America and Eurasia.Alsocalled taiga 12.Archeon Eon the period in Earth's history from 3.8 to2.5 billion years ago 28.braided 39. concentration the amount of an element within an channel factor organism compared tothe concentration of that element in the surrounding element 40. consumer heterotrophs that occupy higher trophic levels 41. continental is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of collision zone Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries 42. continental slow movement of continents across the face drift of the Earth 43. continent- -both plates are low density and can't continent undergosubduction, sothey collide convergent -form a continental collision zone -a stream with many interlacing channels margin -marks the final disappearance of an ocean and bars basin, forms spectacular mountain ranges -tends tohave variable discharge and -continental suture zone easily erodible banks 44. convergence flowing air masses converge and are both 29.calving the progressive breaking off of icebergs lifting forced upward from a glacier that terminates in deep 45. convergent water plate margin 30.Cambrian the short term period at the beginning of radiation the Phanerozoic Eon when the pace of evolution increased dramatically 31.channel the passage way in which a stream flows 32. chaparral biome of the Mediterranean climate characterized by scrubby evergreen bushes and drought resistant trees -where twoplates move together 33.chemosynthesis the synthesis of small organic molecules -destructive margins such as aminoacids -occur between plates carrying either oceanic crust, continental crust or both 34.Chinook wind warm, dry wind -because of the different physical 35.cirque -a bowl-shaped hollow on a mountainside, characteristics of oceanic and continental open downstream, bounded upstream by crust, plates carrying different physical a steep slope, excavated mainly by frost characteristics of oceanic and continental wedging and by glacial abrasion and crust, plates carrying different types of crust plucking behave differently when they converge -cirque glaciers are the smallest 46. Coriolisforce -an effect that causes any body that moves 36. cirrusclouds freely with respect tothe rotating solid Earth toveer toward the right in the northern hemisphere, regardless of the initial direction of the moving body -Ocean current direction is alsoinfluenced by the Coriolis force 47. cryosphere the part of the Earth's surface that remains perennially frozen highest of the clouds, wispy feathers composed of ice crystals 37.climate the average weather of a place, long-term 38.cloud visible aggregations of minute water droplets, tiny ice crystals, or both 48.cumulus 56. divide clouds puffy individual clouds, where the flat base marks the condensation level 49.cyanobacteria the earliest of the photosynthetic prokaryotes.Sometimes incorrectly called blue-green algae the line that separates adjacent drainage basins 50.decomposer organisms that break down complex organic 57. domain (of the highest taxonomic ranking of organisms. compounds sothat the chemical elements life) alsocalled super kingdoms can be recycled 58. drainage 51.deformation the change in shape or size of a solid body basin 52.delta the total area that contributes water toa stream 59. drought a region experiencing below-average rainfall for an extended period -often with emphasis on affected weather triangular shaped deposit formed when a supply or harvests stream enters the standing water of a sea or 60. Earthquake elastic energy is stored in rock masses, when the lake rock mass breaks or slips by another rock mass 53.density lifting warm, low-density air rises convectively along an earlier break, the sudden release of 54. stored elastic energy desert arid land, weather "deserted" or not, in which annual rainfall is less than 250mm or 61. earth is the application of systems science tothe Earth in which the evaporation rate exceeds the system sciences.In particular, it considers interactions precipitation rate science between the "spheres" — atmosphere, -the expansion of desert conditions into hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, adjacent areas is called desertification pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the 55.divergent magnetosphere — as well as the impact of human societies on these components. plate margin 62. ecosystem the life supporting system in which living organisms interact with each other and with the abiotic component of their environment -where twoplates move apart -spreading centers, constructive margins 63.the -the earliest animal fossils found 76. flood plain Ediacaran -600 million year old rocks fauna -jelly-like animals without external armor -disclike -penlike -wormlike -represent a huge jump in complexity from the first unequaled eukaryotes 800 million years earlier 64.elastic is the potential mechanical energy stored in the energy configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed todistort its volume or shape a wide valley 65.elastic the hypothesis that earthquakes results from rebound the the sudden release of stored elastic energy 77. focus the point where energy is first released hypothesis by slippage on faults during an earthquake and from which 66.emergence -appeared about 1.4 billion years ago seismic waves travel outward of -more efficient than fermentation 78. food chain the pathways by which energy (as food) eukaryotes -can maintain a nucleus and organelles is moved from one trophic level to -not inhibited by crowding, and can form three another dimensional structures 79. food web the map of all interconnections among 67.epicenter the point on the Earth's surface that lies food chains for an ecosystem vertically above the focus of an earthquake 80. formation of upward movement of air 68.essential the 24 chemical elements that are known tobe clouds? nutrient required for life 81. fossil the naturally preserved remains or 69.eukaryotic a cell that includes a nucleus with a membrane, traces of an animal or a plant cell as well as other membrane-bound organelles 82. four principal all types of lifting (eucaryotes) reasonsfor the 70.evolution the changes that species undergothrough upward time, eventually leading tothe formation of movement ofair new species 83. front the boundary between air masses of 71.extinction the permanent disappearance of a species different temperature and humidity, and therefore different density 72.fault a fracture in a rock along which movement occurs 84. frontal lifting twoflowing air masses of different density meet, one forcing the other up 73.Ferrel cells -on the poleward side of the Hadley cells are 85. midlatitude convection cells The Gaia proposes that life has altered the -surface winds are westerlies Hypothesis environment at a global scale 74.fjord throughout life's history and continues todoso 86. geosphere -the solid Earth -composed mainly of rock and regolith 87. glaciation -the modification of the land surface by the action of glacier ice -glaciers expand, and new ones form -a deep, glacially carved valley submerged by the sea -fjord glacier:is a glacier in a fjord 75. flood when a stream's discharge exceeds the capacity of a channel 88. 101. glacier How much of 70.8% Earth'ssurface doesseawater cover? 102.How much 21% oxygen in the atmosphere? 103.How the the Sun a permanent body of ice, consisting largely movement of of recrystallized snow, that shows evidence water is of downslope or outward movement, due to powered? stress of its own weight 104.human influence -fire 89. glacier ice species -hunting abundance with: -overharvesting -deforestation -land-clearing -desertification -nitroof non-native species -pollution 105.hurricane a tropical cyclonic storm with wind speeds that exceed 119 km/h snow that gradually becomes denser and 106.hydrological denser until it is nolonger permeable toair cycle 90. grassland temperate climate biome characterized by extensive prairies typical of Midwestern United States and Canada 91. groundwater all the water contained in the spaces within bedrock and regolith 92. gymnosperms naked-seed plants 93. gyre a large sub circular current system of which each major ocean current is a part 94. Hadean Eon the period in Earth's history from the beginning at 4.56 billion years ago, to3.8 the movement of water between the billion years various reservoirs of the hydrosphere 95. Hadley cell convection cells on both sides of the equator 107.hydrosphere in physical geography describes the that dominate the winds in tropical and combined mass of water found on, equatorial regions under, and over the surface of a planet. 96. heterotroph -organisms that derive energy by feeding organisms or compounds -oxygen intolerant organisms use fermentation -oxygen tolerant organisms use respiration 97. highest and when the sun and moon are aligned lowest tides 98. high (H) an area of relatively high air pressure, characterized buy diverging winds 99. hotspot an area of unusually high volcanic activity 100. how does slows the speed of wind friction affect wind? 108. 117. ice cap lake inland body of water in a depression on the Earth's surface;the water may be -a mass of ice that covers nearly all the land fresh or saline surface within its margins -cover mountain highlands or low lying land at 118.Largest reservoir in the hydrologic high latitudes, flow radically out cycle? 109.ice caps the greatest place where water can remain stored in surface water reservoirs 110.ice sheet the ocean 119.largest reservoir offresh water is? continent sized mass of ice that covers nearly all the land surface within its regions 111.interglacial ice levels retreat, sea levels rise polar ice sheets we are in a interglacial period 120.largest reservoir 112.isobar places of equal air pressure ofunfrozen fresh 113.ITCZ near the equator water? the Inter Tropical Convergence zone is a belt of low pressure which circles the Earth generally near the equator where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together 114.jet stream an upper-atmosphere westerlies associated with steep pressure gradient 115.Kabatic high-speed, cold wind wind 116. kingdom one of the major classes of living things (oflife) ground water 121. 129. lava magma the molten rock expelled by a volcano molten material beneath or within the during an eruption earth's crust, from which igneous rock is above ground formed. 122. least tidal when sun and moon are not aligned 130.mass event in which many types of organisms die range extinction out over a very short period 123. life zone the volume of the Earth system within 131.meander which all life exists, approximately 10 km above and below the surface of the geosphere 124.limiting factor a limitation in the supply goa chemical element that prevents the growth of an individual or a species, or that can even cause local extinction 125.Linnaean system a loop like bend of stream channel (straight channels are rare) 132. mesosphere temperature decreases with altitude, the coldest layer of the atmosphere 133.metabolism the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism, by which it grows and maintains itself 134.micronutrient chemical elements required in very small amounts by at least some forms of life.ex: boron, copper, and molybendum 126.littoral zone the warm, near-shore zone of a lake or sea 135. 127.low (L) an area of relatively low air pressure, monsoon - a seasonally reversing wind system -most distinct in Asia and Africa characterized by converging winds, -the controlling factor is the intertropical ascending air, and precipitation and convergence zone 128.macronutrient elements required in large amounts by 136.The -metabolism living things.these things include the box necessitiesof -autotrophs six:hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, life -heterotrophs phosphorus, and sulfur -growth -evolution -reproduction 137.nimbusclouds 148.polar cells in each hemisphere, the cell of air circulation that lies poleward of the Ferrel cell 149.polar desert rain, as in cumulonimbus 138.North Atlantic originates at the surface of the north Deep Water Atlantic, flows downward, and spreads polar regions where annual snowfall is very (NADW) southward tothe south Atlantic low because the air is toocold tohold 139. moisture ocean- -continental crust is much less dense than continent oceanic crust 150.polar front the region where equator-war-moving polar convergent -continental crust will ride up and over easterlies meet pole-ward moving westerlies margin while the oceanic crust gets subjected 151. beneath precipitation -alsocalled subduction zone 140.ocean-ocean -one plate will undergosubduction into convergent the mantle beneath the other plate margin -this is called subduction zone -the older, denser, plate will be subducted 141.ocean waves -surface waves is determined by wind speed, duration, and fetch (distance) -important wave dimensions are the height (from crest totrough) and wavelength (crest tocrest or crest to the action or process of precipitating a trough) substance from a solution -as waves move, each parcel of water 152. revolves in a loop, returning nearly toits Pressure- the drop in air pressure per unit of distance gradient former position once the wave has passed force -at a depth of half the wave length water motion is negligible, this is the wave base 153.primary -ground motion and disruption of the 142. effectsof ground surface orographic flowing air is forced upward due toterrain earthquakes -ground motion and damage or destroy lifting buildings 143.pause the boundaries that separate the four 154.primary species such as algae and photosynthesis principal thermal layers of the atmosphere producer bacteria that form the first trophic level 144.Phanerozoic the period in Earth's history from 542 155.primary carbohydrate production and the Eon million years agotothe present day production consequent building of body mass by 145.photosynthesis synthesis of sugars from carbon dioxide autotrophs and water by living organisms using light 156. energy.oxygen is given off as a by-product prokaryotic cells without a nucleus;refers tosingle-celled cell organisms that have nomembrane 146.phylogenetic taxonomy that organizes the forms of life (procaryotes) separating their DNA from the cytoplasm tree intogroupings according totheir genetic 157.Proterozoic the period in Earth's history from 2.5 billion evolutionary relationships Eon to542 million years ago 147.plate tectonics -the theory of plate tectonics has emerged 158.pyroclast fragments of hot shattered magma or rock over centuries -Wegener suggested that these ejected during an explosive eruption landmasses were together in a single 159.pyroclastic hot highly mobile tephra, denser than the flow atmosphere, among the most devastating supercontinent Pangea 160.respiration the use of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs to 168.secondary production of body mass of heterotrophs break down carbohydrates, releasing carbon production that derive their food energy by eating dioxide, water, and energy other organisms 161.rift depression along the center of the spreading 169.seismicity Earthquake activity center 170.seismic wave elastic disturbances spreading outward 162.salinity -the measure of the sea's saltiness, expressed from an earthquake focus in parts per thousand 171.seismograph -principally sodium, chlorine and six other ions derived from 163.savanna a device for continuously detecting and open forest consisting of broad, grassy plains recording seismic waves and scattered trees. 172.shield a volcanothat emits fluid lava and builds up 164.scientific volcano a broad dome shaped edifice with a surface method slope of only a few degrees 173.species a population of individuals that can interbreed toproduce offspring that are, in turn, inter fertile with each other 174.spreading -a fracture in the lithosphere where two center plates move apart - alsocalled a divergent plate margin 175.stratosphere temperature increases with altitude because of the presence of ozone 176.stratovolcano is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. 165.seafloor a theory proposed during the early 1960s in spreading which the lateral movement of the oceanic volcanoes that emit both tephra and visor crust away frothe mediation ridges was lava, and that build up steep conical postulated mounds 166.seaice a thin veneer of ice on polar oceans that 177.stratusclouds sheets of cloud cover spread laterally rather covers apporximately two-thids of the area of than vertically Earth's persistent ice cover 178. stream a body of water that carries detail particles 167.secondary -indirect damage due toprocesses caused by and dissolved substances and flows down a effectsof the earthquake slope in a definite channel earthquakes 179.streamflow overland flow that is concentrated intowell- EG: -fires caused by displaced stoves,gas lines, defined conduits.consists of storm flow and base flow wires, etc 180. -landslides may occur in sloped regions streamswith perennial -liquefaction occurs with sudden disturbance base flow of water-saturated solids 181.streamswith ephemeral -tsunami, a seismic sea wave, is initiated by no base flow sudden movement of seafloor 182.subduction is the process that takes place at convergent boundtarrms ohaline by which one tectonic plate moves under another circulation tectonic plate and sinks intothe mantle as the plates converge 183. subduction the linear zone along which a plate of lithosphere sinks zone down intothe asthenosphere 184.Sun -our Sun is an ordinary star -the sun provides the light and energy for life toexist on global patterns of water circulation Earth propelled by the sinking dense cold and 185.supercontinent was a supercontinent that existed during the late salty water Pangea Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras 193.thermosphere temperature increases with altitude, 186.surface runoff water that drains off the surface of the land after rain reaches the highest temps, hosts the 187.temperate ionosphere, where auroras occur deciduous 194.three factors 1.pressure gradient force forest that affect wind 2.Coriolis force speed and 3.friction direction 195.thunderstorm updrafts of warm, humid, air (a cell) that release a lot of latent heat very quickly and become unstable 196.tides -rhythmic, twice-daily rise and fall of forest of mainly deciduous trees characterized by distinct ocean water along coastlines seasonal changes from summer towinter -caused by gravitational attraction 188.temperate rain a type of forest, either broadleaf or coniferous, that is between Earth and Moon, and toa lesser extent the Sun forest characteristic of areas with temperate climate and high precipitation 197.tornado violent windstorm produced by a spiraling column of air that extends 189.tephra a deposit of loose pyroclasts, among the most devastating downward from a cumulonimbus cloud 190.theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or 198.transform fault generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking plate margin 191.thermocline -where twoplates slide past each other -can occur in oceanic or continental crust -conversation margins, hewer crust in neither created nor destroyed -the most famous example of such is the San Andreas Fault 199.trophic level in an ecological community, all the organisms that are the same number of a zone of ocean water lying beneath the surface zone, characterized by a mark decrease in temperature food-chain steps from the primary source of energy. 200. trophic the hierarchy of organisms in which pyramid energy is moved from one level tothe next 201.tropical -a hurricane or tropical storm that develops 211.volcanic ash the smallest tephra particles emitted by cyclones near the equator and travel poleward an erupting volcano - draws energy from the water, sowind 212.volcano a vent from which a combination of speeds quickly diminish when it moves on melted rock, solid rock debris, and gas is shore erupted 202.tropical deciduous forest of the equilateral region 213.Water -plays a central role in moderating deciduous temperature and controlling climate forest -the unique chemical properties of water 203.tropical rain non-deciduous forest of the equilateral make life possible forest region 214.weather the state of the atmosphere at a given 204. troposphere temperature decreases with altitude, most time and place, short term of our weather occurs 215.wetland 205.tsunami an area that is either permanently or intermittently moist 216.what are clouds shape, appearance, and height -technically a seismic wave classified by? -generated by sudden movements on the seafloor:earthquake, submarine or costal 217.What made it the ozone absorbed harmful UV landslide, large volcanic eruption possible for life radiation to flourish in -sudden seafloor displacement causes displacement in overlying water, when this shallow water water falls back down it splits intotwo and finally on oppositely moving components land? 218.when did life on 3.9 billion years ago 206.tundra a terrestrial biome of the high altitudes Earth originate? -very hot 207.two 1.flow of energy -nofree oxygen fundamental 2.continual recycling chemical elements -nooceans, lakes, or rivers requirements -high atmospheric pressure for any life- supporting 219.when did the 2.5-1.8 billion years ago system atmosphere oxygenate? 208.two things 1.the Sun's energy that energize -warms the atmosphere 220.when was from the Archean at 3.55 billion years old earliest fossil the -energy source for clouds, rain, snowstorms, atmosphere wind and weather found? 2.the Earth's rotation 221.where did free through photosynthesis -axial tilt is responsible for seasons oxygen -large scale flow patterns in the atmosphere originate? -jet stream, global wind patterns 222.where did the still uncertain 209.vascular plants with specialized conductive tissues, in water in the plants organs such as roots, stems, and leaves that ocean come are characterized of all higher plants from? 210.vicious higher silica content, lower temperatures, magma and higher dissolved-gas contents than basaltic 223. Why doesthe air ofour present day atmosphere varied in composition from region to region? the presence of -aerosols -water vapor
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