CJ 280-002 Exam 2 Study Guide
CJ 280-002 Exam 2 Study Guide CJ 280
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 280 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Matthew Dolliver in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
CJ 280-002 Exam 2 Study Guide Ethnography: • Putting whole story together • Naturalistic (setting) • Field Research o Observation § Different types of observation include: • Complete Participation o EX. Researcher becomes homeless for 5 years to fully participate in research • Participant-as-observer o Taking part of research, making yourself known • Observer-as-participant o Taking step back to observe but only participating a little; making no effort to participate • Complete observer o Known but simply viewing o EX. Court- open to the public Method of recording is key to field researcher • Photos/videos o Problems? § Feeling in the room not necessarily present § Don’t see what’s happening out of the frame § Beginning and end to video; not always the case for the person’s story o Inter-rater check of reliability o Tell the “story” Field notes: • What we “know” vs. what we “think” o Record everything because you don’t know what will be important • Reactivity v. flexibility in question Social Desirability: • Ethnography v. other methods o EX. Seat belts § Time is great camouflage- researcher begin to disappear into the surroundings § Once researcher disappears into the background, a person’s natural behavior begins to reemerge …such as not using a seat belt • What this means for validity is that… o In some situations you can push past and get more reliable results The Qualitative Approach: • Adds richness + depth of understanding • Quantitative works to produce more generalizable results 2 basic approaches • Idiographic v. nomothetic o Idiographic: § Going deep § Specific gang o Nomothetic: § Skimming the surface § Connections between multiple gangs What is qualitative research? • Focus on the way people interpret + make sense of world • Entirely separate approach, not an alternative • Still uses numbers, stats, data points o Interpretive – not just looking at observables, looking into meaning o Naturalistic – setting, where are they most comfortable o 2 basic things that make qualitative approach Why qualitative? • Depth of understanding • Trades generalizability for detail • Generate new theory/hypothesis Includes a number of particular methodologies • Ethnography, Interviews, Historical work Grounded theory: • Glaser and Strauss (1967) • Starting from the ground and building up • “Reading” theory out of data • Key features o Adaptive sampling § Comes from grounded theory (building theory up from the ground) • May not necessarily know where to start § Need to build flexibility into sample • As we go through process, we’ll hone in on exactly what we’re interested in § Younger sex workers • How do they stay safe on the job? • Start to see patterns emerge • As we analyze patterns, we begin to see that older sex workers do things differently than younger sex workers o Ex. Younger use social media • The next time you go out to get more information, you will have a better idea of what you want to look at exactly o Theoretical saturation § You know where its going Guiding principle: • “Truth” v. meaning Ground theory: • 4 stages o Codes – what counts o Concepts – groups of codes o Categories – collection of concepts • Theory o Relationship b/tw categories of interest § EX. Masculinity + gangs Interviews: • Type of qualitative approach • Number of different structures o Better understanding of personal experiences o Combine depth of understanding o Challenge naturalistic assumptions (Qualitative) interview • Verbal interaction between researcher/participant • Follows plan o Go in with themes and codes that you are trying to confirm § EX. Masculinity in the gang • Have some ideas and trying to research same/similar ideas Why interview: • Increased control over what is known and what can be known • Going deeper, getting a look inside Structuring the interview: • Structured – Q and A w/ a twist o Often prewritten questions o Strictly stick to the questions written, control o Reliability and validity o Usually used when researchers feel they have a strong theoretical base • Semi-structured – beings w/ a structure, but then o Not as solid of a theoretical base as the structured interview § But need to have some type of evidence • Unstructured – (this does not mean no structure at all) o I don’t particularly know what’s going on here, but I want to know § To do that I have to be open to possible outcomes o Conversational § Back and forth conversation between interviewer and interviewee, flexible o Interview guided – setting limits on scope of the conversation • Need to be aware of how to ask questions and get answers… Key decisions • Setting o Where can they talk o Providing an environment where they are most comfortable opening up • Insider/outsider status o Developing a rapport- yes and no • Recording data o EX. Hidden camera, something you tell them is there but its less intrusive and they eventually forget its there Historical Research: • Time • Historiography o Time is important because it helps us to understand the strength of our research The Time Dimension in Research: • Cross-sectional o Just a snapshot, want to know information quickly; NOT looking at it over time • Longitudal o Looking at an issue over time o Trend studies (UCR), Cohort studies (Growing up), Panel studies (NCVS) Time • At work in all research Sources of evidence • Primary o Documents § Legal papers, newspapers records o Oral histories § 1 person accounts o Artifacts/remains § Tools, buildings, etc. • Secondary o Summary stats, oral history Matching: 1. _____ Secondary source A. Going deep B. “Reading” theory out of data 2. _____ Cross-sectional C. Taking part of research, making yourself known 3. _____ Complete participation D. Setting, where are they most comfortable E. Second hand accounts, summary 4. _____ Qualitative approach statistics, oral history F. Looking at an issue over time 5. _____ Adaptive sampling G. Researcher completely involves themselves in their research. (Ex. 6. _____ Longitudinal Homelessness) H. Known but simply viewing 7. _____ Semi-structured I. Looks for the meaning of an event or behavior inside the individual 8. _____ Primary source J. Still some form of structure, but much more informal 9. _____ Complete observer K. Usually used when researchers feel they have a strong theoretical base; Strictly stick 10. _____ Interview to the questions written, control L. Skimming the surface 11. _____ Idiographic M. Open coding scheme; meaning comes from culture; putting the whole story 12. _____ Unstructured together N. Using primary and secondary sources to 13. _____ Grounded theory explain how issues have progressed; provide context 14. _____ Structured O. Not just looking at observables, looking into meaning 15. _____ Historical research P. Adds richness and depth of understanding; entirely separate approach. 16. _____ Naturalistic Q. Taking step back to observe but only participating a little; making no effort to 17. _____ Ethnography participate R. Documents, oral histories, 18. _____ Participant-as-observer artifacts/remains S. Just a snapshot, want to know 19. _____ Nomothetic information quickly, NOT looking at it over time 20. _____ Interpretive T. Comes from grounded theory, build flexibility into sample 21. _____ Observer-as-participant U. Begins with a structure but not as solid of a theoretical base as the structured interview
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