Study Guide for Second exam
Study Guide for Second exam POSC230
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yuu Ri Moses on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC230 at James Madison University taught by Dr Johnatan Keller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM #2 POSC 230, FALL 2015 UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL FROM LECTURE: The 5 principles of Jus Ad Bellum (Justice Of War) 1. Just Cause- prevent genocide, self-defense 2. Right Intention- 3. Legitimate Authority 4. Reasonable chance of success 5. Proportionality- more good than evil 2 principles of Jus in Bello (Justice in War). 1. Discrimination- who are legit targets 2. Proportionality- how much force is morally appropriate “Fit the crime” **For each principle, understand what it means and how it would be applied to warfare. Differences between preemption: Threat must be imminent, indication of war happening and preventive war: Deals with future threats, long term threats , and how Just War theorists would view each of these actions. Would support preemptive war because a war must have all five principles of jus ad bellum. The security dilemma: what is it: Steps that countries take to try to make themselves more secure, actually makes them less secure and why is it a result of anarchy? No world government that can protect one actor from another or enforce laws. It is a self-help system. Similarities and differences between the strategies of deterrence: Using threats to prevent an actor from doing something “Don’t do X or else” and compellence: Using threats to change an actor’s behavior “Do x or else” Both: Require credible threat. Some are inherently incredible but ways to change this are strategic self-imposed constraints (game of chicken) and “rocking the boat” What is meant by first strike capability: the ability to destroy a country’s retaliatory capacity in a first strike vs. second strike capability: the ability to absorb a 1 strike and have enough nuclear weapons left over to inflict unacceptable losses , and how both of these concepts relate to the deterrent strategy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). Both must have second but neither must have 1 . This is a crucial fact for deterrence. Strengths and weaknesses of MAD vs. Flexible Response as nuclear strategies. MAD: Nuclear deterrence. Prevent nuclear war. Fails when states miscalculates the power of the other state or overestimate their own power. Flexible Response: Using lower levels of force. Major criticism is that it makes nuclear war more likely to occur with escalation. Benefit: Give some way to respond without using nuclear weapons. Ways to make an incredible threat credible. Self imposed constraints: “game of chicken” JFK’s address saying that the US would nuke the Soviet Union if Cuba launched any missiles. “Rocking the boat”: Raising the stakes and doing things that could possibly get out of control. Cuban blockade How collective security is supposed to work, and practical problems of implementation. An alliance in which if a country breaks the deal, all others come to the aid against the aggressor. Problems: Not all countries have the same interests and may not come to help if it is not threatening to them. How balancing: Internal through domestic development and external through building of alliances and bandwagoning: Joining the rising power for protection differ as methods of dealing with rising powers. Different reasons why a country would engage in bandwagoning. For security and profit Types of balancing (internal vs. external) and problems with external balancing. Problems are getting involved with other’s problems or resulting in a position where no one takes responsibility. The strategy of “massive retaliation” and why it was used by the U.S. Disproportionate retaliation 1950s under Eisenhower respond to Soviet invasion of Western Europe with nuclear weapons Which countries are members of the “nuclear club” and how their numbers of nuclear weapons generally compare (not exact numbers, but which countries have the most vs. the fewest) Most- Fewest: United States, Russia, France, China, Britain, Pakistan, Israel, India, North Korea Main provisions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968 Enforced by the IAEA Seeks to inhibit the spread of nuclear weapons in which nuclear weapon states commit to pursue complete disarmament while the ones that do not possess them already, pledge not to build them. The definition of ethnic groups: large groups of people who share ancestral similarities, language, culture, and religious beliefs with a common identity. Differences between the Primordial and Instrumental views of ethnic conflict. Reinforcing vs. Cross-Cutting Cleavages and their implications for conflict and cooperation. Reinforcing: All members of a group are part of the same religion, language, etc. Increases chance for conflict. Crosscutting: Ways in which groups have commonalities. There is division within the group. Allows for solidarity between groups. Potential solutions to ethnic conflict advanced by Realists Partition ideally resulting in balance of power. Enforced by an outside actor Idealists: Peacekeeping by IGOs Constructivists: Reconstructing identities through nation-building How counterinsurgency (COIN) warfare differs from conventional warfare, and the paradoxes of COIN operations “Win hearts and minds” Drive support away from insurgents to their government Major differences between mercantilism Goal is to maximize state wealth which cannot be created only acquired and economic liberalism Focus on absolute gains- how much you have now vs before Absolute advantage: Most efficiently and cheap producer vs. comparative advantage: Countries compare their options to see what they produce best The three Bretton Woods institutions discussed in class, and their basic purposes and mechanisms. 1. World Bank: Help developing countries 2. IMF: rebuilding, economic development, integration of Russian/ E. Europe 3. GATT/ WTO: Give other countries the same trade deals Globalization: its definition, causes, and consequences (for economics, politics, and culture) The world shrinking from a size medium to a size small. Causes: advances in technology, info, media, communication, increased trade and political integration Consequences: Economic interdependence, environmental and labor concerns, decline of the state, globalism vs tribalism. UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL FROM THE GOLDSTEIN & PEVEHOUSE TEXTBOOK: Chapter 4: Types of War: light about what happened during wars. Hegemonic: War over control over the entire world order. Last Nationalism: Devotion to the interests was WWII of one’s own state over the interests Total: Warfare by one state of other states waged to conquer and occupy Ethnocentrism: Is the tendency to another. see one’s own group in favorable Limited: Military actions carried terms and an out-group in out to gain some objective short of unfavorable terms. the surrender and occupation of Genocide: Systematic the enemy. extermination of ethnic or religious groups in whole or in Civil: War between faction within a state trying to prevent, or part to try to destroy create, a new government. Among scapegoated groups or political the most brutal rivals. Guerrilla: Warfare without front Ethnic cleansing: lines. Irregular forces operating in Islamist: Groups advocate the midst of civilian populations. basing government and society Truth commissions: Commissions used on Islamic Law. to hear honest testimony and bring Irredentism: Goal of regaining Strategic Defense Initiative U.S territory lost to another state program to develop defenses Territorial waters: UN that could shoot down incoming Convention on the Law of the ballistic missiles. “Star Wars” Sea Civil-military relations The Airspace: Airspace above interaction of civilian with a state is considered the military leaders which plays an territory of the state and must important role on how states obtain permission to fly over. use force Weapons of mass destruction Nuclear, Fissionable material Elements quemical, and biological. that can be split and the mass Land mines lost is transformed into energy. ICBMs intercontinental ballistic Include Uranium-235 and Missiles are the longest range missiles Plutonium Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Chemical Weapons Convention 1992 Aims to impede the Bans the production and possession of chemical weapons signed by all the development of new types of great powers and nearly all states nuclear weapons. However, except Egypt, Syria, and N. Korea. treaty does not take effect until it is signed by all 44 states Biological Weapons Convention 1972 believed to be able to produce Bans the development, production, such weapons. Numerous and possessions of such weapons. Proliferation The spread of setbacks have occurred for the CTBT including N. Korea’s tests weapons of mass destruction in 2006 and 2009. Chapter 5 : Autarky: Strategy to avoid minimum necessary to make a becoming dependent on other profit states by not trading but instead Tariffs: A tax imposed on certain try to produce everything it needs types of imported goods as they by itself. enter the country. Restrict imports Balance of trade: Is the value of a and provide revenue Nontariff state’s imports relative to its barriers: Quotas, Subsidies (tax exports. breaks, loans, high guaranteed Exports> Imports = positive prices), and regulations (make it balance/trade surplus hard to market and distribute Exports< Imports = trade deficit products) Balance of payments: Generalized System of Preferences protectionism vs. free trade Rich states give trade concession to poor ones to help their economic Protectionism: Protection of development domestic industries from international competition Doha Round: Round of trade Free Trade: negotiations in Doha, Qatar NAFTA Free trade agreement between Canada, US, and Mexico dumping products in foreign Cartel An association of producers markets at prices below the and consumers formed to manipulate the price of a certain for their currencies. In a Floating, product on the world market. rates are determined by global OPEC Organization of Petroleum currency markets in which private Exporting Countries who control $$ investors and govts buy and sell in oil exports annually. currencies. Central bank: Federal Reserve: Intellectual property rights Are the rights of creators of books, films, body that limits the amount of computer software, and similar money printed and not allowing products to receive royalties when high inflation their products are sold. Discount rate: The interest rate Transitional: Change from a that the government charges when centrally planned economy, where loaning money to private banks. political authorities set prices and This rate controls how fast money decide on quotas for production goes into the economy and consumption (standard in Fiscal vs. monetary policy Soviet Union/ China), to a market- Government decisions about based economy. spending and taxation vs decisions Mixed economies: Contain about printing and circulating both, some government control money. Two main tools to manage and some private ownership an economy! (industrialized West) Keynesian economics: Gold standard: Gold held by states Governments sometimes spend as a bank account denominated in more on programs than they an international currency accrue in tax revenue- Deficit Hard currency: Money that can be Spending- to stimulate the readily converted to leading world economy. Strategy used in 2008 crisis by the US currencies Reserves: (of hard currency) Special Drawing Right: Replaced equivalent of the stock piles of gold the gold standard. Is created in in the past. limited amount by the IMF and is Fixed vs. Floating exchange rates held as hard-currency reserves by states to buy other currencies. Fixed governments decide to establish official rates of exchange Closest to a world currency! UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING GENERAL ARGUMENTS FROM THE READINGS ON CANVAS: Why Ken Waltz believes that Iran should get a nuclear bomb Israel’s nuclear monopoly has contributed most to the current crisis. The Middle East needs a balance of power. Israel and Iran would deter each other Why Scott Sagan believes that nuclear proliferation is dangerous How “emerging anarchy” produces ethnic conflict, according to Posen There is a lack of leadership as groups emerge also, vulnerability when building up weapons makes for tensions between groups Why drones work, according to Byman Drone attacks are an effective and legitimate element of U.S. military policy. He says that by killing thousands of leaders and members of al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups, the drone strikes ordered by U.S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama have significantly weakened those groups. They have done so at little financial cost, at no risk to U.S. forces, and with fewer civilian casualties than many alternative methods would have caused. Why drones fail, according to Cronin Says killing the leaders of a terrorist organization, as drone strikes have done in the case of the al-Qaeda terrorist group, does not necessarily destroy the organization. She argues that such killings, as well as the collateral civilian deaths, enhance al-Qaeda's propaganda and recruitment. She also says the use of drones has weakened strategic cooperation on counterterrorism between the U.S. and the countries targeted by U.S. drone strikes, particularly Pakistan and Yemen. KNOW THE ANSWERS TO THESE FILM QUESTIONS: The Fog of War (1) What ethical issues are raised by the firebombing of Japan? When is war moral and justified Looks at the individual and how their decisions impact foreign policy (2) What are McNamara’s Lessons #5 & #9? #5 Proportionality should be a guideline in War Mcnamara poses the question of whether or not it was necessary to drop two atomic bombs on Japan when so much of their major cities were already destroyed with firebombing alone. Ex: Tokyo, size of New York, 51% destroyed; Toyama, size of Chatanooga, 99% destroyed. #9 In order to do good, you may have to engage in evil To save the country they had to kill but we must do our best to minimize it (3) How did General Curtis LeMay justify the firebombing? All war is immoral and if they had lost then they would have been prosecuted as war criminals. Dr. Strangelove (1) How does deterrence fail, and what are the implications for the doctrine of MAD? Deterrence fails when the threat is incredible. They were not aware of each other’s weapons. (2) What safeguard does the bomber crew enact to prevent a fake message from the enemy? Established a safeguard that is a three digit code but it is hard to decode and would take longer to figure out before the strikes. (3) What is Plan R and what was it designed for? Plan R is an emergency plan in which a lower chain of command can order the use of nuclear weapons in case the top chain, or president, is gone. Design for deterrence (4) What is General Turgidson’s idea of acceptable losses? Anyone else who does not belong. (5) What is the doomsday machine and why was it built? The Doomsday machine is a nuclear weapon that will automatically go off if there is any attack on the Soviets. It was built to make the threat of MAD credible.
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