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JMU / Political Science / POSC 230 / What could be an example of jus ad bellum?

What could be an example of jus ad bellum?

What could be an example of jus ad bellum?


School: James Madison University
Department: Political Science
Course: International Relations
Professor: Johnatan keller
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Posc and 230
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Second exam
Description: This is the second exam study guide out of 3 exams. He went over the same materials every semester so this study guide is very helpful to those who want to prepare ahead for the second exam. I hope it helps.
Uploaded: 03/01/2016
7 Pages 130 Views 1 Unlocks

Michael Telesco (Rating: )



What could be an example of jus ad bellum?

POSC 230, FALL 2015


∙ The 5 principles of Jus Ad Bellum (Justice Of War)

1. Just Cause- prevent genocide, self-defense

2. Right Intention

3. Legitimate Authority

4. Reasonable chance of success

5. Proportionality- more good than evil

∙ 2 principles of Jus in Bello (Justice in War).  

1. Discrimination- who are legit targets

2. Proportionality- how much force is morally appropriate “Fit the crime” **For each principle, understand what it means and how it would be applied  to warfare.

What does preventive war mean?

∙ Differences between preemption: Threat must be imminent, indication of war  happening and preventive war: Deals with future threats, long term threats ,  and how Just War theorists would view each of these actions. Would support  preemptive war because a war must have all five principles of jus ad bellum.  

∙ The security dilemma: what is it: Steps that countries take to try to make  themselves more secure, actually makes them less secure

 and why is it a result of anarchy? No world government that can protect one  actor from another or enforce laws. It is a self-help system.

∙ Similarities and differences between the strategies of deterrence: Using threats to prevent an actor from doing something “Don’t do X or else” and  compellence: Using threats to change an actor’s behavior “Do x or else”  Both: Require credible threat. Some are inherently incredible but ways to  change this are strategic self-imposed constraints (game of chicken) and  “rocking the boat”  

What causes the security dilemma?

If you want to learn more check out How can law enforcement build trust with the community?

∙ What is meant by first strike capability: the ability to destroy a country’s  retaliatory capacity in a first strike vs. second strike capability: the ability to  absorb a 1st strike and have enough nuclear weapons left over to inflict  unacceptable losses , and how both of these concepts relate to the deterrent  strategy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). Both must have second but  neither must have 1st. This is a crucial fact for deterrence.  

∙ Strengths and weaknesses of MAD vs. Flexible Response as nuclear  strategies. Don't forget about the age old question of Does facilitated diffusion occur against or with a concentration gradient?

MAD: Nuclear deterrence. Prevent nuclear war. Fails when states miscalculates  the power of the other state or overestimate their own power.

Flexible Response: Using lower levels of force. Major criticism is that it makes  nuclear war more likely to occur with escalation. Benefit: Give some way to  respond without using nuclear weapons.

∙ Ways to make an incredible threat credible.

Self imposed constraints: “game of chicken” JFK’s address saying that the US  would nuke the Soviet Union if Cuba launched any missiles.

“Rocking the boat”: Raising the stakes and doing things that could possibly get  out of control. Cuban blockade

∙ How collective security is supposed to work, and practical problems of  implementation.

An alliance in which if a country breaks the deal, all others come to the aid  against the aggressor. Problems: Not all countries have the same interests and  may not come to help if it is not threatening to them.  

∙ How balancing: Internal through domestic development and external through  building of alliances and bandwagoning: Joining the rising power for protection differ as methods of dealing with rising powers.  

∙ Different reasons why a country would engage in bandwagoning. For security and profit  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous transitions?

∙ Types of balancing (internal vs. external) and problems with external  balancing.

Problems are getting involved with other’s problems or resulting in a position  where no one takes responsibility.  

∙ The strategy of “massive retaliation” and why it was used by the U.S. Disproportionate retaliation  

1950s under Eisenhower respond to Soviet invasion of Western Europe with  nuclear weapons  

∙ Which countries are members of the “nuclear club” and how their numbers of  nuclear weapons generally compare (not exact numbers, but which countries  have the most vs. the fewest)

Most- Fewest:

United States, Russia, France, China, Britain, Pakistan, Israel, India, North Korea ∙ Main provisions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968 Enforced by the IAEA  

Seeks to inhibit the spread of nuclear weapons in which nuclear weapon states  commit to pursue complete disarmament while the ones that do not possess  them already, pledge not to build them.  

∙ The definition of ethnic groups: large groups of people who share ancestral  similarities, language, culture, and religious beliefs with a common identity.  ∙ Differences between the Primordial and Instrumental views of ethnic conflict. ∙ Reinforcing vs. Cross-Cutting Cleavages and their implications for conflict  and cooperation. We also discuss several other topics like What are the main similarities and differences between classical and social liberalism?

Reinforcing: All members of a group are part of the same religion, language,  etc. Increases chance for conflict.  

Crosscutting: Ways in which groups have commonalities. There is division  within the group. Allows for solidarity between groups.

∙ Potential solutions to ethnic conflict advanced by

Realists Partition ideally resulting in balance of power. Enforced by an outside  actor

Idealists: Peacekeeping by IGOs  

 Constructivists: Reconstructing identities through nation-building

∙ How counterinsurgency (COIN) warfare differs from conventional warfare, and  the paradoxes of COIN operations  

“Win hearts and minds” Drive support away from insurgents to their government ∙ Major differences between mercantilism Goal is to maximize state wealth  which cannot be created only acquired and economic liberalism Focus on  absolute gains- how much you have now vs before

∙ Absolute advantage: Most efficiently and cheap producer vs. comparative  advantage: Countries compare their options to see what they produce best We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of gerrymandering?

∙ The three Bretton Woods institutions discussed in class, and their basic  purposes and mechanisms.

1. World Bank: Help developing countries  

2. IMF: rebuilding, economic development, integration of Russian/ E. Europe 3. GATT/ WTO: Give other countries the same trade deals  

∙ Globalization: its definition, causes, and consequences (for economics, politics,  and culture)

The world shrinking from a size medium to a size small.

Causes: advances in technology, info, media, communication, increased trade  and political integration

Consequences: Economic interdependence, environmental and labor concerns,  decline of the state, globalism vs tribalism.  


Chapter 4: 

∙ Types of War:  

∙ Hegemonic: War over control  

over the entire world order. Last  We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of session power?

was WWII

∙ Total: Warfare by one state  

waged to conquer and occupy  


∙ Limited: Military actions carried  out to gain some objective short of  the surrender and occupation of  

the enemy.  

∙ Civil: War between faction  

within a state trying to prevent, or  create, a new government. Among  the most brutal

∙ Guerrilla: Warfare without front  lines. Irregular forces operating in  the midst of civilian populations.

∙ Truth commissions: Commissions used to hear honest testimony and bring  

light about what happened during  wars.

Nationalism: Devotion to the interests  of one’s own state over the interests  of other states

∙ Ethnocentrism: Is the tendency to  see one’s own group in favorable  terms and an out-group in  

unfavorable terms.

∙ Genocide: Systematic  

extermination of ethnic or  

religious groups in whole or in  part to try to destroy  

scapegoated groups or political  rivals.  

∙ Ethnic cleansing:

∙ Islamist: Groups advocate  basing government and society  on Islamic Law.

∙ Irredentism: Goal of regaining  

territory lost to another state

∙ Territorial waters: UN  

Convention on the Law of the  


∙ Airspace: Airspace above  

a state is considered the  

territory of the state and must  

obtain permission to fly over.

∙ Weapons of mass destruction Nuclear,  quemical, and biological.  

∙ Land mines

∙ ICBMs intercontinental ballistic  Missiles are the longest range missiles ∙ Chemical Weapons Convention 1992  Bans the production and possession of chemical weapons signed by all the  great powers and nearly all states  except Egypt, Syria, and N. Korea.

∙ Biological Weapons Convention 1972  Bans the development, production,  and possessions of such weapons. ∙ Proliferation The spread of  

weapons of mass destruction

 ∙      Chapter 5 :  

∙ Autarky: Strategy to avoid  

becoming dependent on other  

states by not trading but instead  

try to produce everything it needs  by itself.

∙ Balance of trade: Is the value of a  state’s imports relative to its  


Exports> Imports = positive  

balance/trade surplus

∙ Exports< Imports = trade deficit ∙ Balance of payments:  

∙ protectionism vs. free trade

∙ Protectionism: Protection of  

domestic industries from  

international competition

∙ Free Trade:  

∙ dumping products in foreign  

markets at prices below the  

∙ Strategic Defense Initiative U.S  program to develop defenses  that could shoot down incoming ballistic missiles. “Star Wars”

∙ Civil-military relations The  interaction of civilian with  

military leaders which plays an  important role on how states  use force

∙ Fissionable material Elements  that can be split and the mass  lost is transformed into energy.  Include Uranium-235 and  


∙ Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  Aims to impede the  

development of new types of  nuclear weapons. However,  

treaty does not take effect until  it is signed by all 44 states  

believed to be able to produce  such weapons. Numerous  

setbacks have occurred for the  CTBT including N. Korea’s tests  in 2006 and 2009.

minimum necessary to make a  profit

∙ Tariffs: A tax imposed on certain types of imported goods as they  enter the country. Restrict imports  and provide revenue Nontariff  barriers: Quotas, Subsidies (tax  breaks, loans, high guaranteed  prices), and regulations (make it  hard to market and distribute  products)

∙ Generalized System of Preferences  Rich states give trade concession  to poor ones to help their economic development  

∙ Doha Round: Round of trade  negotiations in Doha, Qatar

∙ NAFTA Free trade agreement  between Canada, US, and Mexico  ∙ Cartel An association of producers  and consumers formed to

manipulate the price of a certain  product on the world market.  ∙ OPEC Organization of Petroleum  Exporting Countries who control $$ in oil exports annually.

∙ Intellectual property rights Are the  rights of creators of books, films,  computer software, and similar  products to receive royalties when  their products are sold.

∙ Transitional: Change from a  centrally planned economy, where  political authorities set prices and  decide on quotas for production  and consumption (standard in  Soviet Union/ China), to a market based economy.

∙ Mixed economies: Contain  both, some government control  and some private ownership  

(industrialized West)  

∙ Gold standard: Gold held by states  as a bank account denominated in  an international currency

∙ Hard currency: Money that can be  readily converted to leading world  currencies

∙ Reserves: (of hard currency)  equivalent of the stock piles of gold in the past.

∙ Fixed vs. Floating exchange rates  ∙ Fixed governments decide to  establish official rates of exchange  

for their currencies. In a Floating,  rates are determined by global  currency markets in which private  investors and govts buy and sell  currencies.

∙ Central bank: Federal Reserve:  body that limits the amount of  money printed and not allowing  high inflation

∙ Discount rate: The interest rate  that the government charges when loaning money to private banks.  This rate controls how fast money  goes into the economy

∙ Fiscal vs. monetary policy

∙ Government decisions about  spending and taxation vs decisions  about printing and circulating  money. Two main tools to manage  an economy!

∙ Keynesian economics:  

Governments sometimes spend  more on programs than they  

accrue in tax revenue- Deficit  Spending- to stimulate the  

economy. Strategy used in 2008  crisis by the US

∙ Special Drawing Right: Replaced  the gold standard. Is created in  limited amount by the IMF and is  held as hard-currency reserves by  states to buy other currencies.  Closest to a world currency!



∙ Why Ken Waltz believes that Iran should get a nuclear bomb

∙ Israel’s nuclear monopoly has contributed most to the current crisis.  The Middle East needs a balance of power. Israel and Iran would deter each  other  

∙ Why Scott Sagan believes that nuclear proliferation is dangerous ∙ How “emerging anarchy” produces ethnic conflict, according to Posen ∙ There is a lack of leadership as groups emerge also, vulnerability when  building up weapons makes for tensions between groups  

∙ Why drones work, according to Byman

∙ Drone attacks are an effective and legitimate element of U.S. military  policy. He says that by killing thousands of leaders and members of al-Qaeda  and other terrorist groups, the drone strikes ordered by U.S. Presidents  George W. Bush and Barack Obama have significantly weakened those  groups. They have done so at little financial cost, at no risk to U.S. forces, and with fewer civilian casualties than many alternative methods would have  caused.

∙ Why drones fail, according to Cronin

∙ Says killing the leaders of a terrorist organization, as drone strikes  have done in the case of the al-Qaeda terrorist group, does not necessarily  destroy the organization. She argues that such killings, as well as the  

collateral civilian deaths, enhance al-Qaeda's propaganda and recruitment.  She also says the use of drones has weakened strategic cooperation on  counterterrorism between the U.S. and the countries targeted by U.S. drone  strikes, particularly Pakistan and Yemen.


 ∙          The Fog of War  

(1) What ethical issues are raised by the firebombing of Japan?

∙ When is war moral and justified  

∙ Looks at the individual and how their decisions impact foreign  


(2) What are McNamara’s Lessons #5 & #9?

∙ #5 Proportionality should be a guideline in War

∙ Mcnamara poses the question of whether or not it was  

necessary to drop two atomic bombs on Japan when so much of their  

major cities were already destroyed with firebombing alone. Ex: Tokyo,  size of New York, 51% destroyed; Toyama, size of Chatanooga, 99%  


∙ #9 In order to do good, you may have to engage in evil

∙ To save the country they had to kill but we must do our best to  

minimize it

(3) How did General Curtis LeMay justify the firebombing?

∙ All war is immoral and if they had lost then they would have  

been prosecuted as war criminals.  

 ∙          Dr. Strangelove  

(1) How does deterrence fail, and what are the implications for the doctrine of MAD? ∙ Deterrence fails when the threat is incredible. They were not  

aware of each other’s weapons.  

(2) What safeguard does the bomber crew enact to prevent a fake message from the  enemy?

∙ Established a safeguard that is a three digit code but it is hard to decode and  would take longer to figure out before the strikes.

(3) What is Plan R and what was it designed for?

∙ Plan R is an emergency plan in which a lower chain of command  can order the use of nuclear weapons in case the top chain, or  

president, is gone. Design for deterrence

(4) What is General Turgidson’s idea of acceptable losses?  

∙ Anyone else who does not belong.  

(5) What is the doomsday machine and why was it built?

The Doomsday machine is a nuclear weapon that will automatically go off if there is  any attack on the Soviets. It was built to make the threat of MAD credible.  ∙

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