REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM #2
POSC 230, FALL 2015
UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL FROM LECTURE:
∙ The 5 principles of Jus Ad Bellum (Justice Of War)
1. Just Cause- prevent genocide, self-defense
2. Right Intention
3. Legitimate Authority
4. Reasonable chance of success
5. Proportionality- more good than evil
∙ 2 principles of Jus in Bello (Justice in War).
1. Discrimination- who are legit targets
2. Proportionality- how much force is morally appropriate “Fit the crime” **For each principle, understand what it means and how it would be applied to warfare.
∙ Differences between preemption: Threat must be imminent, indication of war happening and preventive war: Deals with future threats, long term threats , and how Just War theorists would view each of these actions. Would support preemptive war because a war must have all five principles of jus ad bellum.
∙ The security dilemma: what is it: Steps that countries take to try to make themselves more secure, actually makes them less secure
and why is it a result of anarchy? No world government that can protect one actor from another or enforce laws. It is a self-help system.
∙ Similarities and differences between the strategies of deterrence: Using threats to prevent an actor from doing something “Don’t do X or else” and compellence: Using threats to change an actor’s behavior “Do x or else” Both: Require credible threat. Some are inherently incredible but ways to change this are strategic self-imposed constraints (game of chicken) and “rocking the boat”
Don't forget about the age old question of How can law enforcement build trust with the community?
∙ What is meant by first strike capability: the ability to destroy a country’s retaliatory capacity in a first strike vs. second strike capability: the ability to absorb a 1st strike and have enough nuclear weapons left over to inflict unacceptable losses , and how both of these concepts relate to the deterrent strategy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). Both must have second but neither must have 1st. This is a crucial fact for deterrence. If you want to learn more check out Why is active transport required to move a molecule against the concentration gradient?
∙ Strengths and weaknesses of MAD vs. Flexible Response as nuclear strategies.
MAD: Nuclear deterrence. Prevent nuclear war. Fails when states miscalculates the power of the other state or overestimate their own power.
Flexible Response: Using lower levels of force. Major criticism is that it makes nuclear war more likely to occur with escalation. Benefit: Give some way to respond without using nuclear weapons.
∙ Ways to make an incredible threat credible.
Self imposed constraints: “game of chicken” JFK’s address saying that the US would nuke the Soviet Union if Cuba launched any missiles. We also discuss several other topics like Who is ruth benedict?
If you want to learn more check out How might we justify conservatism to conservatives and to nonconservatives?
“Rocking the boat”: Raising the stakes and doing things that could possibly get out of control. Cuban blockade
∙ How collective security is supposed to work, and practical problems of implementation.
An alliance in which if a country breaks the deal, all others come to the aid against the aggressor. Problems: Not all countries have the same interests and may not come to help if it is not threatening to them.
∙ How balancing: Internal through domestic development and external through building of alliances and bandwagoning: Joining the rising power for protection differ as methods of dealing with rising powers.
∙ Different reasons why a country would engage in bandwagoning. For security and profit
∙ Types of balancing (internal vs. external) and problems with external balancing.
Problems are getting involved with other’s problems or resulting in a position where no one takes responsibility. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of bicameral legislature?
∙ The strategy of “massive retaliation” and why it was used by the U.S. Disproportionate retaliation
1950s under Eisenhower respond to Soviet invasion of Western Europe with nuclear weapons
∙ Which countries are members of the “nuclear club” and how their numbers of nuclear weapons generally compare (not exact numbers, but which countries have the most vs. the fewest)
Most- Fewest: We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of session power?
United States, Russia, France, China, Britain, Pakistan, Israel, India, North Korea ∙ Main provisions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968 Enforced by the IAEA
Seeks to inhibit the spread of nuclear weapons in which nuclear weapon states commit to pursue complete disarmament while the ones that do not possess them already, pledge not to build them.
∙ The definition of ethnic groups: large groups of people who share ancestral similarities, language, culture, and religious beliefs with a common identity. ∙ Differences between the Primordial and Instrumental views of ethnic conflict. ∙ Reinforcing vs. Cross-Cutting Cleavages and their implications for conflict and cooperation.
Reinforcing: All members of a group are part of the same religion, language, etc. Increases chance for conflict.
Crosscutting: Ways in which groups have commonalities. There is division within the group. Allows for solidarity between groups.
∙ Potential solutions to ethnic conflict advanced by
Realists Partition ideally resulting in balance of power. Enforced by an outside actor
Idealists: Peacekeeping by IGOs
Constructivists: Reconstructing identities through nation-building
∙ How counterinsurgency (COIN) warfare differs from conventional warfare, and the paradoxes of COIN operations
“Win hearts and minds” Drive support away from insurgents to their government ∙ Major differences between mercantilism Goal is to maximize state wealth which cannot be created only acquired and economic liberalism Focus on absolute gains- how much you have now vs before
∙ Absolute advantage: Most efficiently and cheap producer vs. comparative advantage: Countries compare their options to see what they produce best
∙ The three Bretton Woods institutions discussed in class, and their basic purposes and mechanisms.
1. World Bank: Help developing countries
2. IMF: rebuilding, economic development, integration of Russian/ E. Europe 3. GATT/ WTO: Give other countries the same trade deals
∙ Globalization: its definition, causes, and consequences (for economics, politics, and culture)
The world shrinking from a size medium to a size small.
Causes: advances in technology, info, media, communication, increased trade and political integration
Consequences: Economic interdependence, environmental and labor concerns, decline of the state, globalism vs tribalism.
UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL FROM THE GOLDSTEIN & PEVEHOUSE TEXTBOOK:
∙ Types of War:
∙ Hegemonic: War over control
over the entire world order. Last
∙ Total: Warfare by one state
waged to conquer and occupy
∙ Limited: Military actions carried out to gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of
∙ Civil: War between faction
within a state trying to prevent, or create, a new government. Among the most brutal
∙ Guerrilla: Warfare without front lines. Irregular forces operating in the midst of civilian populations.
∙ Truth commissions: Commissions used to hear honest testimony and bring
light about what happened during wars.
Nationalism: Devotion to the interests of one’s own state over the interests of other states
∙ Ethnocentrism: Is the tendency to see one’s own group in favorable terms and an out-group in
∙ Genocide: Systematic
extermination of ethnic or
religious groups in whole or in part to try to destroy
scapegoated groups or political rivals.
∙ Ethnic cleansing:
∙ Islamist: Groups advocate basing government and society on Islamic Law.
∙ Irredentism: Goal of regaining
territory lost to another state
∙ Territorial waters: UN
Convention on the Law of the
∙ Airspace: Airspace above
a state is considered the
territory of the state and must
obtain permission to fly over.
∙ Weapons of mass destruction Nuclear, quemical, and biological.
∙ Land mines
∙ ICBMs intercontinental ballistic Missiles are the longest range missiles ∙ Chemical Weapons Convention 1992 Bans the production and possession of chemical weapons signed by all the great powers and nearly all states except Egypt, Syria, and N. Korea.
∙ Biological Weapons Convention 1972 Bans the development, production, and possessions of such weapons. ∙ Proliferation The spread of
weapons of mass destruction
∙ Chapter 5 :
∙ Autarky: Strategy to avoid
becoming dependent on other
states by not trading but instead
try to produce everything it needs by itself.
∙ Balance of trade: Is the value of a state’s imports relative to its
Exports> Imports = positive
∙ Exports< Imports = trade deficit ∙ Balance of payments:
∙ protectionism vs. free trade
∙ Protectionism: Protection of
domestic industries from
∙ Free Trade:
∙ dumping products in foreign
markets at prices below the
∙ Strategic Defense Initiative U.S program to develop defenses that could shoot down incoming ballistic missiles. “Star Wars”
∙ Civil-military relations The interaction of civilian with
military leaders which plays an important role on how states use force
∙ Fissionable material Elements that can be split and the mass lost is transformed into energy. Include Uranium-235 and
∙ Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Aims to impede the
development of new types of nuclear weapons. However,
treaty does not take effect until it is signed by all 44 states
believed to be able to produce such weapons. Numerous
setbacks have occurred for the CTBT including N. Korea’s tests in 2006 and 2009.
minimum necessary to make a profit
∙ Tariffs: A tax imposed on certain types of imported goods as they enter the country. Restrict imports and provide revenue Nontariff barriers: Quotas, Subsidies (tax breaks, loans, high guaranteed prices), and regulations (make it hard to market and distribute products)
∙ Generalized System of Preferences Rich states give trade concession to poor ones to help their economic development
∙ Doha Round: Round of trade negotiations in Doha, Qatar
∙ NAFTA Free trade agreement between Canada, US, and Mexico ∙ Cartel An association of producers and consumers formed to
manipulate the price of a certain product on the world market. ∙ OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries who control $$ in oil exports annually.
∙ Intellectual property rights Are the rights of creators of books, films, computer software, and similar products to receive royalties when their products are sold.
∙ Transitional: Change from a centrally planned economy, where political authorities set prices and decide on quotas for production and consumption (standard in Soviet Union/ China), to a market based economy.
∙ Mixed economies: Contain both, some government control and some private ownership
∙ Gold standard: Gold held by states as a bank account denominated in an international currency
∙ Hard currency: Money that can be readily converted to leading world currencies
∙ Reserves: (of hard currency) equivalent of the stock piles of gold in the past.
∙ Fixed vs. Floating exchange rates ∙ Fixed governments decide to establish official rates of exchange
for their currencies. In a Floating, rates are determined by global currency markets in which private investors and govts buy and sell currencies.
∙ Central bank: Federal Reserve: body that limits the amount of money printed and not allowing high inflation
∙ Discount rate: The interest rate that the government charges when loaning money to private banks. This rate controls how fast money goes into the economy
∙ Fiscal vs. monetary policy
∙ Government decisions about spending and taxation vs decisions about printing and circulating money. Two main tools to manage an economy!
∙ Keynesian economics:
Governments sometimes spend more on programs than they
accrue in tax revenue- Deficit Spending- to stimulate the
economy. Strategy used in 2008 crisis by the US
∙ Special Drawing Right: Replaced the gold standard. Is created in limited amount by the IMF and is held as hard-currency reserves by states to buy other currencies. Closest to a world currency!
∙ UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING GENERAL ARGUMENTS FROM THE READINGS ON CANVAS:
∙ Why Ken Waltz believes that Iran should get a nuclear bomb
∙ Israel’s nuclear monopoly has contributed most to the current crisis. The Middle East needs a balance of power. Israel and Iran would deter each other
∙ Why Scott Sagan believes that nuclear proliferation is dangerous ∙ How “emerging anarchy” produces ethnic conflict, according to Posen ∙ There is a lack of leadership as groups emerge also, vulnerability when building up weapons makes for tensions between groups
∙ Why drones work, according to Byman
∙ Drone attacks are an effective and legitimate element of U.S. military policy. He says that by killing thousands of leaders and members of al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups, the drone strikes ordered by U.S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama have significantly weakened those groups. They have done so at little financial cost, at no risk to U.S. forces, and with fewer civilian casualties than many alternative methods would have caused.
∙ Why drones fail, according to Cronin
∙ Says killing the leaders of a terrorist organization, as drone strikes have done in the case of the al-Qaeda terrorist group, does not necessarily destroy the organization. She argues that such killings, as well as the
collateral civilian deaths, enhance al-Qaeda's propaganda and recruitment. She also says the use of drones has weakened strategic cooperation on counterterrorism between the U.S. and the countries targeted by U.S. drone strikes, particularly Pakistan and Yemen.
∙ KNOW THE ANSWERS TO THESE FILM QUESTIONS:
∙ The Fog of War
(1) What ethical issues are raised by the firebombing of Japan?
∙ When is war moral and justified
∙ Looks at the individual and how their decisions impact foreign
(2) What are McNamara’s Lessons #5 & #9?
∙ #5 Proportionality should be a guideline in War
∙ Mcnamara poses the question of whether or not it was
necessary to drop two atomic bombs on Japan when so much of their
major cities were already destroyed with firebombing alone. Ex: Tokyo, size of New York, 51% destroyed; Toyama, size of Chatanooga, 99%
∙ #9 In order to do good, you may have to engage in evil
∙ To save the country they had to kill but we must do our best to
(3) How did General Curtis LeMay justify the firebombing?
∙ All war is immoral and if they had lost then they would have
been prosecuted as war criminals.
∙ Dr. Strangelove
(1) How does deterrence fail, and what are the implications for the doctrine of MAD? ∙ Deterrence fails when the threat is incredible. They were not
aware of each other’s weapons.
(2) What safeguard does the bomber crew enact to prevent a fake message from the enemy?
∙ Established a safeguard that is a three digit code but it is hard to decode and would take longer to figure out before the strikes.
(3) What is Plan R and what was it designed for?
∙ Plan R is an emergency plan in which a lower chain of command can order the use of nuclear weapons in case the top chain, or
president, is gone. Design for deterrence
(4) What is General Turgidson’s idea of acceptable losses?
∙ Anyone else who does not belong.
(5) What is the doomsday machine and why was it built?
The Doomsday machine is a nuclear weapon that will automatically go off if there is any attack on the Soviets. It was built to make the threat of MAD credible. ∙