Psych 330 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Psych 330 Midterm 2 Study Guide PSY 330
Popular in Psy 330 thinking
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 330 at University of Oregon taught by Ted Bell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Psy 330 thinking in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
Reviews for Psych 330 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/29/16
Psych 330 Midterm 2 Study Guide What are the goals of scientific research (hint: E, P, C)? ● Explanation, Prediction, Control ○ Observe sequences of events with the goal of determining predictive relationships ■ reduces uncertainty in our environment and allows us to exercise control over our lives What is an operational definition, or operationalization? ● Stating what you are going to measure and how What is a hypothesis (in the scientific sense) ● Set of beliefs about the nature of the world ● Hypothesis testing includes putting your beliefs to the test using evidence ● For hypothesis testing, you want to know which level of the independent variable will have a beneficial effect on the dependent variable What is the difference between independent variables and dependent variables? ● Independent: under your control or the type of treatment you want to test ● Dependent: the variable that is believed to change as a result of the different treatments How can samples be biased? How can this affect the interpretation of research? ● When it is not representative of the population and thus cannot be used to draw conclusions ● Also occurs in convenience samples where the researchers only use a group of people are readily available rather than examining the whole population What are the two main kinds of error (type 1 and type 2)? in research? ● Type 1: false positives ● Type 2: False negatives What is the purpose of a control group or control variable? ● Allows the researcher to determine if the dependent variable is actually changing in relation to the independent variable ● The control variable is not affected by the experiments; they do not receive the treatment What does the reductive approach entail? ● Attempting to understand a system by looking at its parts and their interactions What is meant by 'levels of analysis'? ● The scale or arena of analysis to explain something more complex. found in the reductive approach ● Ex. neurons→ neural systems→ behavior→ group interactions What is a confound? ● pitfall of sampling in which the interpretation of the results is confusing because the influence is not easily separated from the influence of the independent variable What is the difference between prospective and retrospective research? ● Prospective: uses understanding of a system to make future predictions ● Retrospective: Using understanding of a system to explain what has already happened What is 'expected value' ● the amount of money you would expect to win on a bet if you continued playing over and over ○ depends on what happens in the long run ● EV= probability of a win x the value of a win + probability of a loss x value of a lo s What is meant by 'baserate neglect'? ● ignoring important information about the prevalence of a phenomenon ● Ignoring how common or rare something is when making judgements What is the gambler's fallacy? ● The belief that because something has not happened in awhile, that your chances of winning are more likely ● False expectation that a lucky streak will continue What biases can affect our judgment of likelihood and probability? ● When we base our biases on judgements made in the short run rather than the long run ● Where we search for meaning ● Overconfidence How does overconfidence affect decision making? ● people tend to believe that their ideas are right even when given data that states otherwise How does confirmation bias affect decision making? ● People tend to make decisions that will confirm what their beliefs have stated ● In using confirmation bias, we do not seek out disconfirming evidence ● Pitfall in decision making What is the pollyanna principle? ● Wishful thinking ● tendency to believe that pleasant events are more likely than unpleasant ones; if we want something to happen it will What is 'psychological reactance'? ● Some people have the tendency to change their mind about a decision if it means that making that original decision will cause a problem ● The resistance arising from restriction of freedom What are the stages of problem solving? ● Realization that a decision must be made ● Generation of alternatives or the preparation stage ● Production ● Evaluation What is the difference between an illdefined problem and a welldefined one? ● Illdefinedmultiple possible answers for a problem ○ Poetry ○ To approach these kinds of problems, have an explicit goal in mind and set multiple goals in objective terms so that a variety of solution paths can be considered ● Welldefined: clear goals What is the anatomy of a problem? ● Initial state→ problem space→ goal state What is meant by problemspace? ● the limited or vast number of possible routes that take you from the initial state to the goal state What is meansends analysis? ● Break problems down into subgoals each of which brings you closer to the end goal ● forward looking strategy What is incubation? ● The place that our minds go to when we cannot solve the problem right away ● Insight: where you suddenly have a realization of finding a solution ○ The AHA moment ● Compared to selective forgetting ○ When we problem solve, we rely on a relatively small number of concepts held in a limited capacity shortterm or working memory ■ Memories in short term are quickly forgotten ***** QUIZLET ADDRESS: https://quizlet.com/_226ayc What are the steps in Halpern's framework for thinking ● Skill learning ● dispositional change kicking a habit ● train for transfer ● explicit metacognitive monitoring or being aware of one’s own thinking What is meant by falsification in the context of hypothesis testing? ● Rather than using confirmation bias, science uses falsification ● if it cannot be tested as false, then it cannot be valid evidence ○ need to be able to disprove the evidence What is the principle of parsimony or ockham's (occam's) razor? ● Where you prefer the simpler theory that gives an adequate account of data ● example of a heuristic; not a logical necessity What approaches help researchers deal with high levels of complexity? ● Experimental Design ○ isolation of factors of interest ○ Representative sampling ○ Comparison of treatment between the experimental and control groups ○ replication ● Reduction parts and interactions ● Factorial designs ● Description at multiple levels of analysisscale or arena of analysis ● Converging evidence ○ multiple sources of independent evidence that can come from different areas of analysis ● Explanation of the mechanism What are the advantages of using factorial designs instead of single factor experiments? ● allows you to look at the effects of two objects separately and/or together ○ allows for a more visible account of their interactions that are not just combined Why can we not conclude causation when we observe a correlation between two variables? ● There are multiple factors that need to be considered when determining what is the specific cause ● Correlation represents the relationship between the two objects while causation implies that one causes the other ● Just because there is a relationship between the two variables does not specify that one will cause the other as a resultaddendum science What are some means of doublechecking or evaluating the quality of research? ● Is it peer reviewed? ● Is it part of converging evidence? ● Is the source reputable? ● Has it been replicated? What is meant by mechanism? ● a system of interacting factors whose details are described well enough that predictions can be made from them ● Asking for the causal model What are the three rules of causation? ● Are the variables related? ● Temporal Precedence does one variable occur before the other ● Internal Validihave other variables been ruled out What are some problems in pseudoscience (bogus science)? ● not testable because it cannot be observed in principle or practice ● not replicable ● creates more problems than it solves ● need to watch out for buzzwords What do Kahneman and Tversky say about the subjective utility of gains versus losses? ● Subjective Utilit value of a particular choice or outcome to an individual or how much you are willing to pay or risk for a particular outcome ● Tversky and Kahneman claim that we feel losses more than we do gains and the value of a loss drops more quickly than a value of a gain What is the sunkcost fallacy? ● Where a person continues to spend resources after already having invested some that are now lost ● Entraps the people because they have invested so much time or money already How does framing a decision in terms of gains versus framing in terms of risks/losses affect decision making? ● When framing proves to be more beneficial in the context of reward than risk, we tend to follow the framed question. ● People will choose reward over risk ● When posed in such a way that claims that people will die, people will automatically choose the option that seems to be more lifesaving even if the outcomes are the same What does Ted mean by the 'backdrop of the possible'? ● We tend to notice what does happen, not what could have ● Unlikely events capture our attention but we don't consider that other unlikely events could also happen How do people's expectations of randomness (naive people) differ from what true randomness looks like? ● People tend to notice streaks or series of events and tend to make predictions that certain events will happen because they have not occurred in a while(gambler’s fallacy) ● Randomness just occurs but we tend to try and determine why the random event occurred and give it more importance than it should What is the conjunction error. ● Where we combine probabilities ○ The probability of two events occurring is always less than the probability of a single event occurring Why is it important to consider both central tendency as well as variability when thinking about scientific measurement or differences between groups? ● Central tendency measures the means, medians, and modes of the typical values of a distribution but we must remember that even if it appears as if someone is above average in one occurrence, over time they will fall back into the central tendency ● Variability deviations from central tendency What are the three main ways to 'get it wrong' according to Ted's outline? ● Attitudes ○ interested in getting it right or getting what we want ● Bad Data ○ Evidence gathering gone wrong in how we look for evidence ○ Faulty assumptions ○ Distorted representations and perceptions ● Bad habits and skills Belief bias ● Myside bias similar to confirmation bias where we seek out information that will only confirm our personal beliefs Shifting Goalposts ● a fallacy ● argument where you dismiss an argument for another in which more evidence is needed Appeal to consequences ● where you whether or not you agree with an belief based on whether or not the premises lead to good or bad consequences Fallacy fallacy ● mistake of believing that your opponent’s conclusion is incorrect because their argument contains a fallacy Just world hypothesis ● fallacy ● where people believe that if you are good, good things will come to you while those who are evil will get what they deserve Halo Effect ● Phenomenon of an overall impression influencing evaluations about specific features ○ attractive people perceived as smarter What's an expert? ● a person who has knowledge of an area that that person works in What do Ericcson and Ward have to say about becoming an expert? ● need to partake in deliberate practice ● Requires time and can change you both physically and mentally ● Can only be considered an expert through performance, not experience What is the role of deliberate practice? ● a true expert continuously practices what he knows What's the DunningKruger effect? ● Where people rate themselves higher in competence than they actually are ● Metacognitive ability correlates to skill ○ less competent you are, the less you rate your competence How is expert memory different from novice memory? How is it similar? ● Expert:an actual expert; better memory because they encode cues to certain topics; chuk more effectively ○ Tend to focus on important structural and relational features of problems more than novices What evidence is there that experience shapes the brain? ● Measured effects on London cab drivers ○ Those who were efficient had spent twice as much time practicing because of their experience Creativity: ● defined by two aspects( novelty and quality) rather than the process that led to the results what is meant by big C and little c creativity? ● Big C: using creativity in context of both novelty and quality ● Little C someone is creative when they have produced an outcome on a product that is unusual what is lateral thinking? ● way of thinking around a problem and amplifying the problem space ○ Lateral thinking generates the ideas while vertical thinking develops them ● Considered creative thinking What is incubation? ● Required time for insight to occur ● Allows for the spread of activation to occur Describe two strategies for creative thinking? ● Brainstorming because quantity breeds quality ● Creative ideas checklist ● Attribute listening: every characteristic or quality of the item or situation is listed and then examined for possible modification How might creativity relate to problem solving? ● We use our senses to problemfind ● Synergy is bringing together of seemingly disparate parts into a useful and functioning whole ○ connected to bisociative thinking or the idea that two previously connected frames of reference can be brought together ● Serendipity: unexpected discovery that is unplanned ● Plus, Minus, Interesting ○ Start with the givens and consider the positives and negatives of them and then determine what makes the category interesting ○ Allows for improving ideational fluency How have laboratory studies of creativity operationalized performance? ● Serendipity and finding miracle drugs
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'