Midterm #1 Study Guide Questions and Answers
Midterm #1 Study Guide Questions and Answers COMM 130
Long Beach State
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eunice kim on Monday February 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 130 at California State University Long Beach taught by Melanie Whitney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 222 views. For similar materials see Essentials of Public Speaking in Communication at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
COMM 130 – STUDY GUIDE MIDTERM (Ch. 12, 46, 11, 17) Chapter 1 • Why is communication considered a transaction? Communication is considered a transaction because most of our communication exchanges occur simultaneously, so we often act as sources and receivers at the same time. This transaction is encoding and decoding. • What are the elements of the communication model? Know each component by examples The elements of the communication model are: the source, the message, the channel, the receivers, feedback, context, and culture. 1. The source is easily recognizable; one standing in front of the group, encoding a preplanned message, transmitting it verbally/nonverbally to the audience, the person the message originates from, or even a receiver by picking up cues from the audience. 2. The message is what the source says to the audience and involves encoding which relies on verbal and nonverbal abilities to communicate meanings to others. 3. The channel is the way the message is transmitted through space and time (radio, TV) which also plays an important role in how the message is delivered and received. 4. The receivers are the people for whom the message is intended and are the listeners or audience members who receive and decode your messages. 5. The feedback is when the receiver returns a message to the source either verbally or nonverbally (smiling, clapping, rolling eyes, etc). 6. The context is the framing the entire communication process (time, occasion, place, etc) of where/when the message is given. 7. The culture/cultural backgrounds of the the speaker and audience members can affect how the speaker perceives the audience, encodes/transmits the message, and decodes feedback from audience members. The culture/cultural backgrounds of the the speaker and audience members can also affect how the audience members perceive the speaker, receive/decode the message, and provide feedback. • How is public speaking similar to and different from normal conversation? Similarities: organizing your thoughts, tailoring your message, and telling a story (for full effect) Differences: public speaking is more highly structured, formal language, different delivery (no room for ”likes” or “you know”) • How do the textbook authors define culture? The authors define culture as not a group of people, but rather as things we use, beliefs we share, and the norms or rules of behavior we follow • What are mainstream cultures and cocultures? Mainstream culture is a general culture which brings a certain uniformity to the ways of life of people living in a diverse society (ex: hospitals, language, school, etc) Coculture is the specialized or unique ways of life that characterize an enormous number of groups within our society that are distinguished by such factors as race or ethnicity, gender, age, and profession. (ex: racial groups, ethnic groups, religious organizations, social classes, etc) • What are ways in which people manage diversity? People manage diversity by identifying with a number of different cocultures. Melting pot policy schools were used to transform the children of immigrants from “foreigners” to “Americans” as soon as possible. Ethnocentrism having or based on the idea that your own group or culture is better or more important than others Cultural pluralism aims to tolerate and accept differences, maintain a strong sense of diversity, and, at the same time, keep a unified nation committed to similar democratic ideals • Culturally inclusive/exclusive Cultural exclusion is a bias toward standard American English (characterizing speech patterns that deviate from the norm as substandard) and traditional emphasis on using statistics and other hard evidence to support what the speaker has to say. Cultural inclusion is recognizing the diversity within your target audience, carefully choosing what to say and how to say it, and adapting your language to accommodate the labels others prefer to apply to themselves • What is critical thinking? Critical thinking is the careful, deliberate process people use to determine whether a particular conclusion or claim should be accepted or rejected. It is the ability to listen carefully, generate and evaluate arguments, look for errors in reasoning and logic, and to distinguish between fact and opinion. Chapter 2 • What are the four common goals of public speaking? The four common goals of public speaking are informing, persuading, entertaining, and specialized • What are the common modes of delivery and what are the pros/cons? The common modes of delivery are manuscript, memorized, impromptu, and extemporaneous. PROS CONS Manuscript 1. Have the whole speech in 1. Makes it look difficult to front of you stimulate a natural, normal conversation between speaker and audience 2. Makes it difficult to look at the audience 3. When clutching a manuscript, attempts to gesture or move away from the podium are awkward 4. Limits your ability to adapt to the audience even if feedback is abundant. Memorized 1. Know the speech 1. Hard to do well because 2. Allows you to use gestures, memory may fail you look at the audience, and 2. Can become rhythmic and move around monotonous 3. Does not allow the speaker to interpret or respond to audience feedback Impromptu 1. Informal 1. Very little or no preparation 2. May become inarticulate and self consciousness Extemporaneou 1. Wellorganized, well 1. Make it easier to make slips s rehearsed speech outline of the tongue, deviate from rather than a complete text proper grammar, and fumble 2. Less formal which allows on words or phrases frequent gestures and 2. No prepared text available to moving around the stage or the press so that “quotable audience quotes” may be overlooked 3. Conversational style of and information distorted speaking spontaneous, facetoface, oneonone 4. Easier to accommodate, adapt, and adjust to individual audience members as speech progresses • How should you prepare for speeches? Analyze your audience, select your topic, research your subject, organize and outline your presentation, and then rehearse your speech • What is the most important aspect of preparation to keep in mind when preparing and giving your speeches? The audience is the most important aspect of preparation • Know how to accomplish each step (e.g., how do you analyze your audience, what are the ways to research your topic, etc). Analyzing your audience: Who are you talking to? What interests do they have and where do they come from? What sex, race, age, class are they? Selecting Your Topic: Relate to the interests of your audience. Make sure you know something about the topic. Narrow the topic so that it can be covered in the allotted time. Research Your Subject: Use evidence to define, clarify, illustrate and support your position. Personal experience is an important source of evidence. Experts on the topic provide facts, statistics, testimonials, examples, and credible quotes. Organize and Outline Your Presentation: Intro tell them what you’re going to tell them (thesis and specific purpose) Body tell them with evidence Conclusion tell them what you just told them Rehearse Your Speech: Rehearse out loud and use the notes you use up there. First use outline, talk to a mirror, or blank wall. Then record yourself, make an outline on notecards. Later ask a friend or two to wit in your rehearsal and have them help you make adjustments. Practice more and then you’re ready for an audience. • What is the basic speech organization? The basic speech organization is the purpose statement, central thesis, introduction, body, conclusion, and then references. • What is a specific purpose? What is a thesis statement? The specific purpose helps you stay focused on your goal by precisely laying out what you want to accomplish with your speech what you want to accomplish with your speech what you want your audience to know, to believe, or to do after listening to your speech. The thesis statement is a concise one sentence summary of the core of your message or argument, the most essential points of your speech. • How and why should you rehearse your speech? Rehearse out loud and use the notes you use up there. First use outline, talk to a mirror, or blank wall. Then record yourself, make an outline on notecards. Later ask a friend or two to wit in your rehearsal and have them help you make adjustments. Practice more and then you’re ready for an audience. You should rehearse to make it seem more conversational and to feel less anxious. Chapter 4 • What is the specific definition of communication apprehension? Communication apprehension refers to fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication encounters. • How is traitlike communication apprehension different from situational apprehension? Traitlike communication apprehension is the fear of communication with almost everyone in any situation because it is a predictable pattern of behavior that becomes characteristic of an individual’s personality. It is different from situational apprehension because traitlike can be triggered by anyone or anything but situational is triggered by a specific situation like leaving a voicemail, having to do an interview, etc. • What are the common reasons or causes for communication apprehension? The common reasons and causes for communication apprehension are feeling conspicuous and inspected, facing an unfamiliar or dissimilar audience, confronting a novel or formal speaking situation, undergoing evaluation practice vs. critique, remembering (or imagining) repeated failures, relying on English as a 2nd language → How do you judge accents? • Know the methods for reducing communication apprehension. The methods for reducing communication apprehension are systematic desensitization (SD), cognitive restructuring (CR), and skills training (ST). • What is the emphasis for each method? What is the core message for each method? Systematic desensitization focuses on the physical responses to apprehension. It works on the principle that if an alternative response muscle relaxation can be substituted for tension and stress. (Relax) Cognitive restructuring focuses on the physiological effects of our apprehension, our thoughts. It fixes our thought process. The steps: 1) (Before the speech) Identify negative selfstatements 2) (During the speech) Analyze for errors in logic 3) (After Speech) Learn a new set of coping statements to communicate to themselves 4) (After Speech) Practice new coping statements (Think Positively) Skills Training assumes that people’s fears result from inadequate communication skills. Speaking skills can help reduce apprehension. • What are the specific strategies the textbook authors suggest for managing your stage fright? Specific strategies the textbook authors suggest for managing your stage fright are selecting a familiar topic, focusing on the audience, overpreparing, and visualizing a positive experience. Chapter 5 • How quickly do people form first impressions? It takes people 25 seconds to think of an impression and 30 seconds to solidify their thought. • How are perceptions different from selective perceptions? Know the definitions of each. Perception refers to the process of making sense of or attaching meaning to some aspect of reality that has been apprehended by the senses. Selective perceptions refers to how not all people perceive or make sense of reality the same way, instead they engage in some sort of choosing, selecting, and distorting all that they take in and assign meaning to. Salient characteristics (science of first impressions) are central traits that serve as a dominant attribute around which people construct a pattern of initial impressions. These form the basis of stereotypes we hold about others. • What kinds of messages are involved in the presentation of self (i.e., impression management)? Presentation of self involves encoding and sending verbal and nonverbal messages to others about what kind of person you are. We present information about ourselves through what we say, how we say it, how we dress, and etc. We can strategically influence the way others perceive us through strategic self presentation which is called impression management. Impression management is a critical skill on which personal, social, and professional success can depend. • What is the definition of credibility? What are the components of credibility? Credibility refers to the degree to which the audience feels that a speaker is believable and trustworthy and that his or her messages are truthful. The components of credibility are: competence, trustworthiness, composure, sociability, and extroversion. • What are the specific strategies should you use to build the specific components of credibility a. Be sure to study all the strategies to improve credibility. Competence: how much valid information the speaker is perceived to command about the issue under discussion, ability to do something well. Use technical jargon when appropriate, include oral footnotes, admit ignorance, look competent, and arrange a validating introduction Trustworthiness: speakers who come off as good, decent, honest people. Be open and sincere. Don’t be afraid to tell the truth. Be consistently honest and don’t fake it. If you must avoid an embarrassing question, tell them why Composure: appears calm and collected. Stays cool under stressful conditions, knows material and comes prepared. Practices looking relaxed and confident and avoids use of adapters: scratching head, twirling hair, etc Sociability: friendly, pleasant, relies on nonverbal immediacy behaviors such as walking around and smiling, learning and using audience member’s names, acting interested in them and saying something nice about them Extroversion: show enthusiasm, expand gestures, reveal a great deal about yourself, smile, make eye contact, and keep talking Chapter 6 • What is the difference between a contiguous audience and a media audience? What are the pros and cons of those two types of audiences? Contiguous audience are those people who are standing/sitting immediately in front of the speaker and are giving immediate feedback. It is much easier to speak in front of a contiguous audience and you can immediately fix your speech in the process. Media audience is a larger audience that can consist of a closedcircuit cable, live TV, radio broadcasts, digital media, newspapers and magazines which allow speakers to communicate their messages far beyond the confines of a single room or auditorium. However, it is impossible to predict the reactions of every receiver, hard to analyze them, and have to wait for feedback because you don’t know them • What is audience analysis? Audience analysis is the systematic gathering of information about an audience in an effort to learn everything possible. • What are audience demographics? Audience demographics are: gender, age, income level, ethnic/cultural background, regional affiliation, group membership, religious affiliation, marital status, educational background, number of children, occupation, political affiliation, and place and type of residence • What are audience psychographics? Audience psychographics are: beliefs, values, attitudes, and opinions • What are the two types of formal audience analysis/informal analysis? Two types of formal audience analysis are focus group interviews which often respond to questions that assess their attitudes, beliefs, and opinions about relevant issues and questionnaires which are usually clear, specific, objective, and straightforward. A type of informal analysis technique is by observation. • What is the difference between open and closed questions? Open questions are broad and allow respondents a great deal of leeway in their answers while closed questions are narrow respondents’ answers by forcing them to choose among two or more possible responses. So open questions tend to generate indepth answers and provide additional, interesting, essential information while close questions reveal why respondents feel the way they do and are very easy to analyze. • What is a leading question? What is wrong with them? Leading questions sabotage the results of focus group interviews and questionnaires. Leading questions are likely to tell the interviewer what he or she wants to hear regardless of their personal opinion which makes them wrong. • What is an audience profile? An audience profile is an audience analysis that reveals demographic and psychographic information. • Audience Adaptation Audience adaptation is the process of adjusting one’s topic, purpose, language, and communication to avoid offending or alienating members of the audience and to increase the likelihood of achieving speech goals. • What suggestions do the authors of your text give you for dealing with coculturally dissimilar audience? To adapt to coculturally dissimilar audiences, you must learn about their different cocultures, select a topic that will be interesting to them, and be sensitive to your language and style • How to dealing hostile audiences, hecklers, questioners, and interjectors. Hostile audiences: find out why audience is hostile, remain friendly and even tempered, avoid defensive behavior, and show them respect Hecklers: IGNORE them. If that’s not possible, address their concerns briefly then continue on. Questioners: Briefly and respectfully respond before moving on Interjectors → “inject” positive comments into the presentation, employ cueorcallresponse patterns as affirmations: Enjoy them or redirect them! Chapter 11 • What are the three goals of informative speeches? 1. Communicate new and unfamiliar information to an uninformed audience 2. To extend what the audience already knows 3. Update old information about a topic or issue • Know and be able to identify the types of informative speeches. Briefing or report: informative speech designed to provide recently available information to an audience with a general understanding of the topic. They are typically short. Lecture: an instructional presentation that typically provides new or additional information about a subject. They can be straightforward but also entertain. Demonstration: A howto speech that provides information about doing a particular activity or using a specific object. They typically last a few minutes. Training presentations: teaches a concept or instructs listeners how to complete a task with an acceptable degree of accuracy. They are similar to lectures but differ because they almost always involve adult learners in industrial or organizational environments. • What is the best way to organize your speech? Know the basic format. Intro: maybe with a personal story, motivating strategy, grab audience’s attention, then give preview Body: state main points, and use facts, explanations, examples, and personal experiences Conclusion: Review main points, brief remarks, be dramatic in conclusion • What are the six ways you can inform your audiences efficiently and successfully? Know each strategy and be able to identify them from examples. Keep it simple: few points, brief and easy to understand Keep it concrete: avoid abstract explanations Be repetitive and redundant: refer to something the same way over and over; explains something more than once but in a slightly different way each time; provide additional examples to support or explain topic, repeat key definitions and main points Elicit Active Responses: asking rhetorical questions, encouraging audience to respond in unison, nonverbal gestures such as when asking a show of hands, lifting your own high Use familiar and relevant examples: examples that will enhance your audience’s ability to store and recall new ideas and meaningful to audience Use transitions and signposts: transitions such as “first, second, third” and counting off numbers verbally and nonverbally Chapter 17 Know the types of ceremonial speeches and their individual components/rules Introductions: give the audience sufficient reasons for actively listening to the speaker and topic; be brief Welcomes: provide a formal, public greeting to a visiting person or group, make them feel comfortable and appreciated in the new and unfamiliar environment, extend warm greetings and promote feelings of friendship, be brief Nominations: brief persuasive speech in which individual’s name is publicly forwarded into candidacy, describe the qualities required for all the recipients of the award, list qualities that make the candidate the most deserving for the award or honor, repeat the person’s name throughout Presenting an Award: recognize the no table accomplishments of the individual (or group), focus on both organization giving the award and the award itself, mention the qualifications of the recipient and similarities with other honorees, be brief Accepting an award: graciously acknowledge the award and communicate appreciation, be sincerely appreciative of the award, thank those who made the accomplishment possible, never draw attention to some other social or political cause, be brief Tribute speeches: Main purpose pay tribute to a person, group, institution, or idea...EX: eulogies, toasts, 4th of July. Tell us why your subject is praiseworthy, be inspiring, express feelings to stir sentiments Commencement Speeches: describe, recognize, and celebrate the significance of the occasion, praise and congratulate the individual, acknowledge those in the audience for their support, challenge those who are graduating to look ahead and consider their future roles in society Dedication Speeches: bestow or commit some new commodity to an ideal or value, like improved community relations, good service, or community development, celebrate the beginning of something new, be brief, acknowledge the contributions of all involved, and describe the value represented in the dedication Farewell Speeches: Given by person departing express sentiments of pleasure, gratitude, and fondness for the longterm association…thank those celebrating the departure Given for someone who is departing acknowledge contributions by giving a sincere and enthusiastic thank you, praise specific achievements and accomplishments, conclude on a positive note Know other types of specialized public presentations (i.e. Oral Performances of Literature) Oral Performances of Literature: presentation of some type of literature through the medium of oral performance Entertaining speeches: attempt to get an audience to enjoy an interesting presentation in a relaxing, lighthearted, and enjoyable atmosphere often through the creative use of humor Questionandanswer sessions: format of public presentation that demands special consideration Small Group Discussion components Usually involve 38 people (or more) who engage in facetoface interaction around some common purpose or objective. They normally experience a sense of belonging, which alters in some fashion the way they communicate. It can also be effective for problemsolving situations and working in group can provide for a greater knowledge and information about a topic than one person working independently. However, one member may dominate the group interaction and other participants can rely too much on his/her attitudes and beliefs. And if that person lacks expertise, he/she can be an obstacle to reaching the most effective solution to a problem. The also take a lot more time than a single person to deal with certain topics or tasks Group Presentation Formats and their general guidelines Public Discussions: a public predesignated group of individuals interacting and exchanging ideas about a particular topic while seated in front of an audience; open Symposiums: a public presentation in which a series of short, preplanned and thoroughly practiced speeches about some topic are delivered to an audience; experts Forums: a public presentation in which audience members advance questions to the entire group; individual group members (often authorities on the topic) then provide answers; an exchange Panel Discussion: involves an organized and moderated group presentation to an audience; audience and moderator
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