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OLEMISS / Biology / BIOL 102 / Does facilitated diffusion occur against or with a concentration gradi

Does facilitated diffusion occur against or with a concentration gradi

Does facilitated diffusion occur against or with a concentration gradi

Description

School: University of Mississippi
Department: Biology
Course: Inquiry Into Life Human Biology
Professor: Carr
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Bio 102, Human Biology, exam, and midterm
Cost: 50
Name: Bio 102 - Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Study guide answers in detail for Exam 2
Uploaded: 03/01/2016
11 Pages 45 Views 3 Unlocks
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EXAM 2 REVIEW  


Does facilitated diffusion occur against or with a concentration gradient?



Chapter 4: Transportation of substances in cells

Simple Diffusion: a substance passes through a membrane along a concentration  gradient, without the help of transport proteins.

Facilitated Diffusion: a membrane protein admits a substance along a concentration  gradient without the use of ATP.

Active Transport: requires ATP to move a molecule against the concentration  gradient. Also requires the use of a membrane protein. (Example: sodium-potassium pump)

Osmosis: the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane. Hypertonic: the cell shrinks; there is more water on the inside of the cell than the  outside, so the water rushes out of the cell.


Why is active transport required to move a molecule against the concentration gradient?



Hypotonic: the cell swells; there is more water on the outside than the inside of the  cell, so the water rushes into the cell. May cause the cell to burst. Isotonic: the cell remains normal; there is an equal amount of water on the inside  and outside.

Endocytosis: a type of active transport (vesicle) where a cell engulfs a larger  substance molecule.

Exocytosis: a type of active transport (vesicle) where a cell pushes out a larger  substance/waste molecule.

Chapter 23: Tissues and Organ Systems

Tissues: specialized cells that function together to reach a common goal. Organs: specialized tissues that function together to reach a common goal.


What happens to water in a cell when the osmotic pressure is greater on the inside of the cell than the outside of the cell?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous transitions?

Organ systems: specialized organs that work together to complete a process in the  body.

Cells-> tissues-> organs-> organ systems

Organ systems that…

∙ Coordinate communication: nervous and endocrine Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main similarities and differences between classical and social liberalism?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of bicameral legislature?

Nervous: coordinates other systems quickly through impulses

Endocrine: coordinates other systems slowly through hormones ∙ Support and move the body: skeletal and muscular

Skeletal: provides protection and support

Muscular: provides movement and body heat

∙ Acquire energy: digestive circulatory, and respiratory

Digestive: provides nutrition

Circulatory: delivers nutrients throughout the body

Respiratory: eliminates CO2 and provides O2 If you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of veto and line-item veto?

∙ Protect the body: urinary, integumentary, immune, and lymphatic Urinary: removes waste from blood and reabsorbs useful substances Integumentary: provides a barrier from outer surroundings

Immune: provides a barrier from disease and infection

Lymphatic: connects the circulatory and immune systems together through  

the lymph nodes

∙ Produces the next generation: reproductive

Reproductive: Allows the creation of a new generation

Homeostasis: the maintenance of a stable environment for the body, internally. The  most common way in which homeostasis is achieved is through negative feedback.  Negative Feedback: when a change is detected in the body, a response is activated  to counter that change. For example: the regulation of body temperature

Positive Feedback: when a change is reinforced to return the body back to a  balanced state. For example: child birth labor and blood clotting. Chapter 28: The Digestive and Urinary Systems Don't forget about the age old question of What were the four types of medieval cities?

Heterotroph: animals that cannot produce their own food; they rely on the energy of others by eating the bodies of autotrophs, other heterotrophs, or both. Factors that determine the need for food/energy:

∙ Body temperature

∙ Body size

∙ Physiological state (well-being)

Micronutrients: Nutrients needed in small amounts (vitamins, minerals) Macronutrients: Nutrients needed in large amounts (water, carbs, proteins, fats) Water soluble vitamins: B and C

Lipid (fat) soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K

BMI: Body Mass Index; used to calculate the ratio of fat in the body. Not necessarily  the best way to determine a deeper understanding of a person’s overall health.  Starvation: taking in too few calories, on average. Underweight Obesity: taking in too many calories, on average. Overweight Don't forget about the age old question of Muted group theory refers to what?

Anorexia: An eating disorder which causes starvation; when a person refuses to eat  due to the belief that they are overweight

Bulimia: An eating disorder which causes starvation; when a person binges and  purges food to the point where they starve and cause major damage to their  esophagus from the constant strain of throwing up (stomach acid eats away at the  tissue).

The Digestive System 

Ingestion-> digestion-> absorption-> elimination

The Mouth begins the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. Starch is first  digested here by the enzyme amylase.

Food is then pushed back by the tongue to the pharynx, which is a flap that opens  and allows access to the esophagus, which leads food to the stomach, where food is grinded further and turned into chyme with the stomach acid.

Pepsin in the stomach begins protein digestion, while the hydrochloric acid further  denatures the protein for digestion.

A person cannot talk and eat at the same time because of the epiglottis, which  closes off the airway when food is being swallowed. “Only one pipe is open at a  time” or it “goes down the wrong way”.

Heartburn/acid reflux: a condition in which acidic gastric fluid is regurgitated into  the esophagus

Gastric ulcers: a hole in the lining of the stomach corroded by the acidic digestive  juices which are secreted by the stomach cells; usually caused by a lack of mucus to line the stomach interior

Small Intestine: contains villi (small “hairs”) that absorb nutrients from digestion  (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and water); microvilli provide a greater surface area in the small intestine for further absorption.

Large Intestine: Absorbs any remaining useful nutrients such as water, minerals,  and salt, leaving behind feces, which are passed through the rectum and anus.  The Bacteria of the large intestine play a vital role in digesting any remaining  nutrients, providing vitamins, and providing healthy cultures for immunity reasons. Appendix: provides ‘good’ bacterial cultures for the gut

Accessory organs include the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver.

Pancreas: supplies enzymes for further digestion such as amylase, trypsin,  chymotrypsin, lipases, and nucleases

Liver: produces bile, which emulsifies fat (breaks down for digestion) Gallbladder: stores bile and releases it to the small intestine

The Urinary System 

---The transportation of metabolic wastes, water, and salts from the bloodstream Body fluid regulation is required for survival because it excretes nitrogenous wastes  and regulates water and electrolyte levels in the body.

Nitrogenous waste: results from the breakdown of proteins, which creates urea (the  main waste byproduct of the breakdown of proteins)

Osmoregulation: the regulation of the balance between salt and water in the body Major Organs: Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, Urethra 

The kidneys filter blood through a filter and winding tubule. The functional unit of  the kidney is the nephron, which receives blood to filter from capillaries from the  renal artery. The renal vein carries the clean blood away. The resulting urine,  composed of wastes and extra fluid, flows from the kidneys to the bladder through  two tubes called ureters, one on each side of the bladder. The bladder stores urine.  When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the  urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder.

The three processes of the urinary formation: 

Filtration: water and dissolved substances are filtered out of the blood Reabsorption: useful materials (salts, water, glucose, amino acids) are returned to  the bloodstream

Secretion: wastes are removed from the blood to the filtrate in each nephron, and  are released as urine

ADH/Antidiuretic Hormone: secreted by the posterior pituitary, causes the  reabsorption of water by the kidney; causes the body to conserve more water by  making the urine more concentrated (darker).

Chapter 27: The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Blood contains water, proteins, cells, cell fragments, and other dissolved substances Main Components of Blood: 

Red Blood Cells: 95% (red is the most numerous)

White Blood Cells: 0.1%

Plasma: 4.8% (Highest volume; made up of water, antibodies, and other dissolved  materials: salts, wastes, nutrients, hormones, dissolved gasses) Circulatory Systems: 

Pulmonary: Delivers blood to the lungs and back to the heart

Systemic: Delivers blood to the rest of the body and back to the heart Arteries: (carries blood away from the heart) oxygen deficient (lacks) Veins: (carries blood to the heart) oxygen abundant (rich)

The 3 cellular components are RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

RBCs and WBCs are produced in bone marrow

Blood type is determined by the antigens in blood cells (a, b, ab, o) The Heart 

The main parts of the heart are the left and right ventricles and atria; the heart also  consists of cardiac muscle and an endothelium (inner wall that lines the inside and  blood vessels)  

Path of Blood:

1.A blood cell without oxygen will travel through a vein until it meets up with the  superior vena cava, a large vein that takes blood from the head and arms to the  heart.  

2.The cell passes the right atrium, where it meets with blood from the lower part of  the body from the inferior vena cava.  

3.Blood is then pumped into the right ventricle, which pumps blood through the  pulmonary valve (pulmonary flow).  

4.It then goes through the pulmonary artery and receives oxygen from a lung.  5. The cell will returns to the heart through the pulmonary vein and meets up with  other blood from the right lung in the left atrium of the heart.  

6.The blood then flows down into the left ventricle. This is the part of the heart that  pumps blood throughout the entire body (systemic flow).  

7.After a passing through the aortic valve, the blood follows through the ascending  aorta and out through the circulatory system to your toes.  

8.After the organs and muscle tissue use the oxygen, it’ll travel up the inferior vena  cava and back to the heart, starting the process all over again.

The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up  oxygen. (pulmonary)

The left side of the heart receives the oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps  it to the body. (systemic)

The opening and closing of the heart valves cause the ‘lub dub’ sound of a heart  beat

Heart Beat: The SA Node in the right atrium sends a signal to contract the atria,  which then allow the ventricles to fill; once they fill, the signal reaches the AV Node (located in the right atrium as well), which then causes the ventricles to contract  and force the blood out of the heart.

Exercise affects the heart by… 

Increasing red blood cell count

Increasing stroke volume

Building new blood vessels (less risk of heart attack)

Lowering blood pressure and cholesterol

Increasing oxygen intake

Blood Vessels 

Arteries: (and arterioles) are vessels that carry blood away from the heart; contain  smooth muscle and are the strongest due to enormous pressure Capillaries: connect arteries and veins; do not have muscle; the location of  exchange (diffusion) with individual cells and are composed of a single thin layer of  endothelial cells.

Veins: (and venules) are vessels that carry blood to the heart. Contain valves that  prevent the backflow of blood.

Blood Pressure: the medulla of the brain regulates blood pressure and adjusts the  heart rate and the diameter of arterioles to maintain homeostasis through negative  feedback

Systolic Pressure: high point; contraction; top number

Diastolic Pressure: lowest point; relaxation; bottom number

Normal Pressure: (varies upon ages, sex, race, etc.) the average is 110/70 mmHg (millimeters of mercury)

Respiratory System: 

Nose: warms air and traps debris (upper)

Pharynx: air flows through to the larynx; Adam’s apple (upper)

Larynx: directs food to the esophagus and air to the trachea; contains vocal cords  (upper)

Trachea: tube that branches into two bronchi leading to the lungs; delivery of air  (lower)

Lungs: contains bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli, the main respiratory surface.  (lower)

Mouth/nose-> pharynx-> larynx-> trachea-> bronchi-> bronchioles-> alveoli Breathing 

Negative Pressure Breathing: when the diaphragm and chest muscles contract, the  chest cavity expands; this causes air to rush in. Once the chest relaxes, inner  pressure increases and forces the air out.

Gas exchange takes place in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli of the lungs.  CO2 and O2 are exchanged by diffusion across a concentration gradient. Oxygen is  delivered to the body cells by blood cells and used, and then returned to the blood  cells as carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide is either bound to blood cells by hemoglobin or is dissolved in the  plasma; too much can be poisonous. It is the main contender in the control of  respiration.

Carbon dioxide controls the pH of blood (as carbonic acid, which further dissociates  into hydrogen and bicarbonate ions), which can trigger the rate and depth of breath needed.

A smoker’s cough consists of chest pain, chronic coughing, and shortness of breath Causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD): high blood pressure and hypertension Outcomes of CVD: Heart attack and stroke. This is caused by the hardening of  arteries and vessels, and the blockage of the flow of blood, which causes a  starvation for oxygen in the afflicted area.

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