Vocabulary for Introduction to Sociology FINAL (Chapters 13, 14, 15)
Vocabulary for Introduction to Sociology FINAL (Chapters 13, 14, 15) SOC001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Neelam Aziz on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC001 at University of California Riverside taught by Matthew Grindal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 623 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Vocabulary for Introduction to Sociology FINAL (Chapters 13, 14, 15) Bilateral Kinship A kinship system where descent is traced through the father and mother Charisma A quality attributed to individuals believed by their followers to have special powers Churches A formal organization that sees itself and is seen by society as a primary and legitimate religious institution Collective Consciousness The body of beliefs that are common to a community or society and that give people a sense of belonging Cults Religious groups devoted to a specific cause or charismatic leader Extended Families The whole network of parents, children, and other relatives who form a family unit and often reside together Family A primary group of people usually related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption who form a cooperative economic unit to care for any offspring (and each other) and who are committed to maintaining the group over time Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Federal law requiring employers of a certain size to grant leave to employees for the purposes of family care Kinship System The pattern of relationships that drones people's family relationships to one another. Matrilineal Kinship kinship systems in which family linage (or ancestry) is traced through the mother Matrilocal a pattern of family residence in which married couples reside with the family of the wife Monogamy the marriage practice of a sexually exclusive marriage with one spouse at a time Monotheism the worship of a single God Nuclear Family family in which a married couple resides together with their children Patrilineal Kinship a kinship system that traces descent through the father Patrilocal a pattern of family residence in which married couples reside with the family of the husband Polygamy a marriage practice in which either men or women can have multiple marriage partners Polytheism the worship of more than one deity Profane that which is of the everyday, secular world and is specifically not religious Protestant Ethnic belief that hard work and selfdenial lead to salvation Religion an institutionalized system of symbols, beliefs, values, and practices by which a group of people interprets and responds to what they feel is sacred and that provides answers to questions of ultimate meaning Religiosity the intensity and consistency of practice of a person's (or group's) faith Rituals a symbolic activity that expresses a group's spiritual convictions Sacred that which is set apart from ordinary activity, seen as holy, and protected by special rites and rituals Sects group that has broken off from an established church Secular the ordinary beliefs of daily life that are specifically not religious Totem an object or living thing that a religious group regards with special awe and reverence Transnational Family families where one parent (or both) lives and works in one country while the children remain in their country or origin Achievement Test test indented to measure what is actually learned rather than potential Affordable Care Act the nation's health care reform law that has extended some health care insurance to larger segments of the U.S. population Brown v. Board of Education the 1954 Supreme Court decision that ruled separate but equal public facilities to be unconstitutional Cultural Capital (also known as social capital) cultural resources that are socially designated as being worthy (such as knowledge of elite culture) and that give advantages to groups possessing such capital Individualized Education Programs programs and services that provide options for students with learning disabilities and physical disabilities Medicaid a governmental assistance program that provides health care assistance for the poor, including the elderly Medicare a governmental assistance program established in the 1960s to provide health services for the older Americans Schooling socialization that involves formal and institutionalized aspects of education Self Fulfilling Prophecy the process by which merely applying a label changes behavior and thus tends to justify the label Stigma an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited Teacher Expectancy Effect the effect of a teacher's expectations on the student's actual performance, independent of the student's ability Tracking grouping, or stratifying, students in school in the basis of ability test scores Alienation the feeling of powerlessness and separation from one's group or society Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) law passed in 1990, stipulating that employers and other public entities must provide "reasonable accommodation" to people with disabilities when they are otherwise qualified for the job or activity Authorization State where power is concentrated in the hands of a very few individuals who rule through centralized power and control Authority power that is perceived by others as legitimate Automation the process by which human labor is replaced by machines Autonomous State Model a theoretical model of the state that interprets the state as developing interests of its own, independent of other interests Bureaucracy a type of formal organization characterized by an authority hierarchy, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality Capitalism an economic system based on the principles of market competition, private property, and the pursuit of profit Charismatic Authority authority derived from the personal appeal of a leader Communism an economic system where the state is the sole owner of the systems of production Contingent Worker a person who does not hold a regular job, but whose employment is dependent on demand Deindustrialization the transition from a predominantly goodsproducing economy to one based on the provision of services Democracy system of government based on the principle of representing all people through the right to vote Division of Labor the systematic interrelation of different tasks that develops in complex societies Dual Labor Market the division of the labor market into two segments the primary and the secondary labor markets Economic Restructuring contemporary transformation in the basic structure of work that are permanently altering the workplace, including demographic changes, deindustrialization, enhanced technology, and globalization Economy the system on which the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services are based Emotional Labor work that is explicitly intended to produce a desired state of mind in a client Glass Ceiling popular concept referring to the limits that women and minorities experience in job mobility Global Assembly Line an international division of labor where research and development is conducted in an industrial country, and the assembly of goods is done primarily in underdeveloped and poor nations, mostly by women and children Global Economy term used to refer to the fact that all dimensions of the economy now cross national borders Government those state institutions that represent the population and make rules that govern the society Interest Group a constituency in society organized to promote its own agenda Interlocking Directorate organizational linkages created when the same people sit on the boards of directors of a number of different corporations Multinational Corporations corporations that conduct business across national borders Nationalism the strong identity associated with an extreme sense of allegiance to one's culture of nation Occupational Segregation a pattern in which different groups of workers are separated into different occupations Outsourcing transferring a specialized task or job from one organization to another organization, usually in another country, as a costsaving device Pluralist Model a theoretical model of power in society as coming from the representation of diverse interests of different groups in society Political Action Committees (PAC) groups of people who organize to support candidates they feel will represent their views Postindustrial Society a society economically dependent upon the production and distribution of services, information, and knowledge Power Elite Model a theoretical model of power positing a strong link between government and business Propaganda information disseminated by a group or organization (such as the state) intended to justify its own power Rational Legal Authority authority stemming from rules and regulations, typically written down as laws, procedures, or codes of conduct Sexual Harassment unwanted physical or verbal sexual behavior that occurs in the context of relationship of unequal power and that is experienced as a threat to the victim's job or educational activities Socialism an economic institution characterized by state ownership and management of the basic industries State the organized system of power and authority in society Totalitarian an extreme form of authorizationism where the state has total control over all aspects of public and private life Traditional Authority authority stemming from longestablished patterns that give certain people groups legitimate power in society Underemployment the condition of being employed at a skill level below what would be expected given a person's training, experience, or education Unemployment Rate the percentage of those not working, but officially defined as looking for work Work productive human activity that produces something of value, either goods or services Xenophobia the fear or hatred of foreigners Power a person or group's ability to exercise influence and control others
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