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Criminal Justice Test 2 Study Guide

by: Courtney Small

Criminal Justice Test 2 Study Guide CJ 100

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Criminal Justice > CJ 100 > Criminal Justice Test 2 Study Guide
Courtney Small

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About this Document

Everything that was covered in class that will be on Test #2
Intro to Criminal Justice
Douglas Klutz
Study Guide
intro, public relations, test, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 213 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
Grand  Juries     •   Prosecutor  presents  evidence  against  subject     •   Advantages  for  prosecution  because:   1.   Proceedings  are  "secretive"  (only  prosecutor  and  jury  present"   2.   Exclusionary  rule  does  not  apply  to  grand  jury  proceedings     3.   Prosecutor  can  choose  which  evidence  presented  to  jury     5th  Amendment:  Grand  Jury  Indictments     •   Grand  jury  decides  whether  the  prosecution  has  enough  evidence  to  bring  a  defendant  to  trial.     •   Probable  cause=  indictment  (formal  changing)=  green  light  to  proceed   •   No  probable  cause  =  "no  bill"  =  subject  to  change     Miranda  Warnings     •   Miranda  v.  Arizona  (1966)-­‐  protects  Fifth  Amendment  rights  of  individuals  against  self-­‐incrimination     •   Rights  read  AFTER  a  person  has  officially  been  taken  into  custody,  but  before  any  interrogation  takes   place     Criminal  Court     •   Burden  of  Proof=  Beyond  a  reasonable  doubt     •   Does  not  mean  absolute  certanty     •   Quantify=  97%=99.9%   •   Reason  the  threshold  is  so  high     •   The  government  (state/federal)  brings  suit  against  (prosecutes)  a  person  who  they  believe  has  violated   the  law  (  the  defendant)   o   EX:  people  of  the  state  of  Cali     o   Prosecution-­‐  Plantiff  vs  OJ  simpson  (defendant)   Civil  Court     •   Burden  of  Proof=  Preponderance  of  Evidence     •   Tort=Civil  Wrong  (think  lawsuits)   •   Quantity=  51%  (50.1%)   •   Compensation  from  damages  or  injuries     •   *Amendment  7  has  to  do  with  civil  court*   •   One  party  (plantif)  who  feels  they  were  harmed  (tort)  brings  a  complaint  against  another  party  (the   defendant)   o   EX:  Liebeck  (plaintiff)  V.  McDonalds  Resturant  (Defendant)   Crime  Control  Model   •   "Assembly  line  justice"   •   Speed  and  efficiency  are  main  goals     •   Avoids  the  courtroom,  promotes  plea  bargaining   o   *Plea  guilty  with  reasonable  expectation  of  a  reduction  in  a  charge  (for  a  lighter  sentence)   •   Court  System  revolves  around  plea  bargaining   •   Makes  up  most  of  the  criminal  justice  system   Due  Process  Model     •   "Obstacle  Course  Justice"   •   Stresses  using  the  adversarial  (courtroom)  process     •   Strained  resources  make  this  model  problematic     •   All  fictional     What  percentage  of  criminal  convictions  come  from  negotiated  place  deals  (plea  bargaining)?   o   90-­‐95%;  only  5-­‐10%  make  their  way  to  the  trial  room           Legal  Cases     •   Boykin  v.  Alabama  (1969)-­‐  Defendants  must  state  they  made  their  pleas  voluntarily,  before  a  judge  can   accept  the  plea     •   Santobello  v.  New  York  (1971)-­‐  If  the  prosecution  has  promised  a  lenient  sentence  as  a  result  of  a  plea   deal,  the  prosecution  must  keep  that  promise     The  Goals  of  Punishment     1.   Retribution-­‐"deserved  Punishment"   a.   "eye  for  an  eye"  and  "pay  their  debts"  to  society     b.   The  severity  of  the  punishment  should  fit  the  seriousness  of  a  crime     2.   Deterrence     a.   Criminal  Punishment  used  as  a  basis  for  affecting  the  future  choices  and  behavior  of  individuals     b.   Potential  offenders  will  consider  the  cost  vs.  benefits  before  committing  a  crime     c.   General  Deterrence:  Provides  an  example  to  the  general  public  that  discourages  criminal   behavior     d.   Specific  Deterrence:  Targets  the  decisions  and  behavior  of  offenders  who  have  already  been   convicted     3.   Incapacitation   a.   Depriving  an  offender  of  the  ability  to  commit  crimes  against  society,  usually  by  detaining  the   offender  in  prison     b.   Capital  Punishment  is  the  ultimate  method  of  incapacitation   c.   Selective  Incapacitation:  Targeting  repeat  offenders  with  no  longer  prison  terms  ("  career   criminals")   4.   Rehabilitation     a.   Goal  of  restoring  a  convicted  offender  to  a  constructive  place  in  society  through  training  and   therapy   b.   Focuses  on  the  offender,  offenders  are  treated,  not  punished.     c.   Judges  should  avoid  fixed  sentences,  instead  using  maximum  and  minimum  guidelines  to   release  offenders  when  rehabilitated     Crimeology   About  Classical  Criminology     •   Individuals  are  rational  beings  (rational  choices)   •   Maximize  pleasure  and  minimize  pain  (cost/benefit)   •   Crime  is  committed  through  FREE  WILL!  (not  by  evil  spirits)   More  About  Classical  Criminology     •   Unless  individuals  are  deterred,  they  will  commit  crimes  (specific  vs.  general  deterrence)   •   Classical  theory  focuses  on  natural  forces  that  can  be  observed  (absence  of  effective  punishments   =more  crimes)   Lombroso  vs.  Positive  School   •   Argued  many  criminals  were  "genetic  throwbacks"     o   (Primitive  people  stuck  in  modern  society)   •   Criminals  are  different     After  Lombroso-­‐  IQ  Testing  Era     •   Still  focused  on  individual  differences  (early  1900s)   •   "Intelligence  Quotient"(IQ)  developed  by  Alfred  Binet  (France)   •   Binet  said  IQ  could  be  changed  and  used  to  help  slow  learners             The  ID,  ego,  and  superhero     •   Human  nature  includes  instinctual  drives  that  demand  gratification     •   These  drives  involve  "Pleasure  seeking"   •   Irrational,  antisocial  and  instinctual  impulses     •   Frued  referred  to  these  as  pleasure  seeking     •   ID  is  retrained  by  moral  codes  known  as  superego     •   Children  Internalize  these  codes  as  result  of  parent  attachment     •   Superego  is  moral  compass     •   What  would  an  underdeveloped  superego  mean?   o   Act  out:  Under     o   Never  take  risks;  goodie  overdeveloped     •   Adults  develop  a  rational  part  of  their  personality  known  as  ego     •   Mediates  between  the  drives  of  the  ID  and  the  Residents  of  Superego     •   Leads  in  making  decisions     Psycopathy     Collectively  and  clinically,  we  refer  to  the  study  of  "abnormal"  personality  types  as  psychopathy   Broken  Window  Theory   The  belief  that  ignoring  public-­‐order  violations  and  and  disruptive  behavior  leads  to  community  neglect,  which   fosters  fitter  disorder  and  crime      


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