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Phil 105, Week 3 Notes & Review for Exam 1

by: Katrina Japson

Phil 105, Week 3 Notes & Review for Exam 1 PHIL 105 - 01

Marketplace > California State University - Fullerton > PHIL-Philosophy > PHIL 105 - 01 > Phil 105 Week 3 Notes Review for Exam 1
Katrina Japson
Cal State Fullerton

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About this Document

These notes are also going to cover the rest of the info and what is going to be on the exam
Critical Thinking
Richard Vulich
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katrina Japson on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 105 - 01 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Richard Vulich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
PHIL 105, 2/16 Barriers to Critical Thinking  3 Tier Model of Critical Thinking o 1. Experience – One just describes their experience (what happened) without yet trying to understand why/how it happened  Ex. I didn’t get the job o 2. Interpretation – One goes beyond the experience level by trying to make sense or interpret it  Ex. Boss didn’t like my haircut o 3. Analysis – One critically examines experience to see if it is the best interpretation or there is a better one. Either hold on to first interpretation or replace it with a better one that makes more sense.  Ex. The real reason I didn’t get the job, maybe they found out my criminal history.  Types of Resistance to Critical Thinking o Avoidance – We avoid both people and situations that cause us to doubt our own views o Anger – Instead of critically analyzing an opposing part of view one gets angry o Cliché – Resorting to an overused saying or one-line phrase to shut down a critical discussion or stop an analysis o Denial – Simply denying alternative views rather than analyzing their merits o Ignorance – When we deliberately stay ignorant of things that we don’t want to know o Conformity – People who fear standing out and adopt the most popular view o Struggling – One delays ever coming to a conclusion on an issue by endlessly struggling/grappling with the alternatives o Distractions – Deliberately avoid critical thought by distracting yourself with various activities o Narrow-mindedness – One blindly assumes that authority figures are always absolutely right o Fear of challenge – Fear of having beliefs challenged by others o Egocentrism – Belief that you are the center of everything, or that the world revolves around you o Ethnocentrism – The unjustified belief of superiority of your own group or culture o Anthropocentrism – Belief that mankind is superior to all living things and the center of everything  Rationalization – When you justify your choice or opinion based on personal preference rather than critical thought  Doublethink – When you hold two contradictory views at the same time  Cognitive/Social Dissonance – Where new ideas or social behavior conflict with your existing ideas or behavior  Stress Review for Quiz 1  Argument – definition, premises, conclusion, what it means for a statement to be true  Types of sentences – assertoric (have truth value, either true or false, but never both), interrogative (questions), imperative (commands), exclamation  Difference between deductive and inductive arguments o Understand deductive validity – If the premises are true, then the conclusion must also be true o Inductive – If the premises are true, the conclusion is likely to be true but can be false  Different forms of deductive syllogisms o Modus Ponens o Modus Tollens o Disjunctive Syllogism o Chain Argument o What type of argument? Provide an example  Milgram Experiment  Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo)  Cognitive Development – 3 stages o Dualism o Relativism o Commitment o Analytical Skills o Communicate o Research o Flexibility o Open mind skepticism o Create Problem Solving o Collaborative Learning  Critical thinking helps boost self esteem, o Correlate with self recorded contentment o Developing a life plan o Democracy  3 Levels of Critical Thinking o Experience o Interpretation o Analysis  Resistance to Critical Thinking o Avoidance o Anger o Cliché o Denial o Ignorance o Conformity o Struggling o Distraction  Narrow-mindedness o Absolutism o Egocentrism o Ethnocentrism o Anthropocentrism  Rationalism – make a choice on personal preference or impulse and later find reasons to why it would be logical  Doublethink – Person holds two contradictory ideas at once  Cognitive/Social Dissonance  Stress  Confirmation bias -


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