Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide.
Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide. Psych 1000
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elyssa Tuininga on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Kelly Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Psychology 1000-007. Kelly Rudolph. Study Guide for Exam 2 Chapters 5, 6, and 7. Chapter 5: Gender and Human Sexuality. Gender: The socially constructed roles and characteristics by which your society defines you as male or female. Gender Development: X chromosome: a sex chromosome found in both men and women. Women have two X chromosomes; men have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child. Y chromosome: the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. Puberty: The period of sexual maturation, when a person becomes able to reproduce. Primary sex characteristics: The reproductive organs. Secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice changing and body hair in certain areas. Gender role: a set of expected behaviors for males or for females. Gender Identity: A sense of being male or female. Social learning theory: the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating our parents or other people and by being rewarded or punished for those behaviors. Gender-typing: The acquisition of a traditionally masculine or feminine role. Transgender: people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex. Human Sexuality: Sex hormones: During the prenatal period, they direct our development as males or females. During puberty, a sex hormone surge ushers us into adolescence. After puberty and well into the late adult years, sex hormones activate sexual behavior. Estrogen: The most important of the female sex hormones. Testosterone: The most important of the male sex hormones. The Sexual Response Cycle: In the 1960s, OBGYN William Masters and his collaborator Virginia Johnson wanted to know what happened in the human body during sex. They observed people having sex, and came up with the description of a “Sexual Response Cycle”, the four stages of sexual responding. The cycle consists of Excitement, plateau, Orgasm, and Resolution. Sexual Dysfunctions: A sexual dysfunction happens when there is something faulty with one of the four stages of the sexual response cycle. There is a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning. Sexual dysfunctions can usually be treated with therapy or medication. paraphilias: When one experiences sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving non-human objects, the suffering of themselves or others, and/or nonconsenting people. AIDS: AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). AIDS depletes the immune system, leaving a person vulnerable to infections. Adolescent sexual activity is dangerous because of the risk of emotional damages, pregnancy, and STI’s. Teens in the U.S. have a higher rate of pregnancy and abortion than teens in Europe. This could be because of inadequate communication, guilt about sex, alcohol inhibition, and media portrayal of sex. Sexual Orientation: One’s preferences of attraction, whether to members of the opposite sex, (heterosexuality) or to members of their same sex (homosexuality). Sexual Identity: How you identify according to your sexual orientation, (heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, etc.) There can be many different factors in how a person identifies, including: Parenting behaviors Genetic differences Fraternal birth order, Brain differences, Prenatal exposure to a high amount of sex hormones. Men tend to be more attracted to women who look younger, and who have a fuller figure, out of a subconscious desire to find a healthy mate capable of bearing healthy children. Women tend to be more attracted to men who are loyal, with power and resources at their disposal, out of a subconscious desire to have a partner who will be steady and take care of their children. Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception. Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception. Sensation: The basic process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive stimulus from our surrounding environment. Perception: How our brains make sense of and organize the sensory input. Bottom-up processing: Taking sensory information and then assembling and integrating it. The perception directs the cognition. Top-down processing: Using experiences to interpret sensory information. Perception is driven by cognition. Transduction: In sensation, the transforming of stimuli, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret. Absolute threshold: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus. Anything below the absolute threshold is subliminal. The second you detect a difference between two levels of stimulus is your difference threshold. Weber’s Law: t he principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount). Sensory Adaptation: When we are around something so much we forget that it is there. (the ticking of a clock for example) Perceptual Set: When we expect to see something, it could affect what we actually see. Our senses can be primed by our preexisting schemas and stereotypes. We can also be primed by our motivations, social context, and emotional state. Vision: Wavelength: the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. The wavelength of a light ray determines its hue (color). Intensity: the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s height. Iris: The colored part of your eye. Retina: contains rods and cones, which process light into neural impulses. Rods are responsible for processing black and white as well as our peripheral vision. Cones are responsible for processing colors and bright light. Optic nerve: the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. The information coming in through the right eye is processed on the left side of the brain, and the information coming in through the left eye is processed on the right side of the brain. Blind spot: the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because no receptor cells are located there. Everyone has a blind spot. Feature detectors: neurons that respond to certain visual aspects of the environment when they recognize them. Certain sections of the brain will “light up” in response to those aspects. (For example, the ‘flower’ section of the brain responds when it receives information that you are looking at a flower). Parallel processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem at the same time; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory: the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color. Opponent process theory: The theory that the neural processes of perceiving white versus black, yellow versus blue, and red versus green are opposite, and enable color vision. Visual organization: Our experience influences our perception. Gestalt: Our tendency to make a random pattern form a whole picture rather than just a bunch of parts. Figure-ground: the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings. Depth perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance. Interposition: When one object blocks the view of the other, we realize it is closer. Binocular cues: depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes. Our eyes have 2 slightly different views of the world. Monocular cues: depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone. Examples of this are linear perspective, depth, relative height, shading effects, and relative motion. Perceptual constancy: perceiving objects as unchanging in size, shape, or color, even as illumination and retinal images change. Audition, or Hearing: Frequency: the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time. The frequency determines the highness or lowness of a sound, or its pitch. middle ear: the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) Cochlea: a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear. Sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses. Touch: Pain is your body’s way of telling you something has gone wrong. Women are more pain sensitive than men are typically. The level of pain we experience is determined by our psychological, biological, and socio-cultural experiences and situation. We can be distracted from our pain, and be caused to not feel it as badly if we are concentrating on something else. Taste: There are five difference sensations for taste: Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami (savoriness). Our tongue has different receptors for different tastes, called taste buds. As we age, our taste buds become less receptive. Smell: Smell is a chemical sense, like taste. We smell something when molecules of a substance carried in the air reach our receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity. We have the capacity to recognize long- forgotten odors and their associated memories. Sensory interaction: the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste. Body Position and movement: Kinesthesis: the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. Vestibular sense: the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. Embodied cognition: the influence of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments. Extrasensory perception (ESP): the claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input, such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance. Chapter 7: Learning We learn from experience and association. Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language. Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Pavlov is famous for his experiments in classical conditioning with dogs. neutral stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response: in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus. Unconditioned stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response. conditioned response: in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus Conditioned stimulus: in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. Acquisition: The period of learning/conditioning. Extinction: The diminishing of a conditioned response. Spontaneous recovery: when the response comes back after the extinction has already happened. Generalization: The tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by similar stimuli to the conditioned stimulus. Discrimination: The learned response to a specific stimulus out of many. John B Watson was a classical conditioner who prided himself on being able to manipulate people’s emotions. He conducted a series of questionable experiments on a baby and managed to condition him to become afraid of rats. Operant Conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. Thorndike’s law of effect: Reinforced behaviors are more likely to be tried again. Punished behaviors are more likely to be avoided. Reinforcement: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer toward the desired behavior. Positive reinforcement: The reward is adding something desirable. Negative reinforcement: The reward is taking away something that is unpleasant. Primary reinforcer: Something that meets our basic needs, such as food. Conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer. An example of this is money, which is used to buy food, a primary reinforcer. Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced. Delayed reinforcer: When a reward is given after a period of time, such as a paycheck every two weeks. Also an example of delayed gratification. Immediate reinforcers: When a reward is given right away for desired behavior, such as giving a treat to a dog right after they listen to you. Continuous reinforcement: When a reward is given every single time the desired behavior occurs. Partial, or intermittent reinforcement: When a reward is given only some of the time. Fixed-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. Variable-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. (Ex: randomly getting a ‘Good Job!’ from your boss, you don’t know when it’s going to happen). Fixed-interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (Ex: getting paid once a week) Variable-interval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. Punishment: an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows. Positive punishment is adding something unpleasant, Negative punishment is taking something pleasant away. The difference between reinforcement and punishment is that reinforcement strengthens the target behavior (makes the child do their chores), while punishment reduces the target behavior (causes the child to stop throwing temper tantrums). The difference between classical and operant conditioning is that with classical conditioning, we tend to associate events with other events, and with operant conditioning we tend to associate behaviors with results. B.F. Skinner believed that you could modify behavior by consequences, and that external influences shape our behavior, as opposed to internal thoughts and feelings. Cognition’s effect on conditioning: Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. (such as knowing how to get from your school to your home after driving it several times) Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. You receive internalized satisfaction for doing something. Intrinsic motivation can be affected or reduced by external rewards, and it can be prevented by using continuous reinforcement. Extrinsic motivation: a desire to do something for a reward from other people, or for their approval. Observational learning: Learning by watching other people. Vicarious conditioning: learning by experiencing something indirectly. (For example, a child sees their sibling get in trouble for touching a vase, so they learn that they better leave the vase alone.) Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. (A child sees his father do something, and he wants to do it as well). Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy. When we watch someone doing something, we can feel the way they do, (happy, sad, etc.) Prosocial behavior: acting in a way that benefits others, follows social norms and codes. Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. Antisocial behavior: acting in a way that is harmful to others, with no empathy. Intentionally hurting other people.
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