BIO Study Guide Prelim 1
BIO Study Guide Prelim 1 BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology
Popular in Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity
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This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carly Siege on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University taught by Dr.Sarvary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Important Figures Carl Linnaeus came up with taxonomy from kingdom to species called Linnaean Hierarchal Classiﬁcation of life organisms in groups of similarity not relatedness didn’t reﬂect evolutionary history will the actual chart be on the test Jean-Baptists Lamarck accredited with the idea of change over time organisms evolve from simple to complex generational transmission of acquired adaptations: individual organisms adapt to their environments and pass along those acquired adaptations to their oﬀspring believed that life has many origins and came into existence spontaneously testing Lamarck’s Theory August Weisman’s experiment where he cut oﬀ the tails of 20 generations of mice, but the mice kept growing their tails back proving that this theory is not correct Charles Lyell British lawyer and geologist found that a common, continuous set of processes shapes the earth ﬁrst to propose that the earth is over 300 millions years old Charles Darwin Voyage of the Beagle: 5 year trip surveying the world during which he came up with the Galapagos Finches convergent evolution theory convergent evolution is when unrelated organisms have smilier trains due to similar environments organisms change over time natural selection is a mechanisms of evolutionary change Evidence for Common Descent Fossils (shows origin and extinction of species) Law of Succession: living species in an area can be closely related to fossils in that area Endemic Biotas: organisms found in limited regions along with close relatives Transitional Forms: many fossils are intermediates btw older taxa and living species Stratigraphy (study of rock layers) we can date layers from diﬀerent areas based on the fossils they contained organisms share homologous trains due to descent from a common ancestor Homology Vestigial Structures: homologous structures that have lost their original function hip structures in whales, coccyx in humans Homologous VS Analogous Traits analogous traits are similar but not derived from a common ancestor IE butterﬂy and bird wing Thomas Malthus Malthusian Catastrophe food supply increases linearly, population increases exponentially population quickly outstrips resources competition ensues Alfred Wallace independently derived the theory of natural selection Darwin eclipsed Wallace because Darwin was already an expert naturalist Phylogenies Synapomorphy a derived character state shared by a common ancestor and all of its descendants derived: a character state in a present organism that was altered from an ancestor Monophyletic group: an ancestral species and all of its descendants (clade) Paraphyletic group: an ancestor and some BUT NOT ALL of its descendants Outgroup: group of organisms outside of the monophyletic group under consideration but still closely related to that group Species are the most fundamental unit of biological classiﬁcation Character: any heritable trait that can be used to determine relationships morphological, molecular, behavioral character examples: wings, ﬂoral nectar… character states: the form that character takes wing loss or reduced, present or absent nectar.. phylogenetic characters should be heritable slowly evolving homologous: similar characteristics due to common descent Homoplasy: similar characteristics not due to a common ancestor but due to convergent evolution or evolutionary reversal convergent evolution: interdependent origin of similar traits in separate lineages evolutionary reversal: reversal or character state from derived to ancestral IE ancestor of reptiles who did not have legs recent reptiles with legs (lizards and turtles) snake went through evolutionary several and lost its legs Adaptation: a trait, modiﬁed by selection, that increases survival or reproduction of an individual compared to others without the trait Phylogenetic Contrasts: Character State Mapping: Biogeography: the study of the distribution of species in geographic space and through geological time dispersal animals getting displaced after natural disasters like tsunamis vicariance the geographic separation of a population by physical barrier resulting in a closely related species does the separation of the super continent count? Viruses share “life” with nucleic acid, dont metabolize dependent on hosts mixes of genes pasted together from higher organisms use horizontal transfer to swap genes btw each other LUCA molecular characteristics nucleic acids, RNA, DNA and hereditary material triplet genetic code for amino acids similar proteins as enzymes similar biochemical path for energy (ATP) only produced enough to survive cellular characterists plasma membrane made of glycerol and fatty acids unicellular and lacked organelles did not have the ability to reproduce Loki: ambivalent ﬁgure TREE OF LIFE! Life Bacteria (peptidoglycan in cell wall) [unnamed taxon] (gram negative) cyanobacteria (thylakoid membrane and chlorophyll) [unnamed taxon] Proteobacteria (molecular characters) [unnamed taxon] Spirochetes (ﬂagellin gives helical shape) Chlamydias (two body forms) [unnamed taxon] (DNA with histones, introns) Archaea (branched membrane lipids) Eukarya (nucleus, organelles) Prokaryotes: Archaea and Bacteria oldest lineages of life forms most successful organisms on the planet in terms of abundance makes a paraphyletic group archaeans are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria so its not a monophyletic group unicellular capable of making bioﬁlms, large colonial groups lacks nucleus and membrane bound organelles size is limited by the necessity of diﬀusion or rescues and wastes across cell membrane (bad surface area to volume ratio) diﬀerent from Eukaryotes diﬀerent organization of genetic material DNA is not bound in membrane bound nucleus lack of cytoplasmic organelles reproduce through binary ﬁssion eukaryotes use mitosis capable of lateral (horizontal) gene transfer exchange of genetic material without reproduction clouds the TOL reproduction reproduce through binary ﬁssion lack of genetic variation is ok for a stable environment mistakes in DNA replication produce genetic variation a form of asexual reproduction conjugation: genetic exchange separate from reproduction one bacterium copies a portion of its plasmid and transfers it through a conjugation tube adaptive genes can spread rapidly through populations transduction: transfer of genes after infection by a bacteriophage transformation: one bacterium takes up the genetic info of anther bacterium genotype all are forms of lateral gene transfer extremely limited morphological diversity. cocci (spherical) bacilli (rod shaped) spirilla (spiral shapes) diverse nutritional metabolism Bacteria Gram Stain gram positive: peptidoglycan layer in cell wall gram negative: peptidoglycan layer is between the inner and outer membrane used to diﬀerentiate diﬀerent taxa but cannot produce completely monophyletic groups do we need to know the process of gram staining? Spirochetes spiral shape swim in corkscrew motion with axial ﬁlaments syphilis and lyme disease Chlamydias very small intracellular obligate parasites sexually transmitted disease two body forms: elementary and reticulate bodies Cyanobacteria oxygenic photoautotrophs extensive internal membranes that can hold chlorophyll origin of the chloroplast in Eukaryotes Proteobacteria metabolically diverse largest clade E Coli, salmonella origin of the mitochondria in Eukaryotes Archaea extremophiles Acidophiles ability to live in high acidity Methanogens paddy ﬁelds, mammalian guts contribute to global warming anaerobic Halophiles characterized by pink carotenoid pigments can survive in hypertonic (high pressure), alkali (base) and high salinity environments bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane absorbs green wavelengths to drive a proton pump that powers ATP synthesis all archaea lack peptidoglycan sister group to eukaryotes Eukaryotic Transformation (Prokaryote to Eukaryote) evolved during an oxygenation event (cyanobacteria) occurred through phagocytosis when one cell engulfs another without digesting resulted in membrane bound organelles endosymbiosis achieved proteobacteria became mitochondria cyanobacteria became chloroplasts each have their own DNA but cannot live alone both covered in two outer membranes lost ﬁrm cell wall and got ﬂexible cell surface infolding allowed for greater gas and oxygen exchange specialization of the membrane allowed for endocytosis which set the stage for endosymbiosis microbial specialization complex cytoskeletons network of microtubules and microﬁlaments that give shape and allow for organelles to move digestive vacuoles ﬂagella Eukaryotes cytoskeleton for support of internal cell structure endomembrane system membrane bound nucleus double membrane bound mitochondria and chloroplasts translational machinery (ribosomes) Eukaryotes: Protists single celled eukaryotes paraphyletic group most diverse group of eukaryotes not animals, fungi or plants Protist Eukaryotes Alveolates named for alveoli, sacs just underneath the cell membrane that support the surface of the cell Ciliates covered in small numerous versions of ﬂagella (little hairs) paramecium Dinoﬂagellates two ﬂagella's one in an equatorial grove one longitudinal external plates of cellulose photoautotrophs from tertiary endosymbiosis of chloroplasts (plastid) distinct golden brown color most are marine plankton can be freshwater, bioluminescent endosymbionts of coral Plasmodium obligate parasites Malaria Apicomplexans parasites Stramenopiles two unequal ﬂagella one with tubular hairs for locomotion one small one some are photosynthetic with chloroplasts derived from secondary endosymbiosis of red algae Diatoms photoautotrophs most are marine planktonic silica in cell walls provide structural support and some protection very diverse Brown Algae multicellular marine photoautotrophs: giant kelp Excavates most common intestinal parasite in US multiple ﬂagella most have either highly modiﬁed mitochondria or none at all evolutionary reversal excavates lacking mitochondria produce ATP in the cytosol like bacteria and archaea Giardia major cause of diarrhea and malabsorption 2 nuclei bound in a nuclear envelope cytoskeleton multiple ﬂagella no mitochondria undulating membrane for movement Euglenids can alternate btw photoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs in the absence of light unicellular Giardia and Euglenids form a clade of unicellular excavates with morphologically distinct ﬂagella and mitochondria Trypanosome free living or pathogenetic has a large mitochondria Chugs Disease, Sleeping sickness Amoebozoans lobe shaped pseudopods loboseans: amoebas move by extended loose pseudopods unicellular Slime Molds large multicellular aggregates isolated cells get food through endocytosis NON Protist Eukaryotes Plantae green bc of chloroplasts Carotenoids Only fungi, plants, and prokaryotes synthesize carotenoids. Animals typically get carotenoids from their diet This aphid is one of the only animals known to produce its own carotenoids. Opisthokonts fungi and animals HOW DO THESE FIT INTO THE TREE?? PLANTAE (Water) Non Vascular Plantae Glaucophytes single celled marine algae no evidence of sexual reproduction chloroplasts called cyanelles layer of peptidoglycan btw membranes in the chloroplast not organized into stacks like higher plants Red Algae monophyletic group contains phyceorythin pigments not found in other algae helps with the capture and direction of light to chlorophyll a secrete calcium carbonate no peptidoglycan plastid (chloroplast) membranes not organized into stacks sushi Green Algae paraphyletic group containing many species of marine and freshwater organisms ﬁrst with chlorophyll a and b also found in land plants makes plants twice as eﬃcient at photosynthesis starch in chloroplast most speciose lineage is the chlorophytes (sea lettuce lichen) chloroplasts have 3 membranes from secondary endosymbiosis Algal Reproductive cycle most time is in the haploid phase fertilization happens in diploid stage asexual reproduction happens in gametes (haploid) Plants Move To Land Problems: desiccation: removing moisture physical support movement of nutrients increased UV radiation exposure Beneﬁts: more CO2 more sunlight more interaction with pollinators less competition (bc ur a new species) more open niches soil has more nutrients than water reduced herbivory and pathogens Innovations Cuticle: covering around the plant to prevent water loss Gamentangia: multicellular organs to enclose plant gametes and prevent them from drying out Protected Embryo Thick-walled spores: prevents desiccation time spend in gametophyte (haploid) stage decreased as plants became more independent from water assisted reproduction got chlorophyll b and starch storage Non Vascular Land Plantae Liverworts ﬁrst on land (still moist areas) simplest land plant spread out in sheets attached by hair like rhizoids developed sporophytes to protect eggs ﬁrst plant with protected embryo sexual reproduction still requires ﬂagellated cells to swim across water ﬁrst with anthocyanidin pigments to protect from UV radiation small sporophytes Mosses spores do not require movement through water (Still prefer damp areas though) reproductive gametes still need water to swim stomata: control water loss during gas exchange (ﬁrst with this) waxy suberin in cuticle: controls water loss across surface, reduces desiccation mosses and all vascular plants have these reproduction multicellular diploid (sporophyte) states and a multicellular haploid (gametophyte) stage dominant stage: haploid Gametophyte generation sporophytes send out spores from which new plants grow sporophytes are dependent on gametophyte gametes produced by mitosis Higher Plants (Adaptation) plants adapted to have a longer SPOROPHYTE stage as opposed to GAMETOPHYTE stage diploid sporophyte can be buﬀered against deleterious mutations Xyelm: tissue that moves water from soil up into the plant hollow for water and mineral transport and structural support Tracheids: principle water conductors Phloem: brings photosynthetic products from sites of production to storage True roots Higher Plants (Vascular) Lycophytes (club mosses) woodland understory Carboniferous period branching roots small vascularized leaves (microphylls) increase surface area for photosynthesis independent branching sporophyte less time in the gametophyte (haploid) stage than mosses Ferns more common than horsetails simplest vascular plant moist areas ﬂagellated gametes dependent on water for fertilization small photosynthetic gametophyte large leaves megaphylls Horsetails moist areas small gametophyte, large sporophyte megaphyll innovation is not retained secondary reduction of leaves (reversal of derived state) dependent on water bc ﬂagellated gametes need to swim sister clade to ferns Seed Plants pollen: the male gametophyte composed of 3-4 protected cells that disperse some vegetative non reproductive cells one reproductive well that divides to make a sperm and a pollen tube seed: desiccation resistant and nutrient packed comprised 3 generations a coat from the sporophyte nutritive gametophyte tissue next sporophyte zygote Gymnosperm (pine cones) multicellular non photosynthetic gametophyte most time in sporophyte (diploid) stage plants produce large spore bearing structures pine cones, ginkgos, conifers (tallest and oldest) Angiosperm (fruit & ﬂowers) double fertilization dominant sporophyte structure fruit: swollen ovarian tissue surrounding seeds evolved for seed dispersal or seed fertilizer ﬂowers: most rely on animal or insect pollinators showy to advertise nectar UV patterns on petals provide landing pattern
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