LIFE 103 Unit 2 Erik Arthun Study Guide
LIFE 103 Unit 2 Erik Arthun Study Guide LIFE 103
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Macrobiology; Plants and Animals in Biology at Colorado State University.
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LIFE 103 Study Guide Unit 2 1. What does the word “Angiosperm” literally translate to? 2. True/False: Angiosperms are considered the most widespread and diverse of all plants 3. What is the actual purpose of the flower? 4. What is the phylum all flowering plants belong to? 5. There are [2/3/4/5] types of modified leaves: what are each called? 6. What is the duty of a sepal? 7. Which of the modified leaves are usually green? 8. Which of the modified leaves are generally brightly colored? 9. Ovules are produced in which type of modified leaf? 10.What structure of the plant produces pollen? 11.If you were to draw a typical flower, what would you call the piece that holds the ovules? 12.The Stamen is made up of two parts: a. What is the purpose of the stamen? b. Which part of the stamen is responsible for producing pollen? 13.The Carpel is made up of three parts: a. Which gathers the pollen that is brought to the flower (is at the very top)? b. Which holds the unfertilized eggs? c. Which connects these two parts? 14.True/False: A fruit is actually a matured ovary. 15.What are some methods of pollination? 16.True/False: Beans, grains, and some potatoes are considered fruits. 17.The flower is a part of the sporophyte/gametophyte generation. 18.Where on a flower can you find microsporangia? 19.True/False: Each pollen grain has three sperm within it. 20.What does each sperm within every pollen grain contribute to? 21.When pollen lands on the stigma, from what structure does a pollen tube extend from? 22.What is the name of the pore that the sperm uses to connect to the egg? 23.What does the Endosperm develop into? 24.True/False: The Central Cell, which produces the Endosperm, has two nuclei within it. 25.What is the ploidy of the Endosperm? 26.What is the name of the leaves that first emerge from the newly-fertilized plant embryo? a. What is the actual purpose of these leaves? 27.What is the ploidy of the seed coat? 28.What is the ploidy of the egg and sperm? 29.What were the two groups angiosperms were originally divided into? What were these two groups based on? 30.We now have four groups that angiosperms are divided into today: Eudicots, Basal Angiosperms, Magnolids, and Monocots. a. Which is considered the “true” dicots? b. Which is considered ‘flowering plants with the oldest lineages? c. Which includes magnolias? d. Which is considered the ‘more evolved form’ of Basal Angiosperms? e. Which includes water lilies? f. Which has one cotyledon? g. Which have parallel veins in leaves? h. Which has vascular tissue scattered throughout the stem? i. Which has vascular tissue arranged in a ring? j. Which includes orchids, grasses, and palms? k. Which includes roses, pear trees, and legumes? l. Which one has a network of veins that spread from one master vein in leaves? 31.What are the five traits of seed plants? 32.True/False: Wheat, rice, and potatoes are all angiosperms. 33.True/False: At our current rate of deforestation, about 50% of Earth’s species will become extinct within the next 100-200 years. 34.Leaves are actually made up of two parts: The ____ is the flattened section, or what is usually considered the whole leaf. The _____ connects leaves to the stem. 35.What is the difference between a Simple and a Compound leaf? 36.How do we know what is a compound leaf and not just a bunch of simple leaves? 37.Give an example of a plant with spines. 38.What common edible plant has Tendrils on it? 39.True/False: Every time a flower from a cacti falls off, it develops into a new plant 40.True/False: An onion is a bulb. 41.Provide an example of a storage leaf. 42.What is the space between nodes called? 43.Where on the plant can you find a Rhizome? 44.Was is the purpose of a Stolon? 45.Provide an edible example of a Tuber. 46.What are the three responsibilities of a root? 47.True/False: Most dicots are taproots. 48.What do root hairs grow off of? 49.What is a radicle? 50.What replaces a radicle when it dies? 51.What is a prop root? Give an example of a plant with a prop root. 52.Provide an example of a storage root. 53.What kind of root do Mangroves have? 54.There are three tissue types in plants: Dermal, Vascular, and Ground. a. Which one has xylem and phloem? b. Which one has piths and cortexes? c. Which one has Epidermis and Cuticle? d. Which one is for transportation throughout the plant? e. Which one is for protection? f. Which one is everything that is not transportation or protection? g. Which one has pits and perforation plates? h. Root hairs are an example of this tissue type. 55.True/False: Phloem is composed of dead tissue. 56.There are three types of cells in plants: Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Scleremchyma. a. Which is for sugar synthesis? b. Which is for sugar storage? c. Which is the thickest? d. Which is strengthened by lignin? e. Which is dead upon maturity? f. Which cannot lengthen? g. Which is composed of “thicker, uneven cell walls”? h. Which is the least specialized type? i. Which carries out most metabolic functions? j. Which is only in plant parts that have stopped growing? 57.True/False: Meristems are essentially plant stem cells. 58.What is the primary duty of apical meristems? 59.What is the primary duty of lateral meristems? 60.What direction does primary growth grow in? Secondary growth? 61.______ Cambium adds layers of vascular secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem, while ______ Cambium replaces the epidermis of a plant with periderm, which is stronger and thicker. 62.What is the definition of Indeterminate Growth? Does this term apply to humans? 63.What are some examples of plant organs that exhibit Determinate Growth? 64.Root Caps have three zones: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, and zone of differentiation. a. Which zone is where cells lengthen? b. Which zone is where cells become distinct cell types? c. Which zone is where mitosis and cytokinesis produce new cells? 65.True/False: Root Cap growth is defined as a form of Secondary Growth. 66.What Shoot Apical Meristem do leaves come from? Axillary buds? 67.Why do some gardeners remove or inhibit apical meristems? 68.How is vascular tissue arranged in eudicots, and how does it compare to monocots? 69.What is the duty of a stoma? 70.There is more (push/pull) in a plant forcing water up it than there is (push/pull). 71.What is the definition of Mesophyll? 72.What are the two layers of mesophyll in eudicots and how are they different? 73.What is the primary purpose of secondary growth? 74.There are two cambiums associated with secondary growth: vascular cambium and cork cambium: a. Which is ONLY one cell thick? b. Which is both secondary xylem AND secondary phloem? c. Which replaces the epidermis of a plant? d. Which appears as rings in a woody plant? 75.True/False: primary and secondary growth can occur at the same time in the same plant. 76.What two tissue types make up bark? 77.What is heartwood and where can you find it in a woody plant? 78.What is sapwood and where can you find in a woody plant? 79.When is early wood produce in a woody plant? (Seasonally) 80.Water lilies can have leaves appear in two forms: one, the lily pad you see on the surface of water, the other as feather-like laves in the water. These different types of leaves have the same genotypes, but different phenotypes are expressed. This is due to what? 81.What is the definition of Morphogenesis? 82.What is the product of morphogenesis? 83.What is the product of cell differentiation in a plant? a. Following the last two questions, what is the key difference between morphogenesis and cell differentiation? 84.Phloem transport products from ____ to _____ 85.True/False: both xylem and phloem transport resources in all directions. 86.True/false: oxygen is only brought into the plant from the leaves. 87.What is the definition of transporation? 88.There are two pathways through roots for water and minerals: the symplastic route and the apoplastic route: a. Which is the route where materials do not flow through the cell: rather, they flow through the spaces between cells. b. This route travels through the cytosol. c. Which route moves through the Plasmodesmata? d. Which route moves through dead xylem cells? 89.What is the transmembrane route? 90.What is water potential a measurement of? 91.The addition of solutes lowers Si, making the pressure [positive/negative]. 92.Water pressure within a plant is [positive/negative]. 93.Where does the “pull” from within a plant originate from? Aka, what process stimulates this “pull”? 94.What is bulk flow? 95.What are vessel elements of xylem? 96.What is the Casparian Strip in a plant’s duty? 97.What route method (apoplastic/symplastic) is regulated by the Casparian Strip? a. Where is the other route method (apoplastic/symplastic) regulated? Aka, where in this route does the water need to cross a cell membrane? 98.What makes up xylem sap? 99.Where does Transpiration occur in a plant? 100. Negative pressure [increases/decreases] the higher in a plant the water goes 101. What is the difference between Adhesion and Cohesion? 102. What cells regulate the opening and closing of stomata? 103. When is a stomata considered Turgid? Flaccid? 104. In general, stomata are open during the [day/night] and closed during the [day/night]. 105. What is an example of a sugar source? 106. What is an example of a sugar sink? 107. True/False: different plant organs are selectively sugar sinks and sources. 108. Phloem sap movement is largely powered by [negative/positive] pressure while xylem contents are largely powered by [negative/positive] pressure. 109. There are three layers to soil. Name them and their general contents. 110. What is in topsoil composition? 111. True/False: Cations are negatively charged ions. 112. How does Cation exchange impact plant absorption rates? 113. Since fertilizer SHOULD naturally cycle, why do farmers need to buy fertilizer for their fields? 114. About how much of a plant’s mass is water? 115. Other than water, what complex molecule is the most common thing to find in a plant? 116. What is the difference between Macro and Micro nutrients? 117. What are some examples of plant macronutrients? 118. Plants can have a symbiotic relationship with another organism to aid in the absorption of nitrogen. What is one of those key organisms? 119. How do Extomycorrhizae help plants? What about Arbuscular Mycorrhizae? 120. What types of flowers are moths and bats attracted to? 121. Why aren’t birds particularly attracted to sweet smelling flowers? 122. What is the purpose of double fertilization in a plant? 123. What is the fancy word for when a dry seed takes up water? 124. True/False: Cotyledons are generally very thick for both eudicots and monocots. 125. What is the difference between a Staminate flower and a Carpellate flower? 126. Is fragmentation sexual or asexual? 127. What are Adventitious shoots? Are they sexual or asexual reproducers? 128. What is the difference between transgenic organisms and hybrids? 129. What are some potential topics of disagreement when it comes to creating new “super” plants? 130. What are the three steps for chemical signaling within a plant? 131. What is the basic purpose of Auxin? Cytokinin? Giggerellins? Ethylene? a. Which of the hormones listed above is a gas? 132. What are the two major classes of light receptors? 133. What is shade avoidance? 134. What does oscillate mean for a plant, in reference to biological clocks? 135. Where did the name for “Short-day plants” come from? How is it technically incorrect, in terms of how these plants technically work in relation to the presence or absence of light? a. The same goes for “Long-day plants” . 136. What is the umbrella term that is used to describe plants and how they bloom in relation to light? (Hint: it has a Greek root pertaining to “light”) 137. Provide an example of positive gravitropism as well as negative gravitropism. 138. True/False: Thigmotropism describes a plant’s response to heat. 139. How does a vine – or other climbing plants – actually “climb” its host object, in terms of their growth habits? 140. True/False: Environmental Stress can be considered either biotic or abiotic. 141. Membrane fluidity is adjusted when the environment is too [hot/cold], and heat-shock proteins are synthesized when the environment is too [hot/cold]. 142. How is too much water damaging to a plant? 143. What two methods do pathogens have in terms of entering a plant? 144. What are R Genes, and what are they triggered as a response to? 145. What does the acronym “PAMPs” stand for? 146. Do Effector Proteins come from a plant or a pathogen? 147. There are two responses to Effector proteins: Hypersensitive responses and Systemic Acquired Resistance responses. a. Which is the short-term response to the pathogen? b. Which is the long-lasting response to the pathogen? c. Which reconfigures cell walls to confine the pathogen that has already entered? 148. What two types of defenses against herbivories exist for plants? 149. True/False: Plant defense against herbivores can exist on the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organismal, population, or community-level for the plant. 150. The snow-flake plant has evolved to look kinda like something has already tried to eat it. How does this protect the plant from other herbivories?
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